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Journal Article

Motion Cueing Algorithm for a 9-DoF Driving Simulator: MPC with Linearized Actuator Constraints

2019-07-09
Abstract In times when automated driving is becoming increasingly relevant, dynamic simulators present an appropriate simulation environment to faithfully reproduce driving scenarios. A realistic replication of driving dynamics is an important criterion to immerse persons in the virtual environments provided by the simulator. Motion Cueing Algorithms (MCAs) compute the simulator’s control input, based on the motions of the simulated vehicle. The technical restrictions of the simulator’s actuators form the main limitation in the execution of these input commands. Typical dynamic simulators consist of a hexapod with six degrees of freedom (DoF) to reproduce the vehicle motion in all dimensions. Since its workspace dimensions are limited, significant improvements in motion capabilities can be achieved by expanding the simulator with redundant DoF by means of additional actuators.
Journal Article

Impact of Dynamic Characteristics of Wheel-Rail Coupling on Rail Corrugation

2019-07-02
Abstract To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of corrugation, including the development and propagation of corrugation, and impact of vehicle and track dynamics, a computational model was established, taking into account the nonlinearity of vehicle-track coupling. The model assumes a fixed train speed of 300 km/h and accounts for vertical interaction force components and rail wear effect. Site measurements were used to validate the numerical model. Computational results show that (1) Wheel polygonalisation corresponding to excitation frequency of 545-572 Hz was mainly attributed to track irregularity and uneven stiffness of under-rail supports, which in turn leads to vibration modes of the bogie and axle system in the frequency range of 500-600 Hz, aggregating wheel wear. (2) The peak response frequency of rail of the non-ballasted track coincides with the excitation frequency of wheel-rail coupling; the resonance results in larger wear amplitude of the rail.
Journal Article

Speed Planning and Prompting System for Commercial Vehicle Based on Real-Time Calculation of Resistance

2019-06-25
Abstract When commercial vehicles drive in a mountainous area, the complex road condition and long slopes cause frequent acceleration and braking, which will use 25% more fuel. And the brake temperature rises rapidly due to continuous braking on the long-distance downslopes, which will make the brake drum fail with the brake temperature exceeding 308°C [1]. Meanwhile, the kinetic energy is wasted during the driving progress on the slopes when the vehicle rolls up and down. Our laboratory built a model that could calculate the distance from the top of the slope, where the driver could release the accelerator pedal. Thus, on the slope, the vehicle uses less fuel when it rolls up and less brakes when down. What we do in this article is use this model in a real vehicle and measure how well it works.
Journal Article

Modeling and Optimal Design of All-Wheel-Drive Hybrid Light Trucks

2019-06-06
Abstract Fuel economy and performance are both important in the design of hybrid pickup trucks. All-wheel drive is essential to ensure superior performance compared to two-wheel-drive designs. In this article, as a comprehensive extension work to the article published in ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference [1] on all-wheel-drive (AWD) hybrid truck, we investigate the modeling, design, and control problem of AWD hybrid vehicles and develop a methodology to identify optimal designs. This methodology 1) formulates an automated modeling process, 2) searches exhaustively through all possible AWD designs, and 3) employs a near-optimal energy management strategy, to obtain a family of designs with superior performance and fuel economy. A design case study for a hybrid Ford F-150 is conducted, to showcase this design process.
Journal Article

A Review on Electromagnetic Sheet Metal Forming of Continuum Sheet Metals

2019-05-29
Abstract Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a high-speed impulse forming process developed during the 1950s and 1960s to acquire shapes from sheet metal that could not be obtained using conventional forming techniques. In order to attain required deformation, EMF process applies high Lorentz force for a very short duration of time. Due to the ability to form aluminum and other low-formability materials, the use of EMF of sheet metal for automobile parts has been rising in recent years. This review gives an inclusive survey of historical progress in EMF of continuum sheet metals. Also, the EMF is reviewed based on analytical approach, finite element method (FEM) simulation-based approach and experimental approach, on formability of the metals.
Journal Article

