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Technical Paper

Energy Efficiency Impact of Localized Cooling/Heating for Electric Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0352
The present paper reports on a study of the HVAC energy usage for an EREV (extended range electric vehicle) implementation of a localized cooling/heating system. Components in the localized system use thermoelectric (TE) devices to target the occupant's chest, face, lap and foot areas. A novel contact TE seat was integrated into the system. Human subject comfort rides and a thermal manikin in the tunnel were used to establish equivalent comfort for the baseline and localized system. The tunnel test results indicate that, with the localized system, HVAC energy savings of 37% are achieved for cooling conditions (ambient conditions greater than 10 °C) and 38% for heating conditions (ambient conditions less than 10 °C), respectively based on an annualized ambient and vehicle occupancy weighted method. The driving range extension for an electric vehicle was also estimated based on the HVAC energy saving.
Technical Paper

Thermal Comfort Prediction and Validation in a Realistic Vehicle Thermal Environment

2012-04-16
2012-01-0645
The focus of this study is to validate the predictive capability of a recently developed physiology based thermal comfort modeling tool in a realistic thermal environment of a vehicle passenger compartment. Human subject test data for thermal sensation and comfort was obtained in a climatic wind tunnel for a cross-over vehicle in a relatively warm thermal environment including solar load. A CFD/thermal model that simulates the vehicle operating conditions in the tunnel, is used to provide the necessary inputs required by the stand-alone thermal comfort tool. Comparison of the local and the overall thermal sensation and comfort levels between the human subject test and the tool's predictions shows a reasonably good agreement. The next step is to use this modeling technique in designing and developing energy-efficient HVAC systems without compromising thermal comfort of the vehicle occupants.
Technical Paper

Achieving Breakthrough on Manufacturing Floor through Project-Based Organization

2009-10-06
2009-36-0333
Many companies around the world have adopted the lean thinking as their strategy to operate, in a global market where changes happen all the time. One foundation for the success of lean manufacturing appliance is the continuous improvement approach which has been considered even on company statements, or it can be also considered as part of the genetic code of any enterprise. However, if in one side the continuous improvement thinking, set people mind to look for opportunities of improvement all the time, on other hand these improvements are incremental and they do not have significant impact on company performance on both short-term and medium-term and sometimes, the activities performed by the employees are not sustainable due to the lack of structure to manage and follow up these activities.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Vehicle Stability with Engine Drag Control

2002-03-04
2002-01-1217
This paper describes the development and implementation of an Engine Drag Control algorithm to improve vehicle stability performance. Engine drag can occur on low and high coefficient surfaces when the driver suddenly releases the throttle. If the engine drag force becomes larger than the frictional force between the tire and the road, the tires will break loose from the surface and slip. This could induce vehicle instability especially with rear drive vehicles on low-coefficient surfaces. The EDC algorithm has been developed to provide accurate control of the wheels. EDC will help reduce the yaw rate of the vehicle and thus achieve greater vehicle stability. The paper also presents methods used to test the robustness of such a system. The purpose of the testing was to ensure that there would be no false activations of EDC under normal driving conditions and also to ensure that, when the system is active, it is mostly transparent to the driver.
Technical Paper

Development Experience with Steer-by-Wire

2001-08-20
2001-01-2479
Recent advances in dependable embedded system technology, as well as continuing demand for improved handling and passive and active safety improvements, have led vehicle manufacturers and suppliers to actively pursue development programs in computer-controlled, by-wire subsystems. These subsystems include steer-by-wire and brake-by-wire, and are composed of mechanically de-coupled sets of actuators and controllers connected through multiplexed, in-vehicle computer networks; there is no mechanical link to the driver. This paper addresses fundamental benefits and issues of steer-by-wire, especially those related to automated vehicle control and steering feel quality as perceived by the driver.
Technical Paper

Comfort and Usability of the Seat Belts

2001-03-05
2001-01-0051
Seat belts are the primary occupant-protection devices for vehicle crashes. Field statistics show that proper usage of seat belts substantially contributes to decreases in the fatality rate and injury level. To collect first-hand information regarding seat belt comfort and usability, a questionnaire survey was conducted. The most significant problems were found as belt trapping in the door, awkward negotiating with clothes, belt twisting, belt locking up, and difficulty to locate the buckle. The survey results indicated that drivers who are over 40 years old have more complaints than younger drivers. When the driver's age increases to 55 and above, belt pulling force and inappropriate and loose fitting of the belt on the body become major issues. Female drivers have more complaints than male drivers. Short statured drivers need both hands to pull and guide the retracting of the belt.
Technical Paper

