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Journal Article

Deformation Analysis of Incremental Sheet Forming

2010-04-12
2010-01-0991
Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is an emerging sheet metal prototyping technology where a part is formed as one or more stylus tools are moving in a pre-determined path and deforming the sheet metal locally while the sheet blank is clamped along its periphery. A deformation analysis of incremental forming process is presented in this paper. The analysis includes the development of an analytical model for strain distributions based on part geometry and tool paths; and numerical simulations of the forming process with LS-DYNA. A skew cone is constructed and used as an example for the study. Analytical and numerical results are compared, and excellent correlations are found. It is demonstrated that the analytical model developed in this paper is reliable and efficient in the prediction of strain distributions for incremental forming process.
Journal Article

Development of Empirical Shear Fracture Criterion for AHSS

2010-04-12
2010-01-0977
The conventional forming limit curve (FLC) has been widely and successfully used as a failure criterion to detect localized necking in stamping. However, in stamping advanced high strength steels (AHSS), under certain circumstances such as stretching-bending over a small die radius, the sheet metal fails much earlier than predicted by the FLC. This type of failure on the die radius is commonly called “shear fracture.” In this paper, the laboratory Stretch-Forming Simulator (SFS) and the Bending under Tension (BUT) tester are used to study shear fracture occurring during both early and later stages of stamping. Results demonstrate that the occurrence of shear fracture depends on the combination of the radius-to-thickness (R/T) ratio and the tension/stretch level applied to the sheet during stretching or drawing. Based on numerous experimental results, an empirical shear fracture limit curve or criterion is obtained.
Journal Article

Experimental Analysis of Die Wear in Sheet Metal Forming

2009-04-20
2009-01-1171
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are particularly attractive to automotive industry. Stamping AHSS parts, however, results in accelerated die wear problems which could emerge after few thousands of stampings. The existing wear testing methods are either not suitable for charactering die wear in stamping or requires significant capital investment. The first generation of strip-on-cylinder wear test apparatus which can efficiently and economically characterize die wear is introduced in this paper. Different measurement methods were compared and white light interferometer with nanoscale accuracy was chosen to determine the wear volume due to its overall advantages. Based on the strip-on-cylinder wear test apparatus, a design of experiments study analyzing the effects of contact pressure, sliding speed and hardness of the die material on die wear was conducted and the results were discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of Shear Fracture Criterion for Dual-Phase Steel Stamping

2009-04-20
2009-01-1172
Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) have been widely and successfully used in sheet metal stamping as a failure criterion to detect localized necking, which is the most common failure mechanism for conventional steels during forming. However, recent experience from stamping Dual-Phase steels found that, under certain circumstances such as stretching-bend over a small die radius, the sheet metal fails earlier than that predicted by the FLD based on the initiation of a localized neck. It appears that a different failure mechanism and mode are in effect, commonly referred to as “shear fracture” in the sheet metal stamping community. In this paper, experimental and numerical analysis is used to investigate the shear fracture mechanism. Numerical models are established for a stretch-bend test on DP780 steel with a wide range of bend radii for various failure modes. The occurrences of shear fracture are identified by correlating numerical simulation results with test data.
Technical Paper

DP590 GI Mechanical Property Variability and Structural Response CAE Studies

2009-04-20
2009-01-0799
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) such as DP590 HDGI are helping automakers meet increasingly higher structural performance requirements while maintaining or reducing weight of the vehicle body structure [7]. One of the issues facing design engineers implementing new materials such as AHSS is the lack of understanding the expected material variability within a steel supplier and also from one steel supplier to another; and how the variability affects product attribute performances. In this paper, we present an analysis of the aggregated mechanical property variability data obtained from several steel suppliers for a popular AHSS grade and also present studies related to the effect of material variability on structural responses.
Journal Article

A Path Independent Forming Limit Criterion for Sheet Metal Forming Simulations

2008-04-14
2008-01-1445
A new strain-based forming limit criterion is proposed to assess the localized necking failure for sheet metal forming simulations when deformation paths deviate significantly from linearity. Different from the traditional strain-based Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) in terms of major and minor strains, the new FLD is constructed based on effective strains and material flow direction at the end of forming. This new criterion combines the advantages of stress-based FLD for its path-independence and the traditional linear strain path FLD for its easy interpretation. The proposed FLD is validated through both theoretical prediction with Marciniak-Kuczynski (M-K) model and available experimental data in literature, and its relationship with stress-based FLDs is discussed.
Technical Paper