Mixture Distributions in Autonomous Decision-Making for Industry 4.0

2019-05-29
Abstract Industry 4.0 is expected to revolutionize product development and, in particular, manufacturing systems. Cyber-physical production systems and digital twins of the product and process already provide the means to predict possible future states of the final product given the current production parameters. With the advent of further data integration coupled with the need for autonomous decision-making, methods are needed to make decisions in real time and in an environment of uncertainty in both the possible outcomes and in the stakeholders’ preferences over them. This article proposes a method of autonomous decision-making in data-intensive environments, such as a cyber-physical assembly system. Theoretical results in group decision-making and utility maximization using mixture distributions are presented. This allows us to perform calculations on expected utility accurately and efficiently through closed-form expressions, which are also provided.
Journal Article

Vulnerability of FlexRay and Countermeasures

2019-05-23
Abstract The importance of in-vehicle network security has increased with an increase in automated and connected vehicles. Hence, many attacks and countermeasures have been proposed to secure the controller area network (CAN), which is an existent in-vehicle network protocol. At the same time, new protocols-such as FlexRay and Ethernet-which are faster and more reliable than CAN have also been proposed. European OEMs have adopted FlexRay as a control network that can perform the fundamental functions of a vehicle. However, there are few studies regarding FlexRay security. In particular, studies on attacks against FlexRay are limited to theoretical studies or simulation-based experiments. Hence, the vulnerability of FlexRay is unclear. Understanding this vulnerability is necessary for the application of countermeasures and improving the security of future vehicles. In this article, we highlight the vulnerability of FlexRay found in the experiments conducted on a real FlexRay network.
Journal Article

Cooperative Ramp Merging System: Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation Using Game Engine

2019-05-16
Abstract Agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) has been a popular approach for modeling autonomous and interacting agents in a multi-agent system. Specifically, ABMS can be applied to connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) since CAVs can operate autonomously with the help of onboard sensors, and cooperate with each other through vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications. In order to improve energy efficiency and mobility of traffic, we have developed an online feedforward/feedback longitudinal controller for CAVs to cooperatively merge at ramps. Agent-based CAV models were built in the Unity3D environment, where vehicles are given connectivity and autonomy through C#-based scripting API. Agent-based infrastructure model is also built as a Unity3D simulation network based on the city of Mountain View, California.
Journal Article

Industrial Framework for Identification and Verification of Hot Spots in Automotive Composite Structures

2019-05-16
Abstract In this article, a framework for efficient strength analysis of large and complex automotive composite structures is presented. This article focuses on processes and methods that are compliant with common practice in the automotive industry. The proposed framework uses efficient shell models for identification of hot spots, automated remodelling and analysis of found hot spots with high-fidelity models and finally an automated way of post-processing the detailed models. The process is developed to allow verification of a large number of load cases in large models and still consider all potential failure modes. The process is focused on laminated composite primary structures. This article highlights the challenges and tools for setting up this framework.
Journal Article

Assessment of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) Applicability as an Alternative Marine Fuel Based on Its Performance and Emissions Characteristics

2019-05-16
Abstract In current study, the combustion and emission characteristics of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) were studied and compared to those of conventional marine gas oil (MGO). The main goal was to verify its applicability as an alternative marine fuel. All experiments were performed using generator set and propeller-law test cycles, i.e., standardized E2 and E3 cycles respectively. Additional emphasis was paid to the particulate matter (PM) emissions combining gravimetric and particle number measurements. The obtained results indicate average 10-15 % reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while total unburned hydrocarbons (THC) emissions were reduced by 50-55 %. It is believed that a much higher cetane number of HVO together with its superior chemical composition (overall higher H/C ratio, absence of aromatics, and heavy-boiling compounds) plays a vital role here.
Journal Article

Evaluation of a Robust Haptic Interface for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles

2019-05-15
Abstract The advent of steer-by-wire technologies has changed the driving paradigm for drivers and vehicle autonomy. Such technologies integrate electric motors to actuate the tire-road plus human-machine interfaces. Steer-by-wire vehicles can benefit from haptic concepts through the provision of tunable force feedback, coupled with nonlinear control, to introduce lane keeping and pathway following technologies that minimize and possibly eliminate driver actions. In this article, two vehicle haptic interfaces, including a robotic grip and a joystick, both of which are accompanied by nonlinear sliding mode control, have been developed and studied on a steer-by-wire platform integrated with a virtual reality driving environment. An operator-in-the-loop evaluation that included 30 human test subjects investigated these haptic steering interfaces over a prescribed series of driving maneuvers through real-time data logging and post-test questionnaires.
Journal Article

