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Technical Paper

Measurement Approaches for Variable Compression Ratio Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0649
In the ongoing competition of powertrain concepts the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) will also have to demonstrate its potential for increased efficiency [1]. Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Systems for Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) can make an important contribution to meeting stringent global fuel economy and CO2 standards. Using such technology a CO2 reduction of between 5% and 9% in the World Harmonized Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycle (WLTC) are achievable, depending on vehicle class, load profile and power rating [2]. This paper provides a detailed description of the measurement approaches that are used during development of the AVL Dual Mode VCSTM and other VCR systems in fired operation. Results obtained from these measurements are typically used to calibrate or verify simulation models, which themselves are an integral part of the development of these systems [3].
Technical Paper

Increased 2-Wheeler Development Efficiency by Using a New Dedicated Test System Solution

2019-01-09
2019-26-0348
Fuel consumption is the most important contributor to the total cost of ownership for mass produced motorcycles. Therefore, best fuel economy is one main influencing criteria for a decision to purchase motorcycles. Furthermore, increasingly stringent emission legislations limit and additional OBD requirements must be fulfilled. A new combined test approach has been developed that minimizes accuracy losses in the development process which compensates for the variability of driving behavior in the chassis dyno environment. An engine testbed combined with a belt drive transmission enables operation in single engine or in Powerpack (i.e. internal combustion engine including transmission) configuration as well as under steady state or dynamic operating mode. Since the belt drive transmission is integrated in the test rig, realistic inertia situation for the single engine operating test configuration is ensured.
Technical Paper

Experimental Design for Characterization of Force Transmissibility through Bearings in Electric Machines and Transmissions

2018-06-13
2018-01-1473
With the increasing stringent emissions legislation on ICEs, alongside requirements for enhanced fuel efficiency as key driving factors for many OEMs, there are many research activities supported by the automotive industry that focus on the development of hybrid and pure EVs. This change in direction from engine downsizing to the use of electric motors presents many new challenges concerning NVH performance, durability and component life. This paper presents the development of experimental methodology into the measurement of NVH characteristics in these new powertrains, thus characterizing the structure borne noise transmissibility through the shaft and the bearing to the housing. A feasibility study and design of a new system level test rig have been conducted to allow for sinusoidal radial loading of the shaft, which is synchronized with the shaft’s rotary frequency under high-speed transient conditions in order to evaluate the phenomena in the system.
Technical Paper

The Dual Mode VCS Conrod System – Functional Development and Oil Investigations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0878
Variable Compression Systems (VCS) for Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) will become increasingly more important in the future to meet stringent global fuel economy and CO2 standards. A Dual Mode VCS is in development at AVL and the basic functionality and potential were described in a technical paper which was presented at the SAE WCX 2017 [1]. The system is based on a hydraulically switched and locked conrod with telescopic shank. The AVL Dual Mode VCS was designed and virtually optimized with CAE simulation methods for the boundary conditions of a typical 2.0 L Inline (I) 4 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection (TGDI) engine representing state-of-the-art gasoline engine technology for the next years to come.
Technical Paper

Development of New I3 1.0L Turbocharged DI Gasoline Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2424
In recent years, more attentions have been paid to stringent legislations on fuel consumption and emissions. Turbocharged downsized gasoline direct injection (DI) engines are playing an increasing important role in OEM’s powertrain strategies and engine product portfolio. Dongfeng Motor (DFM) has developed a new 1.0 liter 3-cylinder Turbocharged gasoline DI (TGDI) engine (hereinafter referred to as C10TD) to meet the requirements of China 4th stage fuel consumption regulations and the China 6 emission standards. In this paper, the concept of the C10TD engine is explained to meet the powerful performance (torque 190Nm/1500-4500rpm and power 95kW/5500rpm), excellent part-load BSFC and NVH targets to ensure the drivers could enjoy the powerful output in quiet and comfortable environment without concerns about the fuel cost and pollution.
Technical Paper

