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Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Optical Measurement for Analyzing Control Factor of Ignition Phenomena under Diluted Condition

2020-09-15
2020-01-2048
To increase thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines, dilution combustion systems, such as lean burn and exhaust gas recirculation systems, have been developed. These systems require spark-ignition coils generating large discharge current and discharge energy to achieve stable ignition under diluted mixture conditions. Several studies have clarified that larger discharge current increases spark-channel stretch and decreases the possibility of spark channel blow-off and misfire. However, these investigations do not mention the effect of larger discharge current and energy on the initial combustion period. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation among dilution ratio, initial-combustion period, and coil specifications to clarify the control factor of the dilution limit.
Technical Paper

Investigation of H2 Formation Characterization and its Contribution to Post- Oxidation Phenomenon in a Turbocharged DISI Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2188
In this research, simulation and experimental investigation of H2 emission formation and its influence during the post-oxidation phenomenon were conducted on a turbo-charged spark ignition engine. During the post-oxidation phenomenon phase, rich air-fuel ratio (A/F) is used inside the cylinder. This rich excursion gives rise to the production of H2 emission by various reactions inside the cylinder. It is expected that the generation of this H2 emission can play a key role in the actuation of the post-oxidation and its reaction rate if enough temperature and mixing strength are attained. It is predicted that when rich combustion inside the cylinder will take place, more carbon monoxide (CO)/ Total Hydro Carbon (THC)/ Hydrogen (H2) contents will arrive in the exhaust manifold. This H2 content facilitates in the production of OH radical which contributes to the post-oxidation reaction and in-turn can aid towards increasing the enthalpy.
Technical Paper

Combustion Enhancement in a Gas Engine Using Low Temperature Plasma

2020-04-14
2020-01-0823
Low temperature plasma ignition has been proposed as a new ignition technique as it has features of good wear resistance, low energy release and combustion enhancement. In the authors’ previous study, lean burn limit could be extended slightly by low temperature plasma ignition while the power supply’s performance with steep voltage rising with time (dV/dt), showed higher peak value of the rate of heat release and better indicated thermal efficiency. In this study, basic study of low temperature plasma ignition system was carried out to find out the reason of combustion enhancement. Moreover, the durability test of low temperature plasma plug was performed to check the wear resistance.
Technical Paper

Investigation of The Effect of Enhanced In-Cylinder Flow on HCCI Combustion in a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

2020-01-24
2019-32-0528
The purpose of this paper is to find a way to extend the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. A newly developed rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) was employed to reproduce the typical HCCI high load condition. The in-cylinder turbulence was created by the special piston which equipped with a flow guide plate. Meanwhile, the ambient temperature distribution in the cylinder was determined by the wall temperature controlling system which was controlled by the independent coolant passages. In addition, the numerical simulation by using large eddy method coupled with a detailed chemical reaction was conducted as well. The results show that HCCI mode is potential to be improved at high load condition in full consideration of in-cylinder temperature, flow, and turbulence.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in a Port Injection Gasoline Engine by Simultaneous Measurement of Time Resolved PIV and PLIF

2020-01-24
2019-32-0552
Cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of combustion in low load operation is a factor that may cause various problems in engine operation. Variable valve timing and variable ignition timing are commonly used as a means to reduce this variation. However, due to mountability and cost constraints, these methods are not feasible for use in motorcycle engines. Therefore, development of an engine with minimal CCV without utilizing complicated mechanisms or electronic control is required. CCV of combustion may be caused by fluctuations in in-cylinder flow, air-fuel mixture, temperature, residual gas and ignition energy. In this study, the relationship between CCV of combustion, in-cylinder flow fluctuation and air-fuel mixture fluctuation was the primary focus. In order to evaluate in-cylinder flow fluctuation, Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV) technique was utilized.
Journal Article

