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Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol Evaporative Cooling on Particulate Number Emissions in GDI Engines

The spark ignition engine particulate number (PN) emissions have been correlated to a particulate matter index (PMI) in the literature. The PMI value addresses the fuel effect on PN emission through the individual fuel species reactivity and vapor pressure. The latter quantity is used to account for the propensity of the non-volatile fuel components to survive to the later part of the combustion event as wall liquid films, which serve as sources for particulate emission. The PMI, however, does not encompass the suppression of vaporization by the evaporative cooling of fuel components, such as ethanol, that have high latent heat of vaporization. This paper assesses this evaporative cooling effect on PN emissions by measurements in a GDI engine operating with a base gasoline which does not contain oxygenate, with a blend of the gasoline and ethanol, and with a blend of the gasoline, ethanol, and a hydrocarbon additive so that the blend has the same PMI as the original gasoline.
Journal Article

Analysis of NOx Emissions during Crank-Start and Cold Fast-Idle in a GDI Engine

The NOx emissions during the crank-start and cold fast-idle phases of a GDI engine are analyzed in detail. The NOx emissions of the first 3 firing cycles are studied under a wide set of parameters including the mass of fuel injected, start of injection, and ignition timing. The results show a strong dependence of the NOx emissions with injection timing; they are significantly reduced as the mixture is stratified. The impact of different valve timings on crank-start NOx emissions was analyzed. Late intake and early exhaust timings show similar potential for NOx reduction; 26-30% lower than the baseline. The combined strategy, resulting in a large symmetric negative valve overlap, shows the greatest reduction; 59% lower than the baseline. The cold fast-idle NOx emissions were studied under different equivalence ratios, injection strategies, combustion phasing, and valve timings. Slightly lean air-fuel mixtures result in a significant reduction of NOx.
Journal Article

Assessment of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Cold Start Particulate Emission Sources

The gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine particulate emission sources are assessed under cold start conditions: the fast idle and speed/load combinations representative of the 1st acceleration in the US FTP. The focus is on the accumulation mode particle number (PN) emission. The sources are non-fuel, combustion of the premixed charge, and liquid fuel film. The non-fuel emissions are measured by operating the engine with premixed methane/air or hydrogen/air. Then the PN level is substantially lower than what is obtained with normal GDI operation; thus non-fuel contribution to PN is small. When operating with stoichiometric premixed gasoline/air, the PN level is comparable to the non-fuel level; thus premixed-stoichiometric mixture combustion does not significantly generate particulates. For fuel rich premixed gasoline/air, PN increases dramatically when lambda is less than 0.7 to 0.8.
Journal Article

Reduction of Cold-Start Emissions through Valve Timing in a GDI Engine

This work examines the effect of valve timing during cold crank-start and cold fast-idle (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP) on the emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate mass and number (PM/PN). Four different cam-phaser configurations are studied in detail: 1. Baseline stock valve timing. 2. Late intake opening/closing. 3. Early exhaust opening/closing. 4. Late intake phasing combined with early exhaust phasing. Delaying the intake valve opening improves the mixture formation process and results in more than 25% reduction of the HC and of the PM/PN emissions during cold crank-start. Early exhaust valve phasing results in a deterioration of the HC and PM/PN emissions performance during cold crank-start. Nevertheless, early exhaust valve phasing slightly improves the HC emissions and substantially reduces the particulate emissions at cold fast-idle.
Technical Paper

Ignition Delay Correlation for Engine Operating with Lean and with Rich Fuel-Air Mixtures

An ignition delay correlation encompassing the effects of temperature, pressure, residual gas, EGR, and lambda (on both the rich and lean sides) has been developed. The procedure uses the individual knocking cycle data from a boosted direct injection SI engine (GM LNF) operating at 1250 to 2000 rpm, 8-14 bar GIMEP, EGR of 0 to 12.5%, and lambda of 0.8 to 1.3 with a certification fuel (Haltermann 437, with RON=96.6 and MON=88.5). An algorithm has been devised to identify the knock point on individual pressure traces so that the large data set (of some thirty three thousand cycles) could be processed automatically. For lean and for rich operations, the role of the excess fuel, air, and recycled gas (which has excess air in the lean case, and hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the rich case) may be treated effectively as diluents in the ignition delay expression.
Journal Article

