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Technical Paper

Particle number emissions from standard and hybrid SI passenger cars

This paper presents the PN (Particle Number) and some gaseous emissions results from a group of SI (Spark Ignition) passenger cars including HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle), PFI (Port Fuel Injection) and GDI (Gasoline Direction Injection) vehicles. The PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) was used for on-board emission measurements. The vehicles were driven using the routes complying with the EU Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test procedures required in the European Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/427, i.e. starting in an urban driving mode and then continuing into a rural driving mode and ending with motorway driving mode part. The percentage of these three segments is approximately 33%, 33%, 33% respectively. The total test time was between 90 to 120 minutes. The vehicles’ driving parameters such as road speed, tailpipe exhaust temperatures and energy consumption were recorded and their correlations with emissions were investigated.
Technical Paper

Proceedings of Real Driving Emission (RDE) Measurement in China

Light-duty China-6, which is among the most stringent vehicle exhaust emission standards globally, mandates the monitoring and reporting of real driving emissions (RDE) from July, 2023. In the process of regulation promulgation and verification, more than 300 RDE tests have been performed on over 50 China-5 and China-6 certified models. This technical paper endeavors to summarize the experience of RDE practice in China, and discuss the impacts of some boundary conditions (including vehicle dynamic parameters, data processing methods, hybrid propulsion and testing altitude) on the result of RDE measurement. In general, gasoline passenger cars confront few challenges to meet the upcoming RDE NOx requirement, but some China-5 certified samples, even powered by naturally-aspirated engines may have PN issues. PN emissions from some GDI-hybrid powertrain systems also need further reduction to meet China-6 RDE requirements.
Journal Article

Investigation of Combustion and Emission Performance of Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) Diesel

Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) diesel fuels have the potential to provide a reduced carbon footprint for diesel engines and reduce exhaust emissions. Therefore, it is a strong candidate for transport and diesel powered machines including electricity generators and other off-road machines. In this research, a waste cooking oil derived HVO diesel was investigated for its combustion and emission performance including ignition delays, size segregated particulate number emissions and gaseous emissions. The results were compared to the standard petroleum diesel. A EURO5 emission compliant three litre, direct injection, intercooled IVECO diesel engine equipped with EGR was used which has a maximum power output of 96kW. The engine was equipped with an integrated DOC and DPF aftertreatment system. Both the upstream and downstream of the aftertreatment emissions were measured. The tests were conducted at different RPM and loads at steady state conditions.
Technical Paper

Calculations and Test Measurements of In-Cylinder Combustion Velocity of Hydrogen - Air Mixtures Considering the Effect of Flame Instability

The combustion characteristics of hydrogen-air mixtures have significance significant impact on the performance and control of hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines and the combustion velocity is an important parameter in characterizing the combustion characteristics of the mixture. A four-cylinder hydrogen internal combustion engine was used to study hydrogen combustion; the combustion characteristics of a hydrogen mixture were experimentally studied in a constant-volume incendiary bomb, and the turbulent premixed combustion characteristics of hydrogen were calculated and analyzed. Turbulent hydrogen combustion comes under the folded laminar flame model. The turbulent combustion velocity in lean hydrogen combustion is related not only to the turbulent velocity and the laminar burning velocity, but also to the additional turbulence term caused by the instability of the flame.
Technical Paper

Estimating Ozone Potential of Pipe-out Emissions from Euro-3 to Euro-5 Passenger Cars Fueled with Gasoline, Alcohol-Gasoline, Methanol and Compressed Natural Gas

Along with the booming expansion of private car preservation, many Chinese cities are now struggling with hazy weather and ground-level ozone contamination. Although central government has stepped up efforts to purify skies above China, counter-strategies to curb ground-level ozone is comparatively weak. By using maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method, this paper estimated the ozone forming potential for twenty-five Euro-3 to Euro-5 passenger cars burning conventional gasoline, methanol-gasoline, ethanol-gasoline, neat methanol and compressed natural gas (CNG). The results showed that, for all the fuel tested, VOC/NOx ratios and SR values decreased with the upgrading of emission standard. Except for Euro-3 M100 and Euro-4 M85, SR values for alternative fuel were to different degrees smaller than those for gasoline. When the emission standard was shifted from Euro-4 to Euro-5, OFP values estimated for gasoline vehicle decreased.
Technical Paper