A Study of Ignition Method for Gas Heat Pump Engine Using Low Temperature Plasma

2020-01-24
2019-32-0622
Low temperature plasma ignition has been proposed as a new ignition technique as it has features of good wear resistance, low energy release and combustion enhancement. In the authors’ previous study, lean burn limit could be extended by low temperature plasma ignition while a voltage drop during discharge, leading to the transition to arc discharge, was found. In this study, the structure of plug and power supply’s performance with steep voltage rising with time, dV/dt, are examined to investigate the effects on combustion performance. As a result, comparing three power sources of conventional, IES and steep dV/dt, steep dV/dt showed small cycle-to-cycle variation and shorter combustion period, leading to higher peak value of the rate of heat release and better indicated thermal efficiency by relatively 6% and 4% compared to CIC and IES, respectively.
Technical Paper

Scavenging Phenomena Based Post-oxidation in Exhaust Manifold of a Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine

2019-12-19
2019-01-2197
In this research, a novel methodology for the post-oxidation in a turbocharged spark ignition (SI) engine is proposed and investigated that can improve the emissions along with the reduction in turbo-lag. In this research, both simulation and experimental activities are performed. The 1-D simulation model was used for the identification of efficient scavenging. Thereafter, experimental validation tests for modeling and post oxidation were conducted on a 4-cylinder turbocharged SI engine. From the results, it was revealed that efficient scavenging and post-oxidation can be obtained at lower speed and higher load. The enthalpy in exhaust manifold increased due to the post-oxidation reaction which in turn increased the temperature and pressure of the exhaust gases and hence emissions reduced. Also, due to the increased enthalpy at turbine upstream, the turbocharger speed increased and as a consequence, reduction in the turbo-lag was observed.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Operating Condition and Fuel Property on Pre-Ignition Phenomenon in a Highly Boosted Premixed Natural Gas Engine

2019-12-19
2019-01-2154
The stochastic pre-ignition phenomenon plays a vital role to limit the further increasing BMEP for natural gas engines. In this study, the pre-ignition propensities were examined in a highly boosted premixed natural gas engine by various engine loads and air/fuel ratios, as well as different methane number (MN) altered by hydrogen addition. A proper pre-ignition evaluation method was proposed referring to intake temperature. Moreover, the limits of in-cylinder temperature and pressure for the onset of pre-ignition were estimated. The results show that both higher IMEP and richer mixture conditions readily lead to pre-ignition. The significant increases of pre-ignition frequency and heavy-knocking pre-ignition cycle present with lowering MN.
Technical Paper

Effects of Coolant Temperature and Fuel Properties on Soot Emission from a Spark-ignited Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2019-12-19
2019-01-2352
Effects of measurement method, coolant temperature and fuel composition on soot emissions were examined by engine experiments. By reducing the pressure fluctuation in the sampling line, the measured soot emissions with better stability and reproducibility could be obtained. With lower coolant temperatures, larger soot emissions were yielded at much advanced fuel injection timings. Compared to gasoline, soot emissions with a blend fuel of normal heptane, isooctane and toluene were significantly decreased, suggesting the amounts of aromatic components (toluene or others) should be increased to obtain a representative fuel for the predictive model of particulate matter in SIDI engines.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow and Stratified Mixture on HCCI Combustion in High Load

2018-10-30
2018-32-0016
The purpose of this paper is to find a way to extend the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. This paper presents the effect of in-cylinder flow and stratified mixture on HCCI combustion by experiments and three-dimensional computer fluid dynamics coupled with a detailed chemical reaction calculation. The first study was conducted using a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) equipped with a flow generation plate to create in-cylinder turbulent flow and with a control unit of in-cylinder wall temperature to create in-cylinder temperature distribution. The study assesses the effect of the turbulent flow and the temperature distribution on HCCI combustion. In the second study, the numerical simulation of HCCI combustion was conducted using large eddy simulation coupled with a detailed chemical reaction calculation. The study analyzes the interaction between in-cylinder turbulent flow and mixture distribution and HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