Novel Shift Control without Clutch Slip in Hybrid Transmissions

2017-03-28
2017-01-1110
With the introduction of new regulations on emissions, fuel efficiency, driving cycles, etc. challenges for the powertrains are significantly increasing. In order to fulfil these regulations, hybrid-electric powertrains are an unquestioned option for short and long-term solutions. Hybridization however, is not only fulfilling these challenging efficiency or emission targets, but also allows numerous new possibilities on control strategies of different powertrain elements as well as new approaches of designing them. A good example is transmissions where, hybridization allows a new transmission type called Dedicated Hybrid Transmission (DHT), which enables to use novel control strategies bringing improved performance, driveability, durability and NVH behavior. This paper focuses on the novel shift strategy where friction clutches do not have to slip.
Technical Paper

The 2-Step VCR Conrod System - Modular System for High Efficiency and Reduced CO2

2017-03-28
2017-01-0634
In order to achieve future CO2 targets - in particular under real driving conditions - different powertrain technologies will have to be introduced. Beside the increasing electrification of the powertrain, it will be essential to utilize the full potential of the internal combustion engine. In addition to further optimization of the combustion processes and the reduction of mechanical losses in the thermal- and energetic systems, the introduction of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) is probably the measure with the highest potential for fuel economy improvement. VCR systems are expected to be introduced to a considerable number of next generation turbocharged Spark Ignited (SI) engines in certain vehicle classes. The basic principle of the AVL VCR system described in this paper is a 2-stage variation of the conrod length and thus the Compression Ratio (CR).
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Modeling of Fuel Injection, Combustion and Emission Formation for Engine Optimization and Calibration on Real-Time Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0558
The present work introduces an innovative mechanistically based 0D spray model which is coupled to a combustion model on the basis of an advanced mixture controlled combustion approach. The model calculates the rate of heat release based on the injection rate profile and the in-cylinder state. The air/fuel distribution in the spray is predicted based on momentum conservation by applying first principles. On the basis of the 2-zone cylinder framework, NOx emissions are calculated by the Zeldovich mechanism. The combustion and emission models are calibrated and validated with a series of dedicated test bed data specifically revealing its capability of describing the impact of variations of EGR, injection timing, and injection pressure. A model based optimization is carried out, aiming at an optimum trade-off between fuel consumption and engine-out emissions. The findings serve to estimate an economic optimum point in the NOx/BSFC trade-off.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Injection and Combustion with Dimethyl Ether

2015-04-14
2015-01-0932
DiMethyl Ether (DME) has been known to be an outstanding fuel for combustion in diesel cycle engines for nearly twenty years. DME has a vapour pressure of approximately 0.5MPa at ambient temperature (293K), thus it requires pressurized fuel systems to keep it in liquid state which are similar to those for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (mixtures of propane and butane). The high vapour pressure of DME permits the possibility to optimize the fuel injection characteristic of direct injection diesel engines in order to achieve a fast evaporation and mixing with the charged gas in the combustion chamber, even at moderate fuel injection pressures. To understand the interrelation between the fuel flow inside the nozzle spray holes tests were carried out using 2D optically accessed nozzles coupled with modelling approaches for the fuel flow, cavitation, evaporation and the gas dynamics of 2-phase (liquid and gas) flows.
Technical Paper

Sound Optimization for Downsized Engines

2014-06-30
2014-01-2040
Today, the number of downsized engines with two or three cylinders is increasing due to an increase in fuel efficiency. However, downsized engines exhibit unbalanced interior sound in the range of their optimal engine speed, largely because of their dominant engine orders. In particular, the sound of two-cylinder engines yields half the perceived engine speed of an equivalent four-cylinder engine at the same engine speed. As a result when driving, the two-cylinder engine would be shifted to higher gears much later, diminishing the expected fuel savings. This contribution presents an active in-car sound generation system that makes a two-cylinder engine sound like the more familiar four-cylinder engine. This is done by active, load-dependent playback of signals extracted from the engine vibration through a shaker mounted on the firewall. A blind test with audio experts indicates a significant reduction of the engine speed when shifting to a higher gear.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Modeling of Fuel Injection and Mixing Controlled Combustion for Real-Time Application In Steady-State and Transient Operation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1095
The present works presents a real-time capable engine model with physical based description of the fuel injection and the combustion process. The model uses a crank-angle resolved cylinder model and a filling and emptying approach for cylinder and gas-path interaction. A common rail injection system model is developed and implemented into the real-time engine framework. The injection model calculates injection quantity and injection rate profile from the input of the ECU signals target injection pressure and injection timing. The model accounts for pressure oscillations in the injection system. A phenomenological combustion model for Diesel engines is implemented, which is based on the mixing controlled combustion modeling approach. The combustion model calculates the rate of heat release from the injection rate given by the injection model. The injection and combustion model are validated in detail against steady-state measurement data for two different passenger car sized engines.
Journal Article

