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Technical Paper

Direct Coating Technology for Metallic Paint Replacement

2019-04-02
2019-01-0186
Direct Coating is a new processing technique which applies a single-layer polyurethane coating directly to a plastic part within a 2-shot molding cycle. The advantages of Direct Coating over traditional paint are improved surface quality, scratch resistance, and cost-effective processing. This concept has been previously showcased in high-gloss piano black with the simple geometry of the exterior door garnish. In this paper, the capabilities of Direct Coating are expanded to include metallic pigments and complex geometries for interior trim. For this development project, the Hyundai Sonata center fascia was selected as the target application due to the complex flow geometry around the bezel, and the high occurrence of customer contact, necessitating scratch and chemical resistance. Results of plaque-level testing showed that the coating material passed all requirements, including interior chemical resistance and scratch resistance.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Slot Disc Shape for Improving Brake Fade Performance

2018-10-05
2018-01-1883
Due to improvements in vehicle powertrain performance, friction material fade performance is becoming an important topic. For this reason, needs for studies to improve thermal characteristics of the brake system is increasing. Methods for improving the fade characteristics have several ways to improve the thermal characteristic of friction materials and increase disc capacity. However, increasing disc capacity(size) have some risk of weight and cost rise, and friction factor improvements in friction material tend to cause other problems, such as increasing squeal wire brush noise and increasing metal pick up on disc surface. Therefore, a slot disc study is needed to overcome the problems discussed previously. Currently, there is few research history for slot disc related to fade and metal pickup improvements.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Disc Scoring Generation Principle and Reduction (II)

2018-10-05
2018-01-1891
In the latest paper [10], we presented our work based on experiments studying MPU (Metal Pick Up) of the pad and scoring(scratching) of the disc. The main component of MPU was iron “Fe”. If the roughness of the disc was small, the content of iron “Fe” was increased and the segregation of that was decreased especially in initial condition. In this study, we extended our study based on the results by adding some additional factors such as the location of the roughness of the disc, the coefficients brake pad friction, and disc slots. We made various discs of different roughness boundaries and slots, and pads of pad friction coefficients; and conducted two types of tests for whether a slot is present or not with the other same conditions to confirm the impact of the scoring. We find and believe that our experimental data should serve a useful guideline for reducing MPU of the pad and scoring of the disc.
Technical Paper

An Application of Acoustic Metamaterial for Reducing Noise Transfer through Car Body Panels

2018-06-13
2018-01-1566
This paper presents the design of an additional structure based on acoustic metamaterial (AMM) for the reduction of vibro-acoustic transfer function of a car body panel. As vehicles are lighter and those engine forces are bigger recently, it has become more difficult to reduce the vibration and noise transfer through body panels by using just conventional NVH countermeasures. In this research, a new approach based on AMM is tried to reduce the vibration and noise transfer of a firewall panel. First, a unit cell structure based on the locally resonant metamaterial is devised and the unit cell’s design variables are studied to increase the wave attenuation in the stop band of a dispersion curve, where the Floquet-Bloch theorem is used to estimate the dispersion curve of a two-dimensional periodic structure. Also, the vibration transfer and the vibro-acoustic transfer are predicted in a FE model of meta-plate which is composed of a periodic system of the devised unit cell.
Technical Paper

Research on Stick & Sprag-Slip Phenomenon of Door Waist Belts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0674
The squeak noise generated during the moving of the door glass has a influence on the performance of vehicles felt by the consumer. In order to improve the noise, it is necessary to understand the principle of a friction vibration. In this paper, it is confirmed that the principle on the waist belt is most closely related to stick-slip and sprag-slip among various vibration characteristics. Stick-slip is expressed by energy accumulation and divergence due to difference in static and dynamic friction coefficient. Sprag-slip define instability of geometric structure due to angle of lips on the belt. In this paper, the physical model and the energy equation are established for the above two phenomena. Stick-slip can be solved by decreasing the difference of the static and dynamic friction coefficient. Sprag-slip is caused by the ratio of compressive and shear stiffness of the lips. The belt uses flocking to ensure durability, not coating.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Voice Recognition Performance in Response to Background Noise and Gender Based Frequency