0D Modeling of Real-Driving NOx Emissions for a Diesel Passenger Vehicle

2018-09-10
2018-01-1761
NOx emissions from diesel passenger vehicles affect the atmospheric environment. It is difficult to evaluate the NOx emissions influenced by environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature, traffic conditions, driving patterns, etc. In the authors’ previous study, real-driving experiments were performed on city and highway routes using a diesel passenger car with only an exhaust gas recirculation system. A statistical prediction model of NOx emissions was considered for simple estimations in the real world using instantaneous vehicle data measured by the portable emissions measurement system and global positioning system. The prediction model consisted of explanatory variables, such as velocity, acceleration, road gradient, and position of transmission gear. Using the explanatory variables, NOx emissions on the city and highway routes was well predicted using a diesel vehicle without NOx reduction devices.
Technical Paper

Fuel Stratification Using Twin-Tumble Intake Flows to Extend Lean Limit in Super-Lean Gasoline Combustion

2018-09-10
2018-01-1664
To drastically improve thermal efficiency of a gasoline spark-ignited engine, super-lean burn is a promising solution. Although, studies of lean burn have been made by so many researchers, the realization is blocked by a cycle-to-cycle combustion variation. In this study, based on the causes of cycle-to-cycle variation clarified by the authors’ previous study, a unique method to reduce the cycle-to-cycle variation is proposed and evaluated. That is, a bulk quench at early expansion stroke could be reduced by making slight fuel stratification inside the cylinder using the twin-tumble of intake flows. As a result, the lean limit was extended with keeping low NOx and moderate THC emissions, leading to higher thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Analysis in a Diesel Engine Based on a Heat Flux Measurement Using a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0115
To investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine, a correlation for the heat transfer coefficient in a combustion chamber of a diesel engine was investigated based on heat flux measured by the authors in the previous study(8) using the rapid compression and expansion machine. In the correlation defined in the present study, thermodynamically estimated two-zone temperatures in the burned zone and the unburned zone are applied. The characteristic velocity given in the correlation is related to the speed of spray flame impinging on the wall during the fuel injection period. After the fuel injection period, the velocity term of the Woschni’s equation is applied. It was shown that the proposed correlation well expresses heat transfer phenomena in diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Effect of Coolant Water and Intake Air Temperatures on Thermal Efficiency of Gasoline Engines

2017-11-05
2017-32-0116
An optimization of thermal management system in a gasoline engine is considered to improve thermal efficiency by minimizing the cost increase without largely changing the configuration of engine system. In this study, the influence of water temperature and intake air temperature on thermal efficiency were investigated using an inline four-cylinder 1.2L gasoline engine. In addition, one-dimensional engine simulations were conducted by using a software of GT-SUITE. Brake thermal efficiency for different engine speeds and loads could be quantitatively predicted with changing the cooling water temperature in the cylinder head. Then, in order to predict the improvement of the fuel consumption in actual use, vehicle mode running simulation and general-purpose engine transient mode simulation were carried out by GT-SUITE. As a result, it was found that by controlling the temperatures of the cooling water and intake gas, thermal efficiency can be improved by several percent.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Flow and Mixture Distributions on Combustion Characteristics in a HCCI Engine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0061
It has been widely known that thermal and fuel stratifications of in-cylinder mixture are effective to reduce in-cylinder pressure rise rate during high load HCCI operations. In order to optimize a combustion chamber design and combustion control strategy for HCCI engines with wide operational range, it is important to know quantitatively the influence of the temperature and fuel concentration distributions on ignition and heat release characteristics. At the same time, it is important to know the influence of in-cylinder flow and turbulence on the temperature and fuel concentration distributions. In this study, a numerical simulation of HCCI combustion were conducted to investigate the effects of the in-cylinder flow and turbulence, and the distributions of temperature on ignition and combustion characteristics in HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Analyses of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Combustion and In-Cylinder Flow in a Port Injection Gasoline Engine Using PIV and PLIF Techniques

