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Technical Paper

Strain Rate Effect on Martensitic Transformation in a TRIP Steel Containing Carbide-Free Bainite

Adiabatic heating during plastic straining can slow the diffusionless shear transformation of austenite to martensite in steels that exhibit transformation induced plasticity (TRIP). However, the extent to which the transformation is affected over a strain rate range of relevance to automotive stamping and vehicle impact events is unclear for most third-generation advanced high strength TRIP steels. In this study, an 1180MPa minimum tensile strength TRIP steel with carbide-free bainite is evaluated by measuring the variation of retained austenite volume fraction (RAVF) in fractured tensile specimens with position and strain. This requires a combination of servo-hydraulic load frame instrumented with high speed stereo digital image correlation for measurement of strains and ex-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction for determination of RAVF in fractured tensile specimens.
Technical Paper

Combined Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-Assisted Steels

The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effects on the Deformation and Fracture of a Quenched-and-Partitioned Steel

Temperature effects on the deformation and fracture of a commercially produced transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment are investigated. Strain field evolution at room temperature is quantified in this 980 MPa grade Q&P steel with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) technique from quasi-static tensile tests of specimens with 0°, 45°, and 90° orientations. Baseline tensile properties along with the variation of the instantaneous hardening index with strain were computed. Variations of the bake-hardening index were explored under simulated paint bake conditions. Tensile properties were measured at selected temperatures between -100°C and 200°C and the TRIP effect was found to be temperature-dependent due to stress-induced martensitic transformation at lower temperatures versus strain-induced transformation at higher temperatures.
Technical Paper

Tensile Material Properties of Fabrics for Vehicle Interiors from Digital Image Correlation

Fabric materials have diverse applications in the automotive industry which include upholstery, carpeting, safety devices, and interior trim components. The textile industry has invested substantial effort toward development of standard testing techniques for characterizing mechanical properties of different fabric types (e.g. woven and knitted). However, there are presently no standards for determination of Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and tensile stress-strain properties required for the detailed modeling of fabric materials in vehicle structural simulations. This paper presents results from uniaxial tensile tests of different automotive seat cover fabric materials. Digital image correlation, a full field optical method for measuring surface deformation, was used to determine tensile properties in both the warp/wale and the weft/course directions. The fabrics were tested with and without the foam backing.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gage Section Geometry on Tensile Material Properties by Digital Image Correlation

Accurate material property data in both the elastic and plastic ranges of deformation is essential for accurate material representation in finite element simulations of vehicle systems. Variation of post formed material properties across a part are often of interest in different types of analyses, such as metal forming or fatigue life, for example. Depending on a part's shape it is not always possible to cut standard size tensile test specimens from all areas of interest across the part. Smaller size specimens with curved or tapered gage section may have to be used to promote strain localization and fracture at or near the gage center. This paper presents comparison of quasi-static tensile properties determined using two specimen gage section geometries, straight and tapered. Specifically, the following questions are addressed. How do the engineering strains computed from two-dimensional strain fields obtained by DIC compare to strains measured during standard tensile tests?
Technical Paper

Effects of Thickness on Headliner Material Properties

Headliner material plays an important role in occupant protection in situations involving head impact into the interior vehicle roof area. Accurate characterization of its mechanical properties is therefore extremely important for prediction of its behavior during interior impact assessment of a vehicle. Headliner material typically consists of two main layers: the substrate layer which provides structural integrity and impact protection, and the fabric-foam layer which provides proper interior fit and appearance. Both layers vary significantly in thickness and composition between different manufacturers. This paper investigates effects of the layer thickness on compressive strength and deformation of several different headliner materials.
Journal Article

Tensile Deformation and Fracture of TRIP590 Steel from Digital Image Correlation

Quasi-static tensile properties of TRIP590 steels from three different manufacturers were investigated using digital image correlation (DIC). The focus was on the post-uniform elongation behavior which can be very different for steels of the same grade owing to different manufacturing processes. Miniature tensile specimens, cut at 0°, 45°, and 90° relative to the rolling direction, were strained to failure in an instrumented tensile stage. True stress-true strain curves were computed from digital strain gages superimposed on digital images captured from one gage section surface during tensile deformation. Microstructural phases in undeformed and fracture specimens were identified with optical microscopy using the color tint etching process. Fracture surface analyses conducted with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to investigate microvoids and inclusions in all materials.
Technical Paper

Local Mechanical Property Variations of AZ31B Magnesium Sheet due to Elevated Temperature Forming

The influence of elevated temperature forming on local mechanical properties of AZ31B magnesium (Mg) sheet material was investigated. The Mg sheet was formed into a closure component with high temperature gas pressure at 485°C. Miniature tensile testing specimens were cut from selected areas of the component where different levels of thinning occurred. The specimens were strained in tension to fracture using a miniature tensile stage. The two-dimensional strain distribution in the necking region along with true stress-true strain curves were computed using a digital image correlation technique to assess the influence of the forming-induced thinning on tensile strength and percent elongation at fracture.
Journal Article

Strain Field Measurement in the Vicinity of Ductile Rupture from Digital Image Correlation

A methodology that enables two-dimensional strain field measurement in the vicinity of ductile rupture is described. Fully martensitic steel coupons were strained to fracture using a miniature tensile stage with custom data and image acquisition systems. Rupture initiated near the center of each coupon and progressed slowly toward the gage section edges. A state-of-the-art digital image correlation technique was used to compute the true strain field before rupture initiation and ahead of the resulting propagating macroscopic crack before final fracture occurred. True strains of the order of 95% were measured ahead of the crack at later stages of deformation.
Technical Paper

Tensile Deformation and Fracture of Press Hardened Boron Steel using Digital Image Correlation

Tensile measurements and fracture surface analysis of low carbon heat-treated boron steel are reported. Tensile coupons were quasi-statically deformed to fracture in a miniature tensile testing stage with custom data acquisition software. Strain contours were computed via a digital image correlation method that allowed placement of a digital strain gage in the necking region. True stress-true strain data corresponding to the standard tensile testing method are presented for comparison with previous measurements. Fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy and the deformation mechanisms were identified.