Effects of Secondary Air on the Exhaust Oxidation of Particulate Matters

The effects of secondary air on the exhaust oxidation of particulate matters (PM) have been assessed in a direct-injection-spark-ignition engine under fuel rich fast idle condition (1200 rpm; 2 bar NIMEP). Substantial oxidation of the unburned feed gas species (CO and HC) and significant reduction of both the particulate number (up to ∼80%) and volume (up to ∼90%) have been observed. The PM oxidation is attributed to the reactions between the PM and the radicals generated in the oxidation of the feed gas unburned species. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that the reduction in PM volume is proportional to the amount of heat release in the secondary oxidation.
Journal Article

Effect of Operation Strategy on First Cycle CO, HC, and PM/PN Emissions in a GDI Engine

The impact of the operating strategy on emissions from the first combustion cycle during cranking was studied quantitatively in a production gasoline direct injection engine. A single injection early in the compression cycle after IVC gives the best tradeoff between HC, particulate mass (PM) and number (PN) emissions and net indicated effective pressure (NIMEP). Retarding the spark timing, it does not materially affect the HC emissions, but lowers the PM/PN emissions substantially. Increasing the injection pressure (at constant fuel mass) increases the NIMEP but also the PM/PN emissions.
Journal Article

On the Nature of Particulate Emissions from DISI Engines at Cold-Fast-Idle

Particulate emissions from a production gasoline direct injection spark ignition engine were studied under a typical cold-fast-idle condition (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP). The particle number (PN) density in the 22 to 365 nm range was measured as a function of the injection timing with single pulse injection and with split injection. Very low PN emissions were observed when injection took place in the mid intake stroke because of the fast fuel evaporation and mixing processes which were facilitated by the high turbulent kinetic energy created by the intake charge motion. Under these conditions, substantial liquid fuel film formation on the combustion chamber surfaces was avoided. PN emissions increased when injection took place in the compression stroke, and increased substantially when the fuel spray hit the piston.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Loss Mechanisms Associated with Engine Downsizing, Boosting and Compression Ratio Change

The loss mechanisms associated with engine downsizing, boosting and compression ratio change are assessed. Of interest are the extents of friction loss, pumping loss, and crevice loss. The latter does not scale proportionally with engine size. These losses are deconstructed via a cycle simulation model which encompasses a friction model and a crevice loss model for engine displacement of 300 to 500 cc per cylinder. Boost pressure is adjusted to yield constant torque. The compression ratio is varied from 8 to 20. Under part load, moderate speed condition (1600 rpm; 13.4 Nm/cylinder brake torque), the pumping work reduces significantly with downsizing while the work loss associated with the crevice volume increases. At full load (1600 rpm; 43.6 Nm/cylinder brake torque), the pumping work is less significant. The crevice loss (normalized to the fuel energy) is essentially the same as in the part load case. The sensitivities of the respective loss terms to downsizing are reported.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on HCCI Operation in a Spark Assisted Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

The fuel effects on HCCI operation in a spark assisted direct injection gasoline engine are assessed. The low load limit has been extended with a pilot fuel injection during the negative valve overlap (NVO) period. The fuel matrix consists of hydrocarbon fuels and various ethanol blends and a butanol blend, plus fuels with added ignition improvers. The hydrocarbon fuels and the butanol blend do not significantly alter the high or the low limits of operation. The HCCI operation appears to be controlled more by the thermal environment than by the fuel properties. For E85, the engine behavior depends on the extent that the heat release from the pilot injected fuel in the NVO period compensates for the evaporative cooling of the fuel.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Ethanol Utilization: High Efficiency and Low NOx in an Engine Operating on Simulated Reformed Ethanol