Driving Simulator Performance in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 1A

2019-05-10
Abstract Introduction: This study evaluates driving ability in those with Charcot Marie Tooth Disease Type 1A, a hereditary peripheral neuropathy. Methods: Individuals with Charcot Marie Tooth Disease Type 1A (n = 18, age = 42 ± 7) and controls (n = 19; age = 35 ± 10) were evaluated in a driving simulator. The Charcot Marie Tooth Neuropathy Score version 2 was obtained for individuals. Rank Sum test and Spearman rank correlations were used for statistical analysis. Results: A 74% higher rate of lane departures and an 89% higher rate of lane deviations were seen in those with Charcot Marie Tooth Disease Type 1A than for controls (p = 0.005 and p < 0.001, respectively). Lane control variability was 10% higher for the individual group and correlated with the neuropathy score (rS = 0.518, p = 0.040), specifically sensory loss (rS = 0.710, p = 0.002) and pinprick sensation loss in the leg (rS = 0.490, p = 0.054).
Journal Article

Prediction and Control of Response Time of the Semitrailer Air Braking System

2019-05-09
Abstract The response time of the air braking system is the main parameter affecting the longitudinal braking distance of vehicles. In this article, in order to predict and control the response time of the braking system of semitrailers, an AMESim model of the semitrailer braking system involving the relay emergency valve (REV) and chambers was established on the basis of analyzing systematically the working characteristics of the braking system in different braking stages: feedback braking, relay braking, and emergency braking. A semitrailer braking test bench including the brake test circuit and data acquisition system was built to verify the model with typical maneuver. For further evaluating the semitrailer braking response time, an experiment under different control pressures was carried out. Experimental results revealed the necessity of controlling the response time.
Journal Article

High Power-Density, High Efficiency, Mechanically Assisted, Turbocharged Direct-Injection Jet-Ignition Engines for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

2019-05-02
Abstract More than a decade ago, we proposed combined use of direct injection (DI) and jet ignition (JI) to produce high efficiency, high power-density, positive-ignition (PI), lean burn stratified, internal combustion engines (ICEs). Adopting this concept, the latest FIA F1 engines, which are electrically assisted, turbocharged, directly injected, jet ignited, gasoline engines and work lean stratified in a highly boosted environment, have delivered peak power fuel conversion efficiencies well above 46%, with specific power densities more than 340 kW/liter. The concept, further evolved, is here presented for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications. Results of simulations for a new DI JI ICE with rotary valve, being super-turbocharged and having gasoline or methanol as working fuel, show the opportunity to achieve even larger power densities, up to 430 kW/liter, while delivering a near-constant torque and, consequently, a nearly linear power curve over a wide range of speeds.
Journal Article

Vehicle Aerodynamic Optimization: On a Combination of Adjoint Method and Efficient Global Optimization Algorithm

2019-04-26
Abstract This article presents a workflow for aerodynamic optimization of vehicles that for the first time combines the adjoint method and the efficient global optimization (EGO) algorithm in order to take advantage of both the gradient-based and gradient-free methods for aerodynamic optimization problems. In the workflow, the adjoint method is first applied to locate the sensitive surface regions of the baseline vehicle with respect to the objective functions and define a proper design space with reasonable design variables. Then the EGO algorithm is applied to search for the optimal site in the design space based on the expected improvement (EI) function. Such workflow has been applied to minimize the aerodynamic drag for a mass-produced electric vehicle. With the help of STAR-CCM+ and its adjoint solver, sensitive surface regions with respect to the aerodynamic drag are first located on the vehicle.
Journal Article

Performance, Fuel Economy, and Economic Assessment of a Combustion Concept Employing In-Cylinder Gasoline/Natural Gas Blending for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications

2019-04-25
Abstract In current production natural gas/gasoline bi-fuel vehicles, fuels are supplied via port fuel injection (PFI). Injecting a gaseous fuel in the intake port significantly reduces the volumetric efficiency and consequently torque as compared to gasoline. In addition to eliminating the volumetric efficiency challenge, direct injection (DI) of natural gas (NG) can enhance the in-cylinder flow, mixing, and combustion process resulting in improved efficiency and performance. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach to model high-pressure gaseous injection was developed and validated against X-ray data from Argonne’s Advanced Photon Source. NG side and central DI of various designs and injection strategies were assessed experimentally along with CFD correlation. Significant effects on combustion metrics were quantified and explained via improved understanding of the in-cylinder flow effects due to NG injection.
Journal Article

Landing Response Analysis on High-Performance Aircraft* Using Estimated Touchdown States

2019-04-08
Abstract A novel use of state estimation methods as initial input for a landing response analysis is proposed in this work. Six degrees of freedom (DOF) non-linear landing response model is conceived by considering longitudinal dynamics of aircraft as a rigid body with heave-and-pitch motions coupled onto a bicycle landing gear † arrangement. The DOF for each landing gear consist of vertical and longitudinal motions of un-sprung mass, considering strut bending flexibility. The measurement data for state estimation is obtained for three landing cases using non-linear flight mechanics model interfaced with pilot-in-loop simulation. State estimation methods such as Upper Diagonal Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter (UD-AEKF) with fuzzy-based adaptive tuning and Un-scented Kalman Filter (UKF) were adapted for landing maneuver problem. On the basis of estimation error metrics, aircraft state from UKF is considered during onset of touchdown.
Journal Article

Selection of Reference Flux Linkage for Direct Torque Control Based Induction Motor Drive in Electric Vehicle Applications

2019-04-08
Abstract The surge in economic activities, in the developing nations, has resulted in rapid expansion of urban centres. This expansion of cities has caused a rapid increase in vehicular traffic, which in turn has caused deterioration of air quality. To overcome the problem of unprecedented air pollution, the governments worldwide have framed policies for faster adoption of electric vehicles. One of the major challenges faced is the development of low- cost drive for these vehicles and keeping the imports to a minimum. As a result of this, the trend is to move away from the permanent magnet-based motor technology and to use induction motor-based drivetrain. For the induction motors to be successful in electric vehicle drivetrain application, it is important to have a robust speed control algorithm. This work aims at adapting a direct torque control technique for induction motor’s speed control.
Journal Article

Development of a Learning Capability in Virtual Operator Models

2019-03-14
Abstract This research developed methods for a virtual operator model (VOM) to learn the optimal control inputs for operation of a virtual excavator. Virtual design, used to model, simulate, and test new features, has often been limited by the fidelity of the virtual model of human operators. Human operator learns, over time, the capability, limits, and control characteristics of new vehicles to develop the best strategy to maximize the efficiency of operation. However, VOMs are developed with fixed strategies and for specific vehicle models (VMs) and require time-consuming re-tuning of the VOM for each new vehicle design. Thus, there typically is no capability to optimize strategies, taking account of variation in vehicle capabilities and limitations. A VOM learning capability was developed to optimize control inputs for the swing-to-pile task of a trenching operation. Different control strategies consisted of varied combinations of speed control, position control, and coast.
Journal Article

Fatigue Evaluation of Multi-Degree of Freedom, Frequency Domain, Stochastic, Truck Road Load Models

2019-02-11
Abstract A number of semi-deterministic and stochastic formulations of multi-degree of freedom, frequency domain load models for heavy truck chassis are proposed and evaluated. The semi-deterministic models aim at reproducing the damage of a specific vehicle, while the stochastic ones aim to describe a collection of vehicle loads. The stochastic models are divided into two groups: Monte Carlo based and models based on single spectrum matrices. In both cases, the objective is to provide a load model that may be used to produce a design with a certain probability of survival. The goodness of the models is evaluated through a comparison of their damage outcomes with the corresponding damages of a set of time domain loads. This original time domain load set consists of chassis accelerations collected from seven physical trucks.
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