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Journal Article

Control of the Diesel Combustion Process via Advanced Closed Loop Combustion Control and a Flexible Injection Rate Shaping Tool

The presented paper deals with the set-up and performance of a newly developed control system as well as with achieved engine results. This control system is able to control the entire cylinder pressure trace by using a flexible rate shaping injector and iterative learning control (ILC). Standard thermodynamic cycles, like isobaric and Seiliger cycles, and a newly suggested class of cycles are generated and analyzed on a single cylinder engine. With this control system an extremely flexible tool for optimization of combustion processes is available to exploit the full potential of injection rate- shaping on diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Potential of Modern Diesel Engines with Lowest Raw Emissions - a Key Factor for Future CO2 Reduction

The high-speed Dl-diesel engine has made a significant advance since the beginning of the 90's in the Western European passenger car market. Apart from the traditional advantage in fuel economy, further factors contributing to this success have been significantly improved performance and power density, as well as the permanent progress made in acoustics and comfort. In addition to the efforts to improve efficiency of automotive powertrains, the requirement for cleaner air increases through the continuous worldwide restriction of emissions by legislative regulations for diesel engines. Against the backdrop of global climate change, significant reduction of CO2 is observed. Hence, for the future, engine and vehicle concepts are needed, that, while maintaining the well-established attractive market attributes, compare more favorably with regard to fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Combustion with Future Fuels

This paper describes the demands and potentials of current and future gasoline combustion systems regarding the fuels gasoline, natural gas, and Hydrogen. At first, fuel specifications that are crucial for the spark ignition process are compared. These are compared with the requirements of the combustion system. Potentials for the compensation of power loss, efficiency improvement and emission reduction using alternative fuels are discussed taking into account fuel-specific properties. While full load drawbacks with natural gas compared with gasoline can be reduced to less than 5% by combustion system tuning, Hydrogen operation with port injection leads to reductions of about 25 to 30%. These drawbacks can be compensated with boosting where both methane and Hydrogen are qualified due to their burning characteristics. Compared with λ=1 operation especially Hydrogen offers efficiency benefits of up to 30% in a wide mapping range due to quality control.
Technical Paper

U.S. 2007 - Which Way to Go? Possible Technical Solutions

The exhaust emissions standards for heavy-duty (HD) truck engines in the U.S. are facing a severe reduction of both PM and NOx emission in the year 2007, making extensive exhaust aftertreatment inevitable. Although the final emission limit values for NOx (0.20 g/bhp-hr) and NMHC (0.14 g/bhp-hr) will see a phase-in between 2007 and 2010, the PM emission limits of 0.01 g/bhp-hr will already take full effect in 2007. Engine-out emissions in the range of EURO 5 / U.S. 2002/04 will be achievable through internal measures as described in this paper. To fulfill U.S. 2007 limits, a diesel particulate filter will be necessary. The final limits taking effect in 2010 will only be fulfilled through application of NOx and particulate aftertreatment. To achieve the low engine-out emission levels, this paper will focus on both internal measures (high-EGR combustion systems and partial homogenization) and external aftertreatment systems.