2017-06-05
2017-01-1888
Voice Recognition (VR) systems have become an integral part of the infotainment systems in the current automotive industry. However, its recognition rate is impacted by external factors such as vehicle cabin noise, road noise, and internal factors which are a function of the voice engine in the system itself. This paper analyzes the VR performance under the effect of two external factors, vehicle cabin noise and the speakers’ speech patterns based on gender. It also compares performance of mid-level sedans from different manufacturers.
Technical Paper

The Root Cause Analysis of Steel Fuel Tank Cracking at a Fatigue Point and Test Method Development of Durability

2017-03-28
2017-01-0393
Fuel tank in vehicle must hold the fuel in a stable way under any driving condition. However, the fuel tank might not conserve the fuel firmly in case a crack emerged while the fuel tank is exposed to different driving condition. Basically, when the engine is in purging at a normal ambient temperature before fuel boiling, the pressure inside the fuel tank decreases. However, the pressure inside a fuel tank increases while a vehicle is driven at extreme hot ambient temperature as fuel is boiling. This repetitive pressure change in the fuel tank comes with fuel tank’s physical expansion and shrink, which would cause a damage to the fuel tank. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the root cause of why fuel tank cracks at a fatigue point. We also aim to set up the method of how to test durability of the fuel tank in association with the pressure inside the tank.
Technical Paper

Bio-Based Composites and Their Applications for Auto Interior Parts

2016-04-05
2016-01-0512
Polylactide (PLA), which is one of the most important biocompatible polyesters that are derived from annually renewable biomass such as corn and sugar beets, has attracted much attention for automotive parts application. The manufacturing method of PLA is the ring-opening polymerization of the dimeric cyclic ester of lactic acid, lactide. For the PLA composites including stereocomplexed with L- and D-PLA, we developed the unit processes such as fermentation, separation, lactide conversion, and polymerization. We investigated D-lactic acid fermentation with a view to obtaining the strains capable of producing D-lactic acid, and through catalyst screening test for polycondensation and depolymerization reactions, we got a new method which shortens the whole reaction time of lactide synthesis step. Poly(d-lactide) is obtained from the ring-opening polymerization of d-lactide. Also we investigated several catalysts and polymerization conditions.
Technical Paper

A Case Study: Application of Analytical and Numerical Techniques to Squeak and Rattle Analysis of a Door Assembly

2015-06-15
2015-01-2257
Squeak and rattle (S&R) problems in body structure and trim parts have become serious issues for automakers because of their influence on the initial quality perception of consumers. In this study, various CAE and experimental methods developed by Hyundai Motors for squeak and rattle analysis of door systems are reported. Friction-induced vibration and noise generation mechanisms of a door system are studied by an intelligent combination of experimental and numerical methods. It is shown that the effect of degradation of plastics used in door trims can be estimated by a numerical model using the properties obtained experimentally. Effects of changes in material properties such as Young's modulus and loss factor due to the material degradation as well as statistical variations are predicted for several door system configurations. As a new concept, the rattle and squeak index is proposed, which can be used to guide the design.
Technical Paper

A Study of Fuel Economy Improvement on US Fuel Economy Test Cycle by Model Based Cooled HP EGR System and Robust Logic through S-FMEA