2017-10-08
2017-01-2213
Reduction in the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of combustion in internal combustion engines is required to reduce fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and improve drivability. CCV increases at low load operations and lean/dilute burn conditions. Specifically, the factors that cause CCV of combustion are the cyclic variations of in-cylinder flow, in-cylinder distributions of fuel concentration, temperature and residual gas, and ignition energy. However, it is difficult to measure and analyze these factors in a production engine. This study used an optically accessible single-cylinder engine in which combustion and optical measurements were performed for 45 consecutive cycles. CCVs of the combustion and in-cylinder phenomena were investigated for the same cycle. Using this optically accessible engine, the volume inside the combustion chamber, including the pent-roof region can be observed through a quartz cylinder.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Thermal Efficiency of Lean Burn Pre-Chamber Natural Gas Engine by Optimization of Combustion System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0782
To understand the mechanism of the combustion by torch flame jet in a gas engine with pre-chamber and also to obtain the strategy of improving thermal efficiency by optimizing the structure of pre-chamber including the diameter and number of orifices, the combustion process was investigated by three dimensional numerical simulations and experiments of a single cylinder natural gas engine. As a result, the configuration of orifices was found to affect the combustion performance strongly. With the same orifice diameter of 1.5mm, thermal efficiency with 7 orifices in pre-chamber was higher than that with 4 orifices in pre-chamber, mainly due to the reduction of heat loss by decreasing the impingement of torch flame on the cylinder linear. Better thermal efficiency was achieved in this case because the flame propagated area increases rapidly while the flame jets do not impinge on the cylinder wall intensively.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Heat Transfer Surface of EGR Cooler to Examine Soot Adhesion and Abruption Phenomena

2017-03-28
2017-01-0127
Among the emerging technologies in order to meet ever stringent emission and fuel consumption regulations, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system is becoming one of the prerequisites particularly for diesel engines. Although EGR cooler is considered to be an effective measure for further performance enhancement, exhaust gas soot deposition may cause degradation of the cooling. To address this issue, the authors studied the visualization of the soot deposition and removal phenomena to understand its behavior. Based on thermophoresis theory, which indicates that the effect of thermophoresis depends on the temperature difference between the gas and the wall surface exposed to the gas, a visualization method using a heated glass window was developed. By using glass with the transparent conductive oxide: tin-doped indium oxide, temperature of the heated glass surface is raised.
Technical Paper

1-D Simulation Model Developed for a General Purpose Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0030
In recent years, improvements in the fuel economy and exhaust emission performance of internal combustion engines have been increasingly required by regulatory agencies. One of the salient concerns regarding general purpose engines is the larger amount of CO emissions with which they are associated, compared with CO emissions from automobile engines. To reduce CO and other exhaust emissions while maintaining high fuel efficiency, the optimization of total engine system, including various design parameters, is essential. In the engine system optimization process, cycle simulation using 0-D and 1-D engine models are highly useful. To define an optimum design, the model used for the cycle simulation must be capable of predicting the effects of various parameters on the engine performance. In this study, a model for predicting the performance of a general purpose SI (Spark Ignited) engine is developed based on the commercially available engine simulation software, GT-POWER.
Technical Paper

Driving Cycle Simulation of a Vehicle with Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Using a Low-RON Fuel

2016-10-17
2016-01-2297
An improvement of thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines is strongly required. Meanwhile, from the viewpoint of refinery, CO2 emissions and gasoline price decrease when lower octane gasoline can be used for vehicles. If lower octane gasoline is used for current vehicles, fuel consumption rate would increase due to abnormal combustion. However, if a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine were to be used, the effect of octane number on engine performance would be relatively small and it has been revealed that the thermal efficiency is almost unchanged. In this study, the engine performance estimation of HCCI combustion using lower octane gasoline as a vision of the future engine was achieved. To quantitatively investigate the fuel consumption performance of a gasoline HCCI engine using lower octane fuel, the estimation of fuel consumption under different driving test cycles with different transmissions is carried out using 1D engine simulation code.
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