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Technical Paper

Personalized Eco-Driving for Intelligent Electric Vehicles

Minimum energy consumption with maximum comfort driving experience define the ideal human mobility. Recent technological advances in most Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) on electric vehicles not only present a significant opportunity for automated eco-driving but also enhance the safety and comfort level. Understanding driving styles that make the systems more human-like or personalized for ADAS is the key to improve the system comfort. This research focuses on the personalized and green adaptive cruise control for intelligent electric vehicle, which is also known to be MyEco-ACC. MyEco-ACC is based on the optimization of regenerative braking and typical driving styles. Firstly, a driving style model is abstracted as a Hammerstein model and its key parameters vary with different driving styles. Secondly, the regenerative braking system characteristics for the electric vehicle equipped with 4-wheel hub motors are analyzed and braking force distribution strategy is designed.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Automatic Test of AEB with Brake System in the Loop

The limitation of drivers' attention and perception may bring collision dangers, Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) can help drivers to avoid the potential collisions through active braking. Since the positive effect of it, motor corporations have begun to equip their vehicles with the system, and regulatory agencies in various countries have introduced test standards. At this stage, the actuator of AEB usually adopts Electronic Stability Program (ESP), but it poor performance of continuous working period and active pressure built-up for all wheels limits its implements. Electromechanical brake booster can realize power assisted brake without relying on the vacuum source and a variety of specific power curves. Moreover it can achieve the active braking with a rapid response, which make it can fulfill requirements of automotive electric and intelligent development.
Technical Paper

Research on a Novel Electro-Hydraulic Brake System and Pressure Control Strategy

Based on the research and analysis of the current brake systems, this paper presents a novel electro-hydraulic brake system, which can better meet the functional requirements. The system mainly contains a master cylinder, two brake hydraulic cylinders and drive motors, two transmission mechanisms, thirteen solenoid valves, pedal force simulator, etc. Since the proposed brake system uses a dual motor along with two brake hydraulic cylinders, it has advantages in providing fast pressure response, flexible working modes, high precision and strong fault tolerance. In order to facilitate the study of pressure control algorithm for the proposed brake system, a mathematical model of the brake system is firstly established, then a multiplexed time-division pressure control algorithm is proposed to realize the simultaneous or partially simultaneous pressure control, which ensures the high precision and short response time.
Journal Article

Design of Anti-lock Braking System Based on Regenerative Braking for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle

In this article, the regenerative braking system is designed, which can realize the torque allocation between electric braking and hydraulic braking, where the cost function designed in this article considers factors of braking torque following effect, energy regenerative power, and hydraulic braking consumed power. In addition, a complete anti-lock braking system (ABS) is designed, which is based on regenerative braking. With the optimal slip ratio as control target, target wheel speed, control wheel speed, braking torque control strategy, and enable/disenable control logic of ABS are determined. By MATLAB/Simulink-DYNA4 co-simulation and real vehicle test, the feasibility and applicability of ABS based on regenerative braking are verified, under the condition of small severity of braking.
Journal Article

Network Scheduling for Distributed Controls of Electric Vehicles Considering Actuator Dynamic Characteristics

Electric vehicle (EV) has been regarded as not only an effective solution for environmental issues but also a more controllable and responsible device to driving forces with electric motors and precise torque measurement. For electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, its tire longitudinal forces can be generated independently and individually with fully utilized tire adhesion at each corner. This type of the electric vehicles has a distributed drive system, and often regarded as an over-actuated system since the number of actuators in general exceeds the control variables. Control allocation (CA) is often considered as an effective means for the control of over-actuated systems. The in-vehicle network technology has been one of the major enablers for the distributed drive systems. The vehicle studied in this research has an electrohydraulic brake system (EHB) on front axle, while an electromechanical brake system (EMB) on rear axle.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Stability Control Strategy Based on Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