Cold Start SI Passenger Car Emissions from Real World Urban Congested Traffic

The tailpipe exhaust emissions were measured under real world urban driving conditions by using a EURO4 emissions compliant SI car equipped with an on-board heated FTIR for speciated gaseous emission measurements, a differential GPS for travel profiles, thermocouples for temperatures, and a MAX fuel meter for transient fuel consumption. Emissions species were measured at 0.5 Hz. The tests were designed to enable cold start to occur into congested traffic, typical of the situation of people living alongside congested roads into a large city. The cold start was monitored through temperature measurements of the TWC front and rear face temperatures and lubricating oil temperatures. The emissions are presented to the end of the cold start, defined when the downstream TWC face temperature is hotter than the front face which occurred at ∼350-400oC. Journeys at various times of the day were conducted to investigate traffic flow impacts on the cold start.
Technical Paper

Regulated, Carbonyl Emissions and Particulate Matter from a Dual-Fuel Passenger Car Burning Neat Methanol and Gasoline

As a probable solution to both energy and environmental crisis, methanol and methanol gasoline have been used as gasoline surrogates in several provinces of China. Most recently, the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China is drafting a special emission standard for methanol-fueled light-duty vehicles. Given the scarcity of available data, this paper evaluated regulated emissions, carbonyl compounds and particulate matter from a China-5 certificated gasoline/methanol dual-fuel vehicle over New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The results elucidated that in context with gasoline mode, CO emitted in methanol mode decreased 11.2%, while no evident changes of THC and NOx emissions were noticed with different fueling regimes. The total carbonyls and formaldehyde have increased by 39.5% and 19.8% respectively after switching from gasoline to methanol. A remarkable decrease of 65.6% in particulate matter was observed in methanol mode.
Technical Paper

Emissions from a HGV Using Used Cooking Oil as a Fuel under Real World Driving Conditions

To maximize CO2 reduction, refined straight used cooking oils were used as a fuel in Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) in this research. The fuel is called C2G Ultra Biofuel (C2G: Convert to Green Ltd) and is a fully renewable fuel made as a diesel replacement from processed used cooking oil, used directly in diesel engines specifically modified for this purpose. This is part of a large demonstration project involving ten 44-tonne trucks using C2G Ultra Biofuel as a fuel to partially replace standard diesel fuels. A dual fuel tank containing both diesel and C2G Ultra Biofuel and an on-board fuel blending system-Bioltec system was installed on each vehicle, which is able to heat the C2G Ultra Biofuel and automatically determine the required blending ratio of diesel and C2G Ultra Biofuel according to fuel temperature and engine load. The engine was started with diesel and then switched to C2G Ultra Biofuel under appropriate conditions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption and GHG Reductions by using Used Cooking Oil as a Fuel in a HGV under Real World Driving Conditions

Direct use of straight vegetable oil based biofuels in diesel engines without trans-esterification can deliver more carbon reductions compared to its counterpart biodiesel. However, the use of high blends of straight vegetable oils especially used cooking oil based fuels in diesel engines needs to ensure compatible fuel economy with PD (Petroleum Diesel) and satisfactory operational performance. There are two ways to use high blends of SVO (Straight Vegetable Oil) in diesel engines: fixed blending ratio feeding to the engine and variable blending ratio feeding to the engine. This paper employed the latter using an on-board blending system-Bioltec system, which is capable of heating the vegetable oils and feeding the engine with neat PD or different blends of vegetable oils depending on engine load and temperature.
Journal Article

Speciation of Nitrogen Compounds in the Tailpipe Emissions from a SI Car under Real World Driving Conditions

The tailpipe exhaust emissions were measured using a EURO4 emissions compliant SI car equipped with on-board measurement systems such as a FTIR system for gaseous emission, a differential GPS for velocity, altitude and position, thermal couples for temperatures, and a MAX fuel meter for transient fuel consumption. Various nitrogen species emissions (NO, NO2, NOx, NH3, HCN and N2O) were measured at 0.5 Hz. The tests were designed and employed using two real world driving cycles/routes representing a typical urban road network located in a densely populated area and main crowded road. Journeys at various times of the day were conducted to investigate traffic conditions impacts such as traffic and pedestrian lights, road congestion, grade and turning on emissions, engine thermal efficiency and fuel consumption. The time aligned vehicle moving parameters with Nitrogen pollutant emission data and fuel consumption enabled the micro-analysis of correlations between these parameters.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Regulated Emissions and Particulate Matter of Gasoline/CNG Dual-Fuel Taxi Over New European Driving Cycle