US and UK Field Rollover Characteristics

2001-03-05
2001-01-0167
In this study, US and UK accident data were analyzed to identify parameters that may influence rollover propensity to analyze driver injury rate. The US data was obtained from the weighted National Automotive Sampling System (NASS-CDS), calendar years 1992 to 1996. The UK pre-roll data was obtained from the national STATS 19 database for 1996, while the injury information was collected from the Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) database. In the US and UK databases, rollovers accounted for about 10% of all crashes with known crash directions. In the US and UK databases, most rollovers occurred when the vehicle was either going straight ahead or turning. The propensity for a rollover was more than 3 times higher when going around a bend than a non-rollover. In the UK, 74% of rollovers occurred on clear days with no high winds and 14% on rainy days with no high winds. In the US, 83% of rollovers took place in non-adverse weather conditions and 10% with rain.
Technical Paper

Near and Far-Side Adult Front Passenger Kinematics in a Vehicle Rollover

2001-03-05
2001-01-0176
In this study, U.S. accident data was analyzed to determine interior contacts and injuries for front-seated occupants in rollovers. The injury distribution for belted and unbelted, non-ejected drivers and right front passengers (RFP) was assessed for single-event accidents where the leading side of the vehicle rollover was either on the driver or passenger door. Drivers in a roll-left and RFP in roll-right rollovers were defined as near-side occupants, while drivers in roll-right and RFP in roll-left rollovers were defined as far-side occupants. Serious injuries (AIS 3+) were most common to the head and thorax for both the near and far-side occupants. However, serious spinal injuries were more frequent for the far-side occupants, where the source was most often coded as roof, windshield and interior.
Technical Paper

Kansei Engineering Application on Commercial Truck Interior Design Harmony

2000-12-04
2000-01-3412
Vehicle interior harmony has drawn increasing attention from customers in recent years. Kansei Engineering is an effective approach to quantify the relationship between design parameters and customer perceptions of the product. This article is a continuation of our previous study on commercial truck interior harmony. Herein, we investigated the customer perception of the visual aspects of commercial truck door interior design using classification methods. This article describes how these visual impressions are related to design elements using quantification theory, a commonly used method in Kansei Engineering. The results reveal that trim material, shape, color, window shape, and map pocket are design elements that strongly affect the perception of elegance and preferences of truck drivers. The results also showed a significant difference between the perception of the truck drivers and design engineers.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Simulation and Sensor Development for Occupant Protection in Rollover Accidents

2000-11-01
2000-01-C038
Automotive occupant safety continues to evolve. At present this area has gathered a strong consumer interest which the vehicle manufacturers are tapping into with the introduction of many new safety technologies. Initially, individual passive devices and features such as seatbelts, knee- bolsters, structural crush zones, airbags etc., were developed for to help save lives and minimize injuries in accidents. Over the years, preventive measures such as improving visibility, headlights, windshield wipers, tire traction etc., were deployed to help reduce the probability of getting into an accident. With tremendous new research and improvements in electronics, we are at the stage of helping to actively avoid accidents in certain situations as well as providing increased protection to vehicle occupants and pedestrians.
Technical Paper

Dependable E/E System Drivers and Application Issues

2000-11-01
2000-01-C064
Today, electrical/electronic systems like ABS/power brakes and electric power steering are all designed to enhance, not replace a mechanical function. If an electrical or electronic fault occurs, the function reverts to the base mechanical capability. Future E/E systems, such as steer-by-wire and brake-by- wire replace mechanical linkages with electrical or optical signals as in computer networks. While these systems offer many potential safety benefits, they will require different strategies for dependability, and as with any vehicle system, they will further require that dependability be an integral part of the overall E/E system design. This paper illustrates how by-wire systems drive different dependability requirements and discusses some key technologies that are emerging to meet these requirements.
Technical Paper

Delphi Electronic Throttle Control Systems for Model Year 2000;Driver Features, System Security, and OEM Benefits. ETC for the Mass Market

2000-03-06
2000-01-0556
Delphi has developed a second-generation Electronic Throttle Control system optimized for high volume applications. The Delphi system integrates several unique driver performance features, extensive security/diagnostics, and provides significant benefits for the vehicle manufacturer. For Model Year 2000, the Delphi ETC system has been successfully implemented on several popular SUVs and passenger cars built and sold around the world. The ETC driver features, security systems, and manufacturer benefits are presented as implemented on these Model Year 2000 applications.
Technical Paper

The Effectiveness of Adjustable Pedals Usage

2000-03-06
2000-01-0172
This study evaluates the comfort benefits of adjustable pedals by determining their effect on the distance between the occupant and steering wheel, occupant posture and foot kinematics. For the study, 20 volunteers were tested in a small and large vehicle equipped with adjustable pedals. Twenty volunteers were tested in a small and large vehicle at 3 pedal positions: normal, comfortable and maximum tolerable. In the small car, the decrease in ankle-to-steering wheel distance between the normal and comfortable position was higher in the short-statured group than the medium group. The mean change in chest-to-steering wheel distance was about 50 mm in the medium and in the order of 40 mm in the short group. The seatback angle increased by 2° in the medium group and decreased by 3° in the short group. In the large car, the decrease in ankle-to-steering wheel distance between comfortable and the normal position was about 70 mm in the short-statured and medium group.
Technical Paper

