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Technical Paper

Loads Analysis and Optimization of FSAE Race Car Frame

2017-03-28
2017-01-0423
This paper focuses on dynamic analysis and frame optimization of a FSAE racing car frame. Firstly, a Multi-Body Dynamic (MBD) model of the racing car is established using ADAMS/Car. The forces and torques of the mechanical joints between the frame and suspensions are calculated in various extreme working conditions. Secondly, the strength, stiffness and free vibration modes of the frame are analyzed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The extracted forces and torques in the first step are used as boundary conditions in FEA. The FEA results suggest that the size of the frame may be not reasonable. Thirdly, the size of the frame is optimized to achieve minimized weight. Meanwhile the strength and stiffness of the frame are constrained. The optimization results reveal that the optimization methodology is powerful in lightweight design of the frame.
Technical Paper

In-Plane Parameter Relationship between the 2D and 3D Flexible Ring Tire Models

2017-03-28
2017-01-0414
In this paper, a detailed three dimensional (3D) flexible ring tire model is first proposed which includes a rigid rim with thickness, different layers of discretized belt points and a number of massless tread blocks attached on the belt. The parameters of the proposed 3D tire model can be divided into in-plane parameters and out-of-plane parameters. In this paper, the relationship of the in-plane parameters between the 3D tire model and the 2D tire model is determined according to the connections among the tire components. Based on the determined relationship, it is shown that the 3D tire model can produce almost the same prediction results as the 2D tire model for the in-plane tire behaviors.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Motion Control Analysis under Quasi-Static Extreme Loads

2016-04-05
2016-01-0439
The powertrain mounting system (PMS) plays an important role in improving the NVH (Noise, Vibration, Harshness) quality of the vehicle. In all running conditions of a vehicle, the displacements of the powertrain C.G. should be controlled in a prescribed range to avoid interference with other components in the vehicle. The conventional model of PMS is based on vibration theory, considering the rotation angles are small, ignoring the sequence of the rotations. However, the motion of PMS is in 3D space with 3 translational degrees of freedom and 3 rotational degrees of freedom, when the rotation angles are not small, the conventional model of PMS will cause errors. The errors are likely to make powertrain interfering with other components. This paper proposes a rigid body mechanics model of the powertrain mounting system. When the powertrain undergoes a large rotational motion, the rigid body mechanics model can provide more accurate calculation results.
Journal Article

A New Interval Inverse Analysis Method and Its Application in Vehicle Suspension Design

2016-04-05
2016-01-0277
Interval inverse problems can be defined as problems to estimate input through given output, where the input and output are interval numbers. Many problems in engineering can be formulated as inverse problems like vehicle suspension design. Interval metrics, instead of deterministic metrics, are used for the suspension design of a vehicle vibration model with five degrees of freedom. The vibration properties of a vehicle vibration model are described by reasonable intervals and the suspension interval parameters are to be solved. A new interval inverse analysis method, which is a combination of Chebyshev inclusion function and optimization algorithm such as multi-island genetic algorithm, is presented and used for the suspension design of a vehicle vibration model with six conflicting objective functions. The interval design of suspension using such an interval inverse analysis method is shown and validated, and some useful conclusions are reached.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Optimization with Integrated Modeling for Vehicle Thermal Management System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0225
Vehicle Thermal Management System (VTMS) is a crosscutting technology affecting the fuel consumption, engine performance and emissions. With the new approved fuel economy targets and the enhanced vehicle performance requirements, the ability to predict the impact on the fuel consumption of different VTMS modifications is becoming an important issue in the pre-prototype phase of vehicle development. This paper presents a methodology using different simulation tools to model the entire VTMS in order to understand and quantify its behavior. The detailed model contains: engine cooling system, lubrication system, powertrain system, HVAC system and intake and exhaust system. A detail model of the power absorbed by the accessory components operating in VTMS such as pumps and condenser is presented. The power of the accessory components is not constant but changing with respect to engine operation. This absorbed power is taken into account within the power produced by the engine shaft.
Technical Paper

Recursive Estimation of Vehicle Inertial Parameters Using Polynomial Chaos Theory via Vehicle Handling Model