The use of hydrogen as a fuel supplement for lean-burn engines at higher compression ratios has been studied extensively in recent years, with good promise of performance and efficiency gains. With the advances in reformer technology, the use of a gaseous fuel stock, comprising of substantially higher fractions of hydrogen and other flammable reformate species, could provide additional improvements. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a gas mixture of equal volumes of hydrogen, CO, and methane. It has recently been reported that this gas mixture can be produced by reforming of ethanol at comparatively low temperature, around 300C. Experiments were performed on a 1.8-liter passenger-car Nissan engine modified for single-cylinder operation. Special pistons were made so that compression ratios ranging from CR= 9.5 to 17 could be used. The lean limit was extended beyond twice stoichiometric (up to lambda=2.2).
Technical Paper

Influence of Intake Port Charge-Motion-Control-Valve on Mixture Preparation in a Port-Fuel-Injection Engine

The effects of the directed port flow produced by a Charge-Motion-Control-Valve (CMCV) on mixture preparation in a Port-Fuel-Injection engine were assessed under conditions typical of fast idle in a cold start process. The port fuel was found to comprise two components: a “valve” puddle (at the vicinity of the valve) that built up quickly, and that was mainly responsible for the delivery of the fuel to the cylinder charge; a “port” puddle located significantly upstream. The latter was mainly created by the reverse back flow process and built up slowly. Although the fuel amounts in these two components were roughly the same, the latter did not significantly interact with the fuel transport to the cylinder charge. The CMCV only weakly affected the purging or filling time of the valve puddle, hence the dynamics of the fuel delivery process was not materially affected.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Windage Tray Blockage Effect on Aeration in the Oil Sump

The windage tray effect on aeration in the engine sump was assessed by replacing much of the windage tray materials with wire meshes of various blockages. The mesh was to prevent direct impact of the oil drops spinning off the crank shaft onto the sump oil, and simultaneously, to provide sufficient drainage so that there was no significant build up of windage tray oil film that would interact with these droplets. Aeration at the oil pump inlet was measured by X-ray absorption in a production V-6 SI engine motoring at 2000 to 6000 rpm. Within experimental uncertainty, these windage tray changes had no effect on aeration. Thus activities in the sump such as the interaction of the oil drops spun from the crank shaft with the sump oil or with the windage tray, and the agitation of the sump oil by the crank case gas, were not major contributors to aeration at the pump inlet.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Strategy on HC Emissions in a Port-Fuel-Injection Engine During Fast Idle

The interaction of intake port gas flow with the fuel spray in a port-fuel-injection engine is studied to see whether there are opportunities to facilitate the mixture preparation process and to improve the HC emissions through this interaction. The operating regime of interest is the fast idle period in a cold start. For single pulse injection, the HC emissions were not sensitive to injection details for closed-valve injection; emissions increased with open-valve injection. Then a split injection strategy was used in which the fuel was divided into two pulses. The first pulse was delivered during valve-closed; the second pulse was injected in the back flow period. Under cold-valve conditions, a small benefit (compared to close valve injection) was obtained with a second pulse fuel of 25%: 6% decrease in Specific HC emissions and 4.5% increase in the fuel delivery fraction.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Cam Phasing on First Cycle Fuel Delivery and HC Emissions in an SI Engine

A strategy to facilitate the mixture preparation process in PFI engines is to delay the Intake Valve Opening (IVO) by shifting the cam phasing so that the cylinder pressure is sub-atmospheric when the valve opens. The physics of the effect are discussed in terms of the pressure differential between the manifold and the cylinder, and the resulting flow and charge temperature history. The effect was evaluated by measuring the equivalence ratio of the trapped charge and the exhaust HC emissions in the first cycle of cranking in a 2.4L engine. When the IVO timing was changed from 18° BTDC to 21° ATDC, the in-cylinder fuel equivalence ratio increased by approximately 10%. This increase was attributed mainly to the enrichment of the charge by displacing the leaner mixture at the top of the cylinder in the period between BDC and IVC. The exhaust HC, however, increased by 40%. No conclusive explanation was established for this increase in HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Sulfur and Aging Effects on the Oxygen Storage Capacity in Three-Way Catalytic Converters