Diagnostic Development for an Electric Power Steering System

2000-03-06
2000-01-0819
Electric power steering (EPS) is an advanced steering system that uses an electric motor to provide steering assist. Being a new technology it lacks the extensive operational history of conventional steering systems. Also conventional systems cannot be used to command an output independent of the driver input. In contrast EPS, by means of an electric motor, could be used to do so. As a result EPS systems may have additional failure modes, which need to be studied. In this paper we will consider the requirements for successful EPS operation. The steps required to develop diagnostics based on the requirements are also discussed. The results of this paper have been implemented in various EPS-based programs.
Technical Paper

Driver Injuries in US Single-Event Rollovers

2000-03-06
2000-01-0633
The purpose of this paper is to investigate occupant injuries which may be sustained during a single-event crash with known roll mechanism. The data was obtained from the weighted National Automotive Sampling System/ Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for calendar years 1992 to 1996. The effect of number of rollover turns, roll direction, ejection and belt usage on driver injury responses was analyzed in single-event trip-overs. Trip-overs were chosen for the analysis because they account for over 50% of rollover crashes. The number of rollovers was divided in 3 categories: ¼ to ½ turn, ¾ to 1 turn and above 1 turn. Roll direction was either roll-left or a rollright along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. Roll-left represents a roll with the driver side leading, while a roll right is with the right front passenger side leading. In the database used in this study, there were three times more belted drivers than unbelted.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Approach to Automotive Safety Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-0346
The industry strategy for automotive safety systems has been evolving over the last 20 years. Initially, individual passive devices and features such as seatbelts, airbags, knee bolsters, crush zones, etc. were developed for saving lives and minimizing injuries when an accident occurs. Later, preventive measures such as improving visibility, headlights, windshield wipers, tire traction, etc. were deployed to reduce the probability of getting into an accident. Now we are at the stage of actively avoiding accidents as well as providing maximum protection to the vehicle occupants and even pedestrians. Systems that are on the threshold of being deployed or under intense development include collision detection / warning / intervention systems, lane departure warning, drowsy driver detection, and advanced safety interiors.
Technical Paper

A Madymo Model of the Foot and Leg for Local Impacts

1999-10-10
99SC12
It has been reported that lower extremity injuries represent a measurable portion of all moderate-to-severe automobile crash- related injuries. Thus, a simple tool to assist with the design of leg and foot injury countermeasures is desirable. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model which can predict load propagation and kinematics of the foot and leg in frontal automotive impacts. A multi-body model developed at the University of Virginia and validated for blunt impact to the whole foot has been used as basis for the current work. This model includes representations of the tibia, fibula, talus, hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot bones. Additionally, the model provides a means for tensioning the Achilles tendon. In the current study, the simulations conducted correspond to tests performed by the Transport Research Laboratory and the University of Nottingham on knee-amputated cadaver specimens.
Technical Paper

Sensory Evaluation of Commercial Truck Interiors

1999-03-01
1999-01-1267
Vehicle interior harmony is related to human factors but it deals with human emotional attachment to the product. Kansei, or sensory engineering provides an effective approach to address harmony issues. This paper reports a preliminary investigation of human sensory evaluation of commercial truck interiors, especially the door interiors. To investigate the end users' needs and preference, a questionnaire survey was administered to twenty-six commercial truck drivers. Responses on usability, styling, harmony, and ergonomics issues of each driver's own truck were recorded. Furthermore, a set of 12 semantic differential scales, together with a preference ranking scale, was served to evaluate six truck door interiors. Results show that commercial truck drivers are more concerned with functionality and usability than styling and visual harmony.
Technical Paper

US and UK Belted Driver Injuries with and without Airbag Deployments - A Field Data Analysis

1999-03-01
1999-01-0633
This study compares the effect of US and European airbag deployments on injury outcomes for belted drivers in frontal crashes. Driver weight, height and seat track position was also examined in relation to those outcomes. This information may help to prioritize and guide the logic for “Smart” airbags. For the study, only airbag-equipped cars were considered. Two accident databases were used: 1) the weighted and unweighted National Accident Sampling System (NASS-CDS) from the US, calendar years 1995 to 1996, and 2) the unweighted Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) from the UK, calendar years 1992 to 1998. The parameters investigated were Injury Severity Score (ISS), Equivalent Test Speed (ETS), occupant weight, occupant height and seat location. For US drivers, the injury rate and occurrence were calculated using weighted data, while for UK drivers, the rate and occurrence were obtained using unweighted data.
Technical Paper

Concept to Production: Continuous Surface Keypad Switch

1999-03-01
1999-01-0413
The objective of this paper is to impart the challenges presented and the solutions derived to transform an artist's rendering into a production driver's door switch to be used in the interior of a high profile sports car. The challenges took many forms throughout the process, from data translation and packaging, to the final decorative issues. The results are a finished product providing a new approach to automotive interior switch design. It incorporates a low profile, continuous plane keypad with “soft touch” feel, tactile feedback, and integrated back lighting.
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