2015-04-14
2015-01-0433
A new recursive method is presented for real-time estimating the inertia parameters of a vehicle using the well-known Two-Degree-of- Freedom (2DOF) bicycle car model. The parameter estimation is built on the framework of polynomial chaos theory and maximum likelihood estimation. Then the most likely value of both the mass and yaw mass moment of inertia can be obtained based on the numerical simulations of yaw velocity by Newton method. To improve the estimation accuracy, the Newton method is modified by employing the acceptance probability to escape from the local minima during the estimation process. The results of the simulation study suggest that the proposed method can provide quick convergence speed and accurate outputs together with less sensitivity to tuning the initial values of the unidentified parameters.
Technical Paper

Studies of Air Spring Mathematical Model and its Performance in Cab Suspension System of Commercial Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0608
The vehicle ride comfort behavior is closely associated with the vibration isolation system such as the primary suspension system, the engine mounting system, the cab suspension system and the seat suspension system. Air spring is widely used in the cab suspension system for its low vibration transmissibility, variable spring rate and inexpensive automatic leveling. The mathematical model of the air spring is presented. The amplitude and frequency dependency of the air spring's stiffness characteristic is highlighted. The air spring dynamic model is validated by comparing the results of the experiment and the simulation. The co-simulation method of ADAMS and AMESim is applied to integrate the air spring mathematical model into the cab multi-body dynamic model. The simulation and ride comfort test results under random excitation are compared.
Technical Paper

In-Plane Flexible Ring Tire Model Development for Ride Comfort & Braking/Driving Performance Analysis under Straight-line Driving Condition

2015-04-14
2015-01-0628
Vehicle tire performance is an important consideration for vehicle handling, stability, mobility, and ride comfort as well as durability. Significant efforts have been dedicated to tire modeling in the past, but there is still room to improve its accuracy. In this study, a detailed in-plane flexible ring tire model is proposed, where the tire belt is discretized, and each discrete belt segment is considered as a rigid body attached to a number of parallel tread blocks. The mass of each belt segment is accumulated at its geometric center. To test the proposed in-plane tire model, a full-vehicle model is integrated with the tire model for simulation under a special driving scenario: acceleration from rest for a few seconds, then deceleration for a few seconds on a flat-level road, and finally constant velocity on a rough road. The simulation results indicate that the tire model is able to generate tire/road contact patch forces that yield reasonable vehicle dynamic responses.
Journal Article

Suspension Kinematic/Compliance Uncertain Optimization Using a Chebyshev Polynomial Approach

2015-04-14
2015-01-0432
The optimization of vehicle suspension kinematic/compliance characteristics is of significant importance in the chassis development. Practical suspension system contains many uncertainties which may result from poorly known or variable parameters or from uncertain inputs. However, in most suspension optimization processes these uncertainties are not accounted for. This study explores the use of Chebyshev polynomials to model complex nonlinear suspension systems with interval uncertainties. In the suspension model, several kinematic and compliance characteristics are considered as objectives to be optimized. Suspension bushing characteristics are considered as design variables as well as uncertain parameters. A high-order response surface model using the zeros of Chebyshev polynomials as sampling points is established to approximate the suspension kinematic/compliance model.
Technical Paper

Multi-objective Optimization of the PMS Based on Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II

2015-04-14
2015-01-1675
In order to reasonably match the variable stiffness and location of the Powertrain Mounting System (PMS) and optimize the ride comfort of commercial vehicle, a thirteen degrees of freedom (DOF) model of a commercial vehicle was established in Adams/view. Specially, the support rod installed on the upside of the transmission case was modeled as a flexible body. The vibration isolation provided by the PMS was evaluated in three aspects: the energy decoupling of the powertrain, the response force of the mount and the displacement of the powertrain. The energy decoupling ratio, the force RMS of the mount when force excitation was applied on the powertrain and the displacement of the powertrain Center of Gravity (C.G) when displacement excitation was applied on the vehicle chassis were selected as the optimal target. Adams and MATLAB were integrated into the optimization software iSIGHT to optimize the PMS. NSGA-II is used to obtain some Pareto-optimal solutions of PMS.
Technical Paper

