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Technical Paper

Reduction of Reaction Mechanism for n-Tridecane Based on Knowledge of Detailed Reaction Paths

n-Tridecane is a low boiling point component of gas oil, and has been used as a single-component fuel for diesel spray and combustion experiments. However, no reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-tridecane have been presented for three-dimensional modeling. A detailed mechanism developed by KUCRS (Knowledge-basing Utilities for Complex Reaction Systems), contains 1493 chemical species and 3641 reactions. Reaction paths during ignition process for n-tridecane in air computed using the detailed mechanism, were analyzed with the equivalence ratio of 0.75 and the initial temperatures of 650 K, 850 K, and 1100 K, which are located in the cool-flame dominant, negative-temperature coefficient, and blue-flame dominant regions, respectively.
Technical Paper

Classification of the Reactivity of Alkylperoxy Radicals by Using a Steady-State Analysis

To execute the computational fluid dynamics coupling with fuel chemistry in internal combustion engines, simplified chemical kinetic models which capture the low-temperature oxidation kinetics would be required. A steady-state analysis was applied to see the complicated reaction mechanism of alkylperoxy radicals by assuming the steady state for hydroperoxyalkyl (QOOH) and hydroperoxyalkylperoxy (OOQOOH) radicals. This analysis clearly shows the systematic trend of the reaction rate for the chain-branching and non-branching process of alkylperoxy (ROO) radicals as a function of the chain length and the carbon class. These trends make it possible to classify alkylperoxy radicals by their chemical structures, and suggest a reduced low-temperature oxidation chemistry.
Technical Paper

Chemical Kinetics Based Equations for Ignition Delay Times of Primary Reference Fuels Dependent on Fuel, O2 and Third Body Concentrations and Heat Capacity

The ignition delay times of n-C7H16, i-C8H18, and a blend of them at different fuel, O2 and N2 concentrations were computed using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism generated by KUCRS. For each fuel, the dependences of ignition delay time on fuel, O2 and third body concentrations and on the heat capacity of a mixture were distilled to establish a power law equation for ignition delay time. For n-C7H16, ignition delay time τhigh without low-temperature oxidation at a high initial temperature between 1000 K and 1200 K was expressed using the scaling exponents for fuel, O2 and third body concentrations and heat capacity of 0.54, 0.29, 0.08, and - 0.38, respectively. Low-temperature oxidation induction time τ1 at a low initial temperature between 600 K and 700 K was expressed using the scaling exponents for fuel, O2 and third body concentrations and heat capacity of 0.03, 0.18, 0.04, and - 0.17, respectively.
Journal Article

A Study on Knocking Prediction Improvement Using Chemical Reaction Calculation

Compression ratio of newly developed gasoline engines has been increased in order to improve fuel efficiency. But in-cylinder pressure around top dead center (TDC) before spark ignition timing is higher than expectation, because the low temperature oxidization (LTO) generates some heat. The overview of introduced calculation method taking account of the LTO heat of unburned gas, how in-cylinder pressure is revised and some knowledge of knocking prediction using chemical kinetics are shown in this paper.
Journal Article

Chemical Kinetics Study on Two-Stage Main Heat Release in Ignition Process of Highly Diluted Mixtures

Some experimental data indicate that an HCCI process of a highly diluted mixture is characterized with a two-stage profile of heat release after the heat release by low-temperature oxidation, and with slow CO oxidation into CO₂ at a low temperature. In the present paper, these characteristics are discussed using a detailed chemical kinetic model of normal heptane, and based on an authors' idea that an ignition process can be divided into five phases. The H₂O₂ loop reactions mainly contribute to heat release in a low-temperature region of the TI (thermal ignition) preparation phase. However, H+O₂+M=HO₂+M becomes the main contributor to heat release in a high-temperature region of the TI preparation phase. H₂O₂ is accumulated during the LTO (low-temperature oxidation) and NTC (negative temperature oxidation) phases, and drives the H₂O₂ loop reactions to increase the temperature during the TI preparation phase.
Technical Paper

Chemical Kinetics Study on Effect of Pressure and Fuel, O2 and N2 Molar Concentrations on Hydrocarbon Ignition Process

Ignition process chemistry was analyzed using a detailed chemical kinetic model of n-heptane generated by KUCRS (Knowledge-basing Utilities for Complex Reaction Systems), wherein pressure-dependent rate constants of the O₂ addition to alkyl radicals and hydroperoxy alkyl radicals and the thermal decomposition of ketohydroperoxides have been introduced. Then, the effect of the initial pressure and the individual effects of the initial fuel, O₂ and N₂ molar concentrations on a relationship between the initial temperature and the ignition delay were discussed. When the initial temperature increases, the branch of C₇H₁₄OOH removal into the second O₂ addition and the decomposition into C₇H₁₄cyO and OH is more sensitive to the pressure and the O₂ concentration, and thus, the LTO preparation phase is more affected by the pressure and the O₂ concentration. The LTO phase terminates mainly by the OH removal by intermediate species.
Technical Paper

Chemical Kinetics Study on Ignition Characteristics of Biodiesel Surrogates

Methyl butanoate (MB) and methyl decanoate (MD) are surrogates for biodiesel fuels. According to computational results with their detailed reaction mechanisms, MB and MD indicate shorter ignition delays than long alkanes such as n-heptane and n-dodecane do at an initial temperature over 1000 K. The high ignitability of these methyl esters was computationally analyzed by means of contribution matrices proposed by some of the authors. Due to the high acidity of an α-H atom in a carbonyl compound, hydroperoxy radicals are generated out of the equilibrium between forward and backward reactions of O₂ addition to methyl ester radicals by the internal transfer of an α-H atom in the initial stage of an ignition process. Some of the hydroperoxy methyl ester radicals can generate OH to activate initial reactions. MB has an efficient CH₃O formation path via CH₃ generated by the β-scission of an MB radical which has a radical site on the α-C atom to the carbonyl group.
Technical Paper

Lumped Chemical Kinetic Model Based on the Detailed Analysis of Hydrocarbon Fuel Ignition

A systematic chemical lumping method has been proposed, based on the detailed kinetic analysis of hydrocarbon fuel ignitions. The model constructed by using this method contains two reaction sets, RO2 and fragment reaction package. The ignition characteristics of each fuel can be reflected by only adjusting several rate parameters in RO2 reaction package. From the comparison with detailed model, it was confirmed that this simplified model well reproduces the results of detailed one without missing the kinetics of hydrocarbon ignitions. We concluded that this new lumping approach has the possibility to be applicable to every hydrocarbon fuels.
Technical Paper

Universal Rule of Hydrocarbon Oxidation

Hydrocarbon thermal ignition in internal combustion engines is controlled by the balance of heat release rate by chemical reactions and internal energy formation or removal rate by adiabatic compression or expansion. Heat release rate can be described by a simple “Universal Rule”, that the heat release rate during the thermal ignition preparation period is determined by H2O2 loop composed of four elementary reactions. This rule was validated by sensitivity analysis and response analysis to perturbation of intermediate species concentrations. The rule was applied to clarify several subjects with experimental backgrounds, such as ignition characteristics of higher octane number fuels, an old and well-known knocking model and the influence of H2 addition.