2015-04-14
2015-01-1637
This paper focuses on the vehicle test result of the US fuel economy test cycles such as FTP75, HWY and US06 with model based Cooled EGR system. Cooled EGR SW function was realized by Model Based Development (internal rapid prototyping) using iRPT tool. With EGR, mixing exhaust gas with clean air reduces the oxygen concentration in the cylinder charge, as a result, the combustion process is slowed, and the combustion temperature drops. This experiment confirmed that the spark timing was more advanced without knocking and manifold pressure was increased in all cases with EGR. A positive potential of fuel economy improvement on FTP mode, US06 mode have seen in this experiment but not for HWY where the engine load is quite low and the spark advance is already optimized. As a result, fuel economy was increased by maximum 3.3% on FTP, 2.7% on US06, decreased by 0.3% on HWY mode respectively with EGR.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Manufacturing and Evaluation Technology for the Light Weight Brake Disc Composed of Hybrid Type Material

2014-04-01
2014-01-1009
Reducing unsprung mass of the car is a representative method to enhance the ride & handling performance and fuel efficiency. In this study, brake disc weight is reduced 15∼20% using a hybrid type material. The basis for this study is the separation of the friction surface and HAT(mounting part). Aluminum material is applied in the HAT for a light weight effect. Gray iron is applied in the friction surface section to maintain braking performance. Two types of joining between aluminum and cast iron are developed. One is the aluminum casting method utilizing a gray iron insert and the other is a bolted assembly method. Detailed structure, process and material are optimized using try-out & dynamometer experiments. The Reliability of this development is proved through durability (dynamometer and vehicle) testing.
Technical Paper

Material NVH Convergence Technology for a Plastic Intercooler Pipe

2014-04-01
2014-01-1040
The main contribution of this paper is to employ a sound and vibration theory in order to develop a light and cost effective plastic intercooler pipe. The intercooler pipe was composed of two rubber hoses and one aluminum pipe mounted between an ACV (Air Control Valve) and an intercooler outlet. The engineering design concept is to incorporate low-vibration type bellows and an impedance-mismatched center pipe, which replaces the rubber hoses and aluminum pipe respectively. The bellows were designed to adapt powertrain movement for high vibration transmission loss to the intercooler outlet. Also, the impedance-mismatched center pipe was implemented to increase reflected wave by using relatively higher modulus than bellows part and applying a SeCo (Sequential Coextrusion) processing method.
Technical Paper

Design for NVH Performance and Weight Reduction in Plastic Timing Chain Cover Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-1043
Light weighting is a critical objective in the automotive industry to improve fuel efficiency. But when redesigning parts for light weight, by changing from metal to plastic, the resulting design gives NVH issues due to differences in part mass and material stiffness. Many parts were not converted from metal to plastic because of NVH issues that could not be solved. Many engine parts such as cylinder head cover, air intake manifold, oil pan and etc. previously made of metal have since long been replaced with plastic. But timing chain cover has not been replaced because of the aforementioned issue. Sealing performance due to the dynamic characteristics of the application is another challenging factor. In this paper, the key aspects of the plastic timing chain cover as well as its advantage are presented.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lightweight CFRP Coil Spring

2014-04-01
2014-01-1057
Today, all manufacturers of vehicles are up for the challenge to abide in automobile emission control laws. Weight reduction is one of the best solutions to reduce both fuel consumption and emissions. The most effective method for the said idea is to have lightweight materials to some parts of vehicle using the FRP(Fiber Reinforced Plastics). In order to obtain good mechanical properties of FRP, continuous fiber should be used. But it is difficult to design and manufacture FRP parts using continuous fiber because of material properties and molding process. In this paper, it is used CF(carbon Fiber) and Epoxy to make a composite material. Properties of this CFRP can be predicted through analysis. Tests and simulations of specimen are performed as every step progresses for correlation. A spring can be designed to meet all requirements for specific performance. The CFRP spring is made by new devices and methods and can be applied to vehicle for practical use.
Technical Paper

Development of Valvetrain System to Improve Knock Characteristics for Gasoline Engine Fuel Economy