Analysis on Synchronizer of Manual Transmission using Finite Element Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-1148
A simulation model of the single cone synchronizer is presented using the dynamic implicit algorithm with commercial Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software Abaqus. The meshing components include sleeve gear, blocking ring and clutch gear, which are all considered as deformation body. The processes mainly contain the contact between sleeve teeth and blocking teeth, meshing period and the impact of sleeve teeth and clutch gear teeth, and these nonlinear contact steps are realized with Abaqus. In addition, a shift force derives from experiment is applied to the sleeve ring, and a moment is added to the clutch gear to realize the relative rotational speed. Based on the FEA model, the effect of the varied frictional coefficients between the cone surfaces of blocking ring and clutch gear on the synchronizer time and contact stress is discussed. Variation of stresses and contact force with respect to time are evaluated from this analysis.
Journal Article

An Improved Human Biodynamic Model Considering the Interaction between Feet and Ground

2015-04-14
2015-01-0612
Nowadays, studying the human body response in a seated position has attracted a lot of attention as environmental vibrations are transferred to the human body through floor and seat. This research has constructed a multi-body biodynamic human model with 17 degrees of freedom (DOF), including the backrest support and the interaction between feet and ground. Three types of human biodynamic models are taken into consideration: the first model doesn't include the interaction between the feet and floor, the second considers the feet and floor interaction by using a high stiffness spring, the third one includes the interaction by using a soft spring. Based on the whole vehicle model, the excitation to human body through feet and back can be obtained by ride simulation. The simulation results indicate that the interaction between feet and ground exerts non-negligible effect upon the performance of the whole body vibration by comparing the three cases.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Analysis on a Self-Energizing Synchronizer of Transmission

2015-04-14
2015-01-0633
The structure of a classic self-energizing synchronizer is presented, and a simulation model is developed for analyzing the synchronizer performance. The self-energizing synchronizer has a disk spring and several energizing teeth on the sleeve for increasing the shift force. Besides, the asymmetric arrangement of chamfer teeth is applied to increase the torque for rotating ring and shift gears smoothly. The parameterized model of the typical synchronizer is developed with ADAMS for studying the synchronizer performance. In order to truly reflect the reality, the teeth of the claw plate are connected to the gear ring through bushing force alone, and the stiffness coefficient are obtained through the analysis of finite element model. Based on the dynamic model, the behavior of synchronizer with asymmetric arrangement of chamfer teeth, and the energizing effect of stiffness of the disk spring are studied. The simulation results can be used to design the synchronizer.
Technical Paper

Frequency-Dependent Hydraulic Engine Mount with Five-Parameters Fractional Derivative Model in Vehicle model

2015-04-14
2015-01-1670
Hydraulic Engine Mount (HEM) is widely used in vehicle Powertrain Mounting System (PMS) for vibration isolation. The dynamic performances of an HEM are strongly frequency dependent. A Five-Parameters Fractional Derivative model is used to describe the dynamic properties of an HEM. A 1/4 car model is applied to evaluate the effect of frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness which using measured data of a typical hydraulic engine mount. The excitations from engine and road are considered in the simulation. The generalized- α method is presented to solve the vehicle model with five-parameter fractional derivative model.
Technical Paper

Multi-domain Modeling and Simulation of Vehicle Thermal System Based on Modelica

2014-04-01
2014-01-1183
Vehicle Thermal Management System (VTMS) is a cross-cutting technology that directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, driver/passenger comfort, emissions. This paper presents a novel methodology to investigate VTMS based on Modelica language. A detailed VTMS platform including engine cooling system, lubrication system, powertrain system, intake and exhaust system, HVAC system is built, which can predict the steady and transient operating conditions. Comparisons made between the measured and calculated results show good correlation and approve the forecast capability for VTMS. Through the platform a sensitivity analysis is presented for basic design variables and provides the foundation for the design and matching of VTMS. Modelica simulation language, which can be efficiently used to investigate multi-domain problems, was used to model and simulate VTMS.
Technical Paper