The catalyst oxygen storage capacities were measured over a test matrix consisted of fuels with 7, 33, 266 and 500 ppm sulfur, and of dynamometer-aged catalysts simulating 4K, 50K and 150K vehicle miles. A methodology was developed to relate the post-catalyst λ sensor response following an engine lean-step-transient to the total oxygen storage sites available. The time resolved NOx concentration profiles (which were most sensitive to the oxygen storage) in the catalyst were measured with the engine operating at λ modulations of various amplitudes and frequencies. The oxygen storage capacity deterioration comprised two multiplicative factors - an age factor which decreased quickly initially (by a factor of 2 from 4K to 50K miles), and then more modestly (by 30% from 50 to 150K miles), and a fuel sulfur factor which decreased by 10% for every 150 ppm increase in sulfur level.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation and Hydrocarbon Emissions Behaviors in the First Cycle of SI Engine Cranking

The mixture preparation and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions behaviors for a single-cylinder port-fuel-injection SI engine were examined in an engine/dynamometer set up that simulated the first cycle of cranking. The engine was motored continuously at a fixed low speed with the ignition on, and fuel was injected every 8 cycles. Unlike the real engine cranking process, the set up provided a well controlled and repeatable environment to study the cranking process. The parameters were the Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT), speed, and the fuel injection pulse width. The in-cylinder and exhaust HC were measured simultaneously with two Fast-response Flame Ionization Detectors. A large amount of injected fuel (an order of magnitude larger than the normal amount that would produce a stoichiometric mixture in a warm-up engine) was required to form a combustible mixture at low temperatures.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Liquid Fuel to Hydrocarbon Emissions in Spark Ignition Engines

The purpose of this work was to develop an understanding of how liquid fuel transported into the cylinder of a port-fuel-injected gasoline-fueled SI engine contributes to hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. To simulate the liquid fuel flow from the valve seat region into the cylinder, a specially designed fuel probe was developed and used to inject controlled amounts of liquid fuel onto the port wall close to the valve seat. By operating the engine on pre-vaporized Indolene, and injecting a small amount of liquid fuel close to the valve seat while the intake valve was open, we examined the effects of liquid fuel entering the cylinder at different circumferential locations around the valve seat. Similar experiments were also carried out with closed valve injection of liquid fuel at the valve seat to assess the effects of residual blowback, and of evaporation from the intake valve and port surfaces.
Technical Paper

Fuel Metering Effects on Hydrocarbon Emissions and Engine Stability During Cranking and Start-up in a Port Fuel Injected Spark Ignition Engine

A cycle by cycle analysis of engine behavior during the first few cycles of cranking and start-up was performed on a production four-cylinder engine. Experiments were performed to elucidate the effects of initial engine position (rest position after last engine shut-down), first and second cycle fueling, engine temperature, and spark timing on fuel delivery to the cylinder, engine-out Hydrocarbon (EOHC) emissions, and Gross Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEPg). The most important effect of the piston starting position is on the first firing cycle engine rpm, which influences the IMEPg through combustion phasing. Because of the low rpm values for the first cycle, combustion is usually too advanced with typical production engine ignition timing. For both the hot start and the ambient start, the threshold for firing is at an in-cylinder air equivalence ratio (λ) of 1.1.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Oil Layer Mechanism to the Hydrocarbon Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engines

A research program designed to measure the contribution from fuel absorption in the thin layer of oil, lubricating the cylinder liner, to the total and speciated HC emissions from a spark ignition engine has been performed. The logic of the experiment design was to test the oil layer mechanism via variations in the oil layer thickness (through the lubricant formulations), solubility of the fuel components in the lubricants, and variations in the crankcase gas phase HC concentration (through crankcase purging). A set of preliminary experiments were carried out to determine the solubility and diffusivity of the fuel components in the individual lubricants. Engine tests showed similar HC emissions among the tested lubricants. No consistent increase was observed with oil viscosity (oil film thickness), contrary to what would be expected if fuel-oil absorption was contributing significantly to engine-out HC. Similarly, no effect of crankcase purging could be observed.