Integrated 1D/2D/3D Simulation of Fuel Injection and Nozzle Cavitation

2013-09-08
2013-24-0006
To promote advanced combustion strategies complying with stringent emission regulations of CI engines, computational models have to accurately predict the injector inner flow and cavitation development in the nozzle. This paper describes a coupled 1D/2D/3D modeling technique for the simulation of fuel flow and nozzle cavitation in diesel injection systems. The new technique comprises 1D fuel flow, 2D multi-body dynamics and 3D modeling of nozzle inner flow using a multi-fluid method. The 1D/2D model of the common rail injector is created with AVL software Boost-Hydsim. The computational mesh including the nozzle sac with spray holes is generated with AVL meshing tool Fame. 3D multi-phase calculations are performed with AVL software FIRE. The co-simulation procedure is controlled by Boost-Hydsim. Initially Hydsim performs a standalone 1D simulation until the needle lift reaches a prescribed tolerance (typically 2 to 5 μm).
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Mixture Formation and Performance in a Direct Injection CNG Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0401
This paper presents the results of part of the research activity carried out by the Politecnico di Torino and AVL List GmbH as part of the European Community InGAS Collaborative Project. The work was aimed at developing a combustion system for a mono-fuel turbocharged CNG engine, with specific focus on performance, fuel economy and emissions. A numerical and experimental analysis of the jet development and mixture formation in an optically accessible, single cylinder engine is presented in the paper. The experimental investigations were performed at the AVL laboratories by means of the planar laser-induced fluorescence technique, and revealed a cycle-to-cycle jet shape variability that depended, amongst others, on the injector characteristics and in-cylinder backpressure. Moreover, the mixing mechanism had to be optimized over a wide range of operating conditions, under both stratified lean and homogeneous stoichiometric modes.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Solutions for Range Extenders - From Concept Considerations to Practical Experiences

2011-06-09
2011-37-0019
For a broad acceptance of electric vehicles, the trade-off between all electric range and battery cost respectively weight represents the most important challenge. The all electric range obtained under real world conditions most often deviates significantly from the nominal value which is measured under idealized conditions. Under extreme conditions - slow traffic and demanding requirements for cabin heating or cooling - the electrical range might become less a question of spatial distance but even more of total operation time. Whereas with conventional powertrain, high flexibility of the total driving range can be obtained without sacrificing cost, with a pure battery vehicle this results in extreme high cost and weight of the energy storage. Therefore the difference between the typical daily driving range (e.g. in Germany 80-90% is below 50 km) and the minimum total range requested by most customers for acceptance of battery vehicles (200- 250 km), becomes essential.
Journal Article

Definition of Gearshift Pattern: Innovative Optimization Procedures Using System Simulation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0395
Today's powertrains are becoming more and more complex due to the increasing number of gear box types requiring gearshift patterns like conventional (equipped with GSI) and automatic-manual transmissions (AT, AMT), double clutch and continuous variable transmissions (DCT, CVT). This increasing variety of gear boxes requires a higher effort for the overall optimization of the powertrain. At the same time, it is necessary to assess the impact of different powertrains and control strategies on CO₂ emissions very early in the development process. The optimization of Gear Shift Patterns (G.S.P.) has to fulfill multiple constraints in terms of objective customers' requirements, like driveability, NVH, performance, emissions and fuel consumption. For these reasons, RENAULT and AVL entered an engineering collaboration in order to develop a dedicated simulation tool: CRUISE GSP.
Journal Article

Simulation Methodology for Consideration of Injection System on Engine Noise Contribution