Hanger Location Design and Vibration Isolation of an Exhaust System

2014-04-01
2014-01-1708
In the present study, the research of the exhaust system is performed in three steps. In the first step, the average driving degree of freedom displacement (ADDOFD) is calculated by the free modal analysis of the exhaust system. It is easy to find the reasonable location of the hanger according to the value of the ADDOFD, since it represents the relative size of some DOF's response displacement at excitation state. The second of which is to analyse the vibration isolation performance of the exhaust system based on the first step. The dynamic analysis of the exhaust system together with the powertrain is studied, by which way the unit sinusoidal excitation is applied at the powertrain's mass centre, so that the response force at the hanger can be obtained. Finally, the relationship between the constrained model of the exhaust system and the stiffness of the hanger is investigated, which is significant in engineering.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Handling Dynamics with Uncertainty Using Chebyshev Interval Method

2014-04-01
2014-01-0720
Vehicle systems often operate with some degree of uncertainty. This study applies the Chebyshev interval method to model vehicle dynamic systems operating in the presence of interval parameters. A full vehicle model is used as the numerical model and the methodology is illustrated on the steering wheel angle pulse input test. In the numerical simulation, suspension stiffness coefficients and suspension damping coefficients are chosen as interval parameters and lateral acceleration and yaw rate are chosen to capture vehicle dynamic characteristics. System responses in time domain are validated against Monte Carlo simulations and against the scanning approach. Results indicate that the Chebyshev interval method is more efficient than Monte Carlo simulations. The results of scanning method are similar to the ones obtained with the Chebyshev interval method.
Technical Paper

Sprung Mass Identification of Suspension in a Simplified Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0051
This paper describes a simplified model to identify sprung mass using golden section method, the model treats the unsprung mass vertical acceleration as input and the sprung mass vertical acceleration as output, which can avoid the nonlinear influence of trye. Unsprung mass can be also calculated by axle load and the identified sprung mass. This study carries out road test on the vehicle ride comfort and takes a scheme that the group of 20 km/h is used to identify sprung mass and the group of 80 km/h is used to verify the identification result. The similarity of the results from the simulation and experiments performed are, for the sprung mass, 98.59%. A conclusion can be drawn that the simple method to measure the sprung mass in the suspension systems in used vehicles, such as the vehicle shown here, is useful, simple and has sufficient precision.
Journal Article

A Polynomial Chaos-Based Method for Recursive Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimation of Load Sensing Proportional Valve

2014-04-01
2014-01-0721
In this paper, a new computational method is provided to identify the uncertain parameters of Load Sensing Proportional Valve (LSPV) in a heavy truck brake system by using the polynomial chaos theory. The simulation model of LSPV is built in the software AMESim depending on structure of the valve, and the estimation process is implemented relying on the experimental measurements by pneumatic bench test. With the polynomial chaos expansion carried out by collocation method, the output observation function of the nonlinear pneumatic model can be transformed into a linear and time-invariant form, and the general recursive functions based on Newton method can therefore be reformulated to fit for the computer programming and calculation. To improve the estimation accuracy, the Newton method is modified with reference to Simulated Annealing algorithm by introducing the Metropolis Principle to control the fluctuation during the estimation process and escape from the local minima.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis on a Synchronization Mechanism for Manual Transmission Gearbox

2014-04-01
2014-01-1768
This paper presents the dynamic and analysis models of a typical synchronizer, which are mainly used to analyze the sensitivity of parameters of synchronizer on the gear shift performance. Because there are so many parameters namely coefficient of friction, cone angle, mean radius, blocker angle, etc, affected the synchronizer performance, which the times of experience will increase in a geometrical ratio if tested them one by one, it is almost impossible to evaluate all parameters by experience alone. Due to virtual prototype technology, the synchronizer parameterized virtual models can be built for the synchronizer studies. The parameterized virtual models of the typical synchronizers are developed with ADAMS. Then the gear shift process is simulated and analyzed for the given input parameters respectively. The models also predict the shift time and the peak of the shift force, and the model is validated by the good correlation between simulation results and test data.
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