A vehicle dynamics stability control system based on integrated-electro-hydraulic brake (I-EHB) system with hierarchical control architecture and nonlinear control method is designed to improve the vehicle dynamics stability under extreme conditions in this paper. The I-EHB system is a novel brake-by-wire system, and is suitable to the development demands of intelligent vehicle technology and new energy vehicle technology. Four inlet valves and four outlet valves are added to the layout of a conventional four-channel hydraulic control unit. A permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) provides a stabilized high-pressure source in the master cylinder, and the four-channel hydraulic control unit ensures that the pressures in each wheel cylinder can be modulated separately at a high precision. Besides, the functions of Anti-lock Braking System, Traction Control System and Regenerative Braking System, Autonomous Emergency Braking can be integrated in this brake-by-wire system.
Journal Article

Modeling on GPS with Software-Centered Observation Errors

Intelligent vehicles have gained increasing popularity in recent years as traffic safety and efficiency have become the major challenges faced by automotive industry. Vehicle positioning system, such as GPS, plays more and more important role on intelligent or autonomous driving. Intelligent vehicle technologies have been developed and tested mainly based on intensive field experiment under various driving scenarios. However, the large variation, uncertainty and complexity of the driving environment, including buildings, traffic and weather conditions have posed great challenges on test repeatability and system robustness. This paper proposes a GPS model considering software-centered observation errors. The focus of the research is on its error to reflect the real signals from GPS measurement.
Journal Article

Evaluation and Design of Electric/Electronic-Architectures of the Electric Vehicle

The evaluation of electric vehicle electric/electronic-architectures (e/e-architectures) is the main topic of this paper. The electric vehicle is chosen as an example system, as it reflects the typical challenges of modern vehicle e/e-architecture development. The development of modern automotive technology also presents another important trend - vehicle electrification. New electric and electronic devices are developed and required in the automotive industry and control commands are exchanged by electric and electronic ones. The energy storage systems (ESS) properly reflect the above two aspects. The energy storage device also takes care of the peak loads, the high load dynamics, and it utilizes the braking energy in order to increase the efficiency. In this work a Li-ion battery and an ultracapacitor both are considered as energy storage devices.
Technical Paper

Studies on Brake Pedal Feeling Based on a Novel Mechatronic Booster

Nowadays, the vehicle market puts forward urgent requirement for new kinds of braking booster because the traditional vacuum booster cannot meet the demands of new energy vehicles anymore. However, one problem that all the new plans should face is how to guarantee an ideal pedal feeling. In this paper, a novel mechatronics braking booster is proposed, and servo motor introduced into the booster makes the assist rate can be adjusted under a great degrees of freedom, so the structural parameters and control parameters of the booster should be determined elaborately to get an optimal pedal feeling. The pedal feeling is always represented by the pedal stoke-force curve which is influenced by different parameters.
Journal Article

Function-Based Architecture Design for Next-Generation Automotive Brake Controls

This paper presents a unified novel function-based brake control architecture, which is designed based on a top-down approach with functional abstraction and modularity. The proposed control architecture includes a commands interpreter module, including a driver commands interpreter to interpret driver intention, and a command integration to integrate the driver intention with senor-guided active driving command, state observers for estimation of vehicle sideslip, vehicle speed, tire lateral and longitudinal slips, tire-road friction coefficient, etc., a commands integrated control allocation module which aims to generate braking force and yaw moment commands and provide optimal distribution among four wheels without body instability and wheel lock or slip, a low-level control module includes four wheel pressure control modules, each of which regulates wheel pressure by fast and accurate tracking commanded wheel pressure.
Technical Paper

Fault-Tolerant Control of Brake-by-Wire Systems Based on Control Allocation

Brake-by-wire (BBW) system has drawn a great attention in recent years as driven by rapidly increasing demands on both active brake controls for intelligent vehicles and regenerative braking controls for electric vehicles. However, unlike conversional brake systems, the reliability of the brake-by-wire systems remains to be challenging due to its lack of physical connection in case of system failure. There are various causes for the failure of a BBW system, such as failure of brake controller, loss of sensor signals, failure of communication or even power supply, to name a few. This paper presents a fault-tolerant control under novel control architecture. The proposed control architecture includes a driver command interpreter module, a command integration module, a control allocation module, a fault diagnosis module and state observers. The fault-tolerant control is designed based on a quadratic optimal control method with consideration of actuator constraints.
Journal Article