2014-04-01
2014-01-1639
It is difficult to reach higher compression ratios of the gasoline engine even though higher compression ratios improve thermal efficiency. One of the barriers is large torque drop led by knocking. Extensive researches to suppress knocking of the gasoline engine have been conducted. It is focused on lowering the temperature of fuel mixture in combustion chamber at compression top dead center (TDC). This paper covers the new valvetrain system to decrease the temperature of exhaust valve bottom (combustion) side. Hollow head and stem sodium filled valve (HHSV) have shown more heat transfer from combustion chamber to valve seat insert and valve guide, and higher thermal conductivity valve seat insert (HVSI) and valve guide (HVG) help to decrease valve temperature lower by higher heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Improved Cyclic Performances of Li-Sulfur Batteries with Sulfone-Based Electrolyte

2014-04-01
2014-01-1844
The effects of electrolyte on the cyclability of Li/S battery were investigated in this work. The electrochemical properties of single component ether solvents and a binary mixture of ether solvents were studied. These ether-based electrolytes have polysulfide shuttle problems which result in severe low Coulombic efficiency. To overcome these issues, sulfone-based solvent which forms a stable passivation film at the anode surface were used. As a result, the proper composition of sulfone-based electrolyte were obtained. Its capacity and reversible capacity retention were improved to 715 mAh/g and 72.6% which were increased by 52.1% and 63.1%, respectively, compared to those of ether-based electrolyte.
Journal Article

Development of Virtual Road Wheel Input Forces for Belgian Ground

2014-04-01
2014-01-0381
Numerical durability analysis is the only approach that can be used to assess the durability of vehicles in early stages of development. In these stages, where there are no physical prototypes available, the road wheel forces (or spindle forces) for durability testing on Belgian PG (Proving Ground) must be predicted by VPG (Virtual Proving Ground) or derived from the measured forces of predecessor vehicles. In addition, the tuning parts and geometry are not fixed at these stages. This results in the variation of spindle forces during the development stages. Therefore, it is not reasonable to choose the forces predicted at a specific tuning condition as standard forces. It is more reasonable to determine the standard forces stochastically using the DB of the measured forces of predecessor vehicles. The spindle forces measured or predicted on Belgian PG are typically stationary random.
Technical Paper

Development of Eco-Driving Guide System

2011-10-06
2011-28-0034
The Eco-driving indicator is a colored lamp on a cluster to lead a driver to smoothen acceleration of a vehicle. Informed by the indicator, a driver learns how deep to push a gas pedal for a better fuel economy. The Eco-driving guide system outputs a vehicle fuel efficient state by the Eco-driving indicator. It is based on BSFC map, engine torque map, A/T shift pattern data, engine operation status and transmission operating status. With the Eco-driving guide system, vehicle fuel efficiency can be improved by 4∼26%.
Technical Paper

Active Type Variable Intake System

2011-10-06
2011-28-0088
In this paper, an active type variable intake system is proposed, which improves both engine power and NVH performance. The proposed system uses a magnet valve to control the air path to the engine intake manifold. While other types of variable intake system such as vacuum actuator type or DC motor type need an ECU to control the valve, the proposed system only uses force equilibrium between magnetic force and vacuum pressure, resulting in weight and cost reduction. The system is composed of dual duct (duct A, duct B) and a magnet valve. In low RPM region, the magnet valve is closed and only duct A is used to supply air into the engine. In high RPM region the valve opens up and maximizes the amount of the air that goes into the engine intake manifold. The result is that the output power of the engine is maximized in high RPM region, as well as the NVH performance is improved in low RPM region.
Technical Paper

Development of Cast-Forged Knuckle using High Strength Aluminum Alloy

2011-04-12
2011-01-0537
Aluminum steering knuckles are widely employed for weight reduction and improvement of ride & handling performance. In this study, a high strength aluminum alloy for cast-forged knuckle was designed to achieve higher mechanical properties than those of the conventional foundry alloy. Using this alloy, high strength knuckles were manufactured and performed test of mechanical properties, suspension module strength and durability. The strength and the elongation of the developed knuckle were increased by 20% and 40%, respectively, as compared with the conventional alloy. Also this knuckle passed the static strength and durability test of the front suspension module.
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