2010-06-09
2010-01-1410
The target of the investigation is the particular influence of a fuel injection system and its components as a noise source in automotive engines. The applied methodology is demonstrated on an automotive Inline 4-cylinder Diesel engine using a common rail system. This methodology is targeted as an extension of a typical standard acoustic simulation approach for combustion engines. Such approaches basically use multi-body dynamic simulation with interacting FEM based flexible structures, where the main excitation crank train, timing drive, valve train system and piston secondary motion are considered. Within the extended approach the noise excitation of the hydraulic and mechanical parts of the entire fuel system is calculated and subsequently considered within the multi-body dynamic simulation for acoustic evaluation of structural vibrations.
Technical Paper

The Turbocharged GDI Engine: Boosted Synergies for High Fuel Economy Plus Ultra-low Emission

2006-04-03
2006-01-1266
Recent turbocharged Gasoline engines based on MPFI offer excellent power output and high nominal torque, however, also some disadvantages. The most significant restrictions of TC-engines - like poor fuel economy, limited emission capability and delayed transient response (turbo lag) - can be improved dramatically by a refined GDI application. The synergy effects of GDI, which are also partly used at naturally aspirated engines, are even more significant with turbocharging. The low emission capability of GDI enables turbocharged SULEV concepts within moderate cost of the emission / aftertreatment system. The outstanding low-end-torque, the high specific power and torque output of refined GDI-Turbo concepts enable high fuel efficiency combined with excellent fun to drive. Thus such GDI-Turbo concepts will become the most attractive technology to fulfill highest fuel economy-, emission- and performance requirements simultaneously.
Technical Paper

New Fuel Mass Flow Meter - A Modern and Reliable Approach to Continuous and Accurate Fuel Consumption Measurement

2000-03-06
2000-01-1330
Over the past few years, the fuel mass measurement gained in importance to record the consumed fuel mass and the specific fuel consumption [g/kWh] with high accuracy. Measuring instruments, such as positive displacement meters, methods based on the burette or the Wheatstone bridge mass flow meter measure either the volumetric flow and a temperature-dependant fuel density correction is necessary or they have old technology and therefore poor accuracy and repeatability. A new-generation Coriolis sensor featuring an ideal measurement range for engine test beds but still with flow depending pressure drop has been integrated in a fuel meter to ensure that no influence is given to the engine behaviour for example after engine load change. The new Coriolis meter offers better accuracy and repeatability, gas bubble venting and easy test bed integration. For returnless fuel injection systems the fuel system supplies the fuel pressure.
Technical Paper

Key Steps and Methods in the Design and Development of Low Noise Engines

1999-05-17
1999-01-1745
The next generation of automotive engines has to meet 2004 emission limits, ideally with improved fuel economy and with noise emission which is at least 3 dBA below the current status. Using both simulation and experimental analysis these challenging requirements can only be fulfilled by clearly defining all key steps in NVH development and by applying suitable technological methods. The development procedure discussed in this paper is characterised by several aspects: two stage prediction procedure fully integrated in the design process, combustion development with a definite focus on noise, a closed loop between simulation and test bed development and consideration of noise in the calibration of engine and drivetrain management systems. Apart from meeting target noise levels, noise quality is the reference parameter which is continuously evaluated by means of the AVL Annoyance Index.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Emissions and Fuel Economy Requirements on Fuel Injection System and Noise of HD Diesel Engines

1998-02-01
980176
Despite the increasingly stringent emissions legislation, users and owners of commercial diesel vehicles are continually demanding that each new engine generation is more economical than the previous one. This is especially important for commercial vehicles where the majority of engines are in the 1-2ltr./cyl. class. The demands are being reflected in new engine designs with lower friction and improved structural stiffness, together with fuel systems having increased pressure capability, higher spill rates, injection rate shaping and advanced control features. These fuel system requirements have led to a variety of new fuel injection systems and in the search for increased injection pressure these fuel systems have placed greater demands on the engine, especially in areas such as the cylinder head and fuel system drive, sometimes with adverse effects on the combustion and fuel injection system induced mechanical noise.
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