Power Assisted Braking Control Based on a Novel Mechatronic Booster

This paper presents a power assisted braking control based on a novel mechatronic booster system. A brake pedal feel control unit is first discussed which includes a pedal emulator with an angular sensor to detect driver’s pedal travel, a signal processing module with a Kalman filter for sensor signal conditioning, and a driver braking intention detection and behavior recognition module based on the displacement and velocity of the pedal travel. A power assisted braking control is then presented as the core of the system which consists of controls on basic power assist, velocity compensation and friction compensation. The friction is estimated based on a generic algorithm offline. A motor controller is designed to provide the desired torque for the power assist. Finally, a novel mechatronic booster system is designed and built with an experimental platform set up with a widely adopted rapid prototype system using dSPACE products, such as MicroAutoBox, RapidPro, etc.
Technical Paper

Accurate Speed Control of the DC Motor for Anti-Lock Braking System

The permanent-magnet DC motor, which is directly connected to the hydraulic pump, is a significant component of hydraulic control unit (HCU) in an anti-lock braking system (ABS). It drives the pump to dump the brake fluid from the low-pressure accumulator back to master cylinder and makes sure the pressure decreases of wheel cylinder in ABS control. Obviously, the motor should run fast enough to provide sufficient power and prevent the low-pressure accumulator from fully charging. However, the pump don't need always run at full speed for the consideration of energy conservation and noise reduction. Therefore, it is necessary to accurately regulate the speed of the DC motor in order to improve quality of ABS control. In this paper, an accurate speed control algorithm was developed for the permanent-magnet DC motor of the ABS to implement the performance of the system, reduce the noise and save the energy in the meanwhile.
Technical Paper

Development of Active Control Strategy for Flat Tire Vehicles

This paper first presents an algorithm to detect tire blowout based on wheel speed sensor signals, which either reduces the cost for a TPMS or provides a backup in case it fails, and a tire blowout model considering different tire pressure is also built based on the UniTire model. The vehicle dynamic model uses commercial software CarSim. After detecting tire blowout, the active braking control, based on a 2DOF reference model, determines an optimal correcting yaw moment and the braking forces that slow down and stop the vehicle, based on a linear quadratic regulator. Then the braking force commands are further translated into target pressure command for each wheel cylinder to ensure the target braking forces are generated. Some simulations are conducted to verify the active control strategy.
Technical Paper

Vehicle-Trailer Handling Dynamics and Stability Control ─ an Engineering Review

This paper presented an engineering review on the state of the art in the research and development of vehicle-trailer handling dynamics and stability controls. The issues and potential technical solutions were identified in various areas and the unique characteristics of vehicle-trailer as a combined system were investigated and compared to a single-unit vehicle system. Many approaches taken in modeling, analysis, simulation and testing were examined, and various control methods, actuations and control implementations were evaluated. As a result of this study, further research areas were also identified. While it is important to maintain the stability of a trailer, thus the stability of a vehicle-trailer combination, it remains one of the major challenges in designing an appropriate control law to balance effectively the requirements between stability and handling performance, which often set conflicting objectives.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Chassis Control for Vehicle-Trailer Stability and Handling Performance

To cope with the conflict requirements between the stability and handling performance, and the high-order and complex vehicle-trailer plant, a model tracking method is proposed. With this approach, a feedback control is designed to “decouple” the vehicle and the trailer plant, such that each tracks a well-defined second-order reference model independently yet coordinately. A feedforward control is designed to maintain its system steady-state performance. As a result, the proposed approach not only improves the system transient responses, but also its steady-state performance. This approach further yields a simple yet analytical control derivation that provides more insight to the system dynamics.