Die Wear Severity Diagram and Simulation

2007-04-16
2007-01-1694
Die wear is a significant issue in sheet metal forming particularly for stamping Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) because of their higher strength and microstructure composition. Reliable predictions of the magnitude and distribution of die wear are essential if cost-effective wear-protection strategies are desired in the early stages of tooling development. A die Wear Severity Index (WSI) is introduced in this paper to quantify the magnitude of die wear, which in essence characterizes the frictional energy dissipation per unit area on the die surface throughout the entire forming cycle. It can be readily obtained as part of any finite element simulation of stamping process utilizing incremental solution techniques.
Technical Paper

Understanding Through-Thickness Integration in Springback Simulation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0147
The “adequate” number of integration points (NIP) required to achieve accurate springback simulation results is studied in this paper in an effort to clarify confusions reported in the literature and shed light on the origin of the confusion. A bending-under-tension model is adopted where springback solution can be obtained with analytical integration through metal thickness. Numerical integrations are then performed and compared with analytical solution to assess associated errors. A crucial distinction is made in the paper that, the model can be posed either as a displacement-value problem where both tension strain and bending radius are prescribed or as a mixed-value problem where the tension force and bending radius are prescribed. Although they are physically equivalent due to the uniqueness of solution, the numerical solutions are different. The associated errors in springback respond differently to the number of integration points employed.
Technical Paper

Stretch Flanging Formability Prediction and Shape Optimization

2006-04-03
2006-01-0351
Flanging is a secondary operation in sheet metal forming processes. Traditionally, the design of flange shape and trim line is based on an engineer's experience. It takes several iterations to achieve the desired flange geometry because of potential splits. In this paper, an efficient CAE-based tool is developed to quickly predict the formability of a given flange design and enable the optimization of trim lines. A numerical algorithm is formulated in this CAE tool to convert the 3D flanging process into an equivalent in-plane deformation problem. The developed CAE tool is also integrated with the optimization software LS-OPT for trim line design.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Springback Stresses in Deep-Drawn Cups Using Diffraction Techniques

2005-04-11
2005-01-0498
Prediction of springback has become a major focus in sheet metal forming. Validation of finite element codes that are being developed to predict springback require accurate property data and a more complete understanding of the residual stresses that are involved. To provide experimental data for these calculations, neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out to determine the through-thickness distribution of axial and hoop (or tangential) residual stresses in deep-drawn steel and aluminum cups. The techniques are able to provide true spatial resolutions as low as 0.05 mm for a strain measurement on cups with ≤ 1 mm wall thickness. It was found that the stresses exhibit non-linear gradients through the thickness that also depend on the axial position.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Dent Resistance Incorporating Forming Effects

2005-04-11
2005-01-0089
Dent resistance is an important attribute in the automotive panel design, and the ability to accurately predict a panel's dentability requires careful considerations of sheet metal properties, including property changes from stamping process. The material is often work-hardened significantly during forming, and its thickness is reduced somewhat. With increased demand for weight reduction, vehicle designers are seriously pushing to use thinner-gauged advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) as outer body panels such as fenders, hoods and decklids, with the expectation that its higher strength will offset reduced thickness in its dentability. A comparative study is conducted in this paper for a BH210 steel fender as baseline design and thinner DP500 steel as the new design.
Technical Paper

A Benchmark Test for Springback: Experimental Procedures and Results of a Slit-Ring Test

2005-04-11
2005-01-0083
Experimental procedures and results of a benchmark test for springback are reported and a complete suite of obtained data is provided for the validation of forming and springback simulation software. The test is usually referred as the Slit-Ring test where a cylindrical cup is first formed by deep drawing and then a ring is cut from the mid-section of the cup. The opening of the ring upon slitting releases the residual stresses in the formed cup and provides a valuable set of easy-to-measure, easy-to-characterize springback data. The test represents a realistic deep draw stamping operation with stretching and bending deformation, and is highly repeatable in a laboratory environment. In this study, six different automotive materials are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Locking Phenomena in the Use of Solid Elements for Sheet Metal Forming Simulation

1999-03-01
1999-01-1005
This paper is concerned with the use of solid elements in sheet metal forming simulation, particularly springback prediction for flanging when the flanging radii are comparable with the metal thickness. It is demonstrated that appropriate solid elements must be used instead of shell elements in order to obtain adequate results. Numerical difficulties associated with development of suitable solid elements are discussed in detail, with emphasis on the volumetric locking and transverse shear locking phenomena respectively. The transverse shear locking arises from the incompatible deformation modes when the element is used for thin structure bending analysis. A four point bending testing problem is used to study the performances of different solid elements. A locking-free solid element based on assumed strain formulation is developed in Ford in-house program MTLFRM for accurate springback prediction, and a flanging example is given to demonstrate its application.
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