Compressed natural gas (CNG) is widely used as an alternative option in spark ignition engines because of its better fuel economy and in part cleaner emissions. To cope with the haze weather in Beijing, about 2000 gasoline/CNG dual-fuel taxis are servicing on-road. According to the government's plan, the volume of alternative fuel and pure electric vehicle will be further increased in the future. Thus, it is necessary to conduct an evaluation on the effectiveness of alternative fuel on curbing vehicular emissions. This research examined the regulated emissions and particulate matter of gasoline/CNG dual-fuel taxi over New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Emission tests in gasoline- and CNG-fuelled, cold- and warm-start modes were done for all five taxies. Test vehicles, Hyundai Elantra, are powered by 1.6L spark-ignited engines incorporated with 5-gear manual gearboxes.
Journal Article

Determination of Carbon Footprint using LCA Method for Straight Used Cooking Oil as a Fuel in HGVs

In order to improve energy supply diversity and reduce carbon dioxide emissions, sustainable bio-fuels are strongly supported by EU and other governments in the world. While the feedstock of biofuels has caused a debate on the issue of sustainability, the used cooking oil (UCO) has become a preferred feedstock for biodiesel manufacturers. However, intensive energy consumption in the trans-esterification process during the UCO biodiesel production has significantly compromised the carbon reduction potentials and increased the cost of the UCO biodiesel. Moreover, the yield of biodiesel is only ∼90% and the remaining ∼10% feedstock is wasted as by-product glycerol. Direct use of UCO in diesel engines is a way to maximize its carbon saving potentials.
Journal Article

Determination of GHG Emissions, Fuel Consumption and Thermal Efficiency for Real World Urban Driving using a SI Probe Car

A SI probe car, defined here as a normal commercial car equipped with GPS, in-vehicle FTIR tailpipe emission measurement and real time fuel consumption measurement systems, and temperature measurements, was used for measuring greenhouse gas emissions including CO2, N2O and CH4 under real world urban driving conditions. The vehicle used was a EURO4 emission compliant SI car. Two real world driving cycles/routes were designed and employed for the tests, which were located in a densely populated area and a busy major road representing a typical urban road network. Eight trips were conducted at morning rush hours, day time non-peak traffic periods and evening off peak time respectively. The aim is to investigate the impacts of traffic conditions such as road congestion, grade and turnings on fuel consumption, engine thermal efficiency and emissions.
Technical Paper

Real World Diesel Engine Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Diesel Fuel and B100

The transport sector is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigated three greenhouse gases emitted from road transport using a probe vehicle: CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ emissions as a function temperature. It should be highlighted that methane is a greenhouse gas that similarly to carbon dioxide contributes to global warming and climate change. An oxidation catalyst was used to investigate CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ GHG emissions over a real-world driving cycle that included urban congested traffic and extra-urban driving conditions. The results were determined under hot start conditions, but in congested traffic the catalyst cooled below its light-off temperature and this resulted in considerable N₂O emissions as the oxidation catalyst temperature was in the N₂O formation band. This showed higher N₂O during hot start than for diesel fuel and B100 were compared. The B100 fuel was Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), derived from waste cooking oil, which was mainly RME.
Journal Article

Comparison of Gaseous Emissions for B100 and Diesel Fuels for Real World Urban and Extra Urban Driving

A Euro 3 1.8-liter diesel vehicle with an oxidation catalyst was used to investigate real-world exhaust emissions over a real-world driving cycle that included urban congested traffic and extra-urban driving conditions. Diesel fuel and B100 were compared. The B100 fuel was Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), derived from waste cooking oil, which was mainly RME. A multifunctional additive package was added at 800 ppm to control fuel injector deposit formation. Gaseous emissions were monitored using an on-board heated Temet FTIR exhaust emission analyzer, which can measure 52 species at a rate of 0.5 Hz. A Horiba on board emissions measuring system was also used (OBS 1300), which measures the exhaust mass flow rate together with air/fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Real World Cold Start Emissions from a Diesel Vehicle

This study uses on-board measurement systems to analyze emissions from a diesel engine vehicle during the cold start period. An in-vehicle FTIR (Fourier Transform Inferred) spectrometer and a Horiba on-board measurement system (OBS-1300) were installed on a EURO3 emission-compliant 1.8 TDCi diesel van, in order to measure the emissions. Both regulated and non-regulated emissions were measured, along with an analysis of the NO/NO₂ split. A VBOX GPS system was used to log coordinates and road speed for driving parameters and emission analysis. Thermal couples were installed along the exhaust system to measure the temperatures of exhaust gases during cold start. The real-time fuel consumption was measured. The study also looks at the influence of velocity on emissions of hydrocarbons (HCs) and NOx. The cold start period of an SI-engine-powered vehicle, was typically around 200 seconds in urban driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Rape Seed Oil B100 Diesel Engine Particulate Emissions: The Influence of Intake Oxygen on Particle Size Distribution

Pure rape seed oil (RSO), as coded BO100 (BO: Bio-Oil) to distinguish from biodiesel was investigated for a range of intake oxygen levels from 21 to 24%. RSO can have deposit problems in both the fuel injector and piston crown and elevated intake oxygen levels potentially could control these by promoting their oxidation. Increased intake oxygen elevates the peak temperature and this promotes the oxidation of soot and volatile organic compounds. The effect of this on particle mass and on the particle size distribution was investigated using a 6-cylinder 6-liter Perkins Phaser Euro 2 DI diesel engine. The tests were conducted at 47 kW brake power output at 1500 rpm. The particle size distribution was determined from the engine-out exhaust sample using a Dekati microdilution system and nano-SMPS analyzer. The results showed that for air RSO had higher particle mass than diesel and that this mass decreased as the oxygen level was increased.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Various Driving Parameters and Emissions for Passenger Cars Driven With and Without Stops at Intersections under Different Test Cycles

Different driving test cycles, the Leeds-West Park (LWP) loop and the Leeds-High Park (LHP) or HPL-A and B (Leeds-Hyde Park Loop-A or B, hereafter referred as HPL-A or B cycle) loop were selected for this urban intersection research and results are presented in this study. Different emissions-compliant petrol passenger cars (EURO 1, 2, 3 and 4) were compared for their real-world emissions. A reasonable distance of steady state speed was needed and for the analysis made in this paper were chosen vehicle speeds at ~20, ~30 and ~40 km/h. Specific spot of periods of driving at the speeds mentioned above were identified, then the starting and ending point was found and the total emissions in g for that period divided by the distance was calculated. A typical urban driving cycle including a loop and a section of straight road was used for the comparison test as it was similar to the legislative ECE15 urban driving cycle.
Journal Article

Influence of Cold Start and Ambient Temperatures on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions, Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Fuel Economy for SI Car Real World Driving

The transport sector is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigated three greenhouse gases emitted from road transport using a probe vehicle: CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ emissions as a function of cold start and ambient temperatures. A real-world driving cycle has been developed at Leeds and referred as LU-BS, which has an urban free flow driving pattern. The test vehicle was driven on the same route by the same driver on different days with different ambient temperatures. All the journeys were started from cold. An in-vehicle FTIR emission measurement system was installed on a EURO2 emission compliance SI car for emissions measurement at a rate of 0.5 Hz. This emission measurement system was calibrated on a standard CVS measurement system and showed an excellent agreement on the CO₂ measurement with the CVS results. The N₂O and CH₄ were calibrated by calibration gas bottles.
Journal Article

Effect of Multifunctional Fuel Additive Package on Fuel Injector Deposit, Combustion and Emissions using Pure Rape Seed Oil for a DI Diesel

This work investigates the effect of a multifunctional diesel fuel additive package used with RapeSeed Oil (RSO) as a fuel in a DI heavy duty diesel engine. The effects on fuel injectors’ cleanliness were assessed. The aim was to maintain combustion performance and preventing the deterioration of exhaust emissions associated with injector deposit build up. Two scenarios were investigated: the effect of deposit clean-up by a high dose of the additive package; and the effect of deposit prevention using a moderate dose of the additive package. Engine combustion performance and emissions were compared for each case against use of RSO without any additive. The engine used was a 6 cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled Perkins Phaser Engine, fitted with an oxidation catalyst and meeting the Euro II emissions limits. The tests were conducted under steady state conditions of 23kW and 47kW power output at an engine speed of 1500 rpm.