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Technical Paper

Next Generation Diblock Viscosity Modifier for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Lubricants

An unprecedented global focus on the environment and greenhouse gases has driven recent government regulations on automotive emissions across the globe. To achieve this improvement, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have advocated a progressive move towards the use of low viscosity grade oils. However, the use of lower viscosity grades should not compromise engine durability or wear protection. Viscosity modifiers (VM) - polymeric additive components used to tailor the lubricant’s viscometric properties - have been viewed as a key enabler for achieving the desirable balance between fuel economy and engine durability performance. Self-assembling diblock copolymers represent a unique class of VMs, which deliver superior shear stability due to their tunable association/dissociation in the lubricating oil. Superior shear stability ensures that the oil viscosity and its ability to offer reliable engine protection from wear is retained over the life of the oil in the engine.
Journal Article

Controlling Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Modern Automotive Equipment Part 3: Identification of Key Additive Component Types and Other Lubricant Composition Effects on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition

Market demand and evolving global legislation are forcing OEMs to improve fuel consumption and reduce CO2 emissions. Downsizing in direct injection gasoline engines has been a common strategy towards achieving this goal, but this requires increased boost pressures to maintain power. The increased boost pressures are creating a new abnormal combustion phenomenon known as Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). Lubricants and fuels have been implicated as significant influencers of LSPI frequency and intensity. Part 1 of the series described the development of a statistical approach for measuring and quantifying LSPI activity. This statistical approach was shown to be consistent and repeatable. Part 2 of the series further refined the methodology from Part 1 to reduce the frequency of false positives and negatives. A baseline lubricant was used in both of these papers to demonstrate the robustness of this methodology.
Technical Paper

Controlling Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Modern Automotive Equipment: Defining Approaches to and Methods for Analyzing Data in New Studies of Lubricant and Fuel-Related Effects (Part 2)

In recent years, an abnormal combustion phenomenon called low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) has arisen from the downsizing of gasoline engines in order to improve fuel economy and comply with global CO2 legislation. The type and quality of the fuel and lubricant has been found to influence LSPI occurrence rates. A methodology for studying LSPI has been implemented, and a rigorous statistical approach for studying the data from a stationary engine test can provide consistent results as shown in Part 1 of the series. LSPI events can be determined by an iterative statistical procedure based on calculating the mean and standard deviation of peak pressure (PP) and crank angle location of 2% mass fraction burned (MFB02) data, determining cycles with parameters which exceeded n standard deviations from the mean and identifying outliers. Outliers for the PP and MFB02 metrics are identified as possible LSPI events.
Technical Paper

Additive Technology for Superior and Unique Motorcycle Oil (SUMO)

In a market survey conducted in 2010 on major South East Asian cities, motorcycle users identified some of the most valued oil features being clutch friction, durability and engine cleanliness. In the fast growing motorcycle markets of Asia where motorcycles are used mainly for daily transportation needs, there are enormous opportunities for motorcycle oils delivering differentiated attributes that provide superior reliability to the end users. It was with this market perspective that this new additive technology was developed. The additive technology was developed based on a unique set of components and formulation approach to meet the lubrication challenges of motorcycles, particularly its high shear and temperature conditions. In a forward-looking standpoint, the development was aligned to the current energy conservation and environmental trends in the personal mobility oil segment.
Technical Paper

Measuring Fuel Efficiency in Various Driving Cycles: How to Get Maximum Fuel Economy Improvement from the Lubricant

Increasing vehicle efficiency has been one of the key drivers of the automotive industry worldwide due to new government emission legislations and rising fuel costs. While original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are responding with innovative hardware designs for new models, lubricant companies are developing additive solutions to reduce frictional losses in the engine thereby increasing fuel economy of both new and existing vehicles. Fuel efficiency of the vehicle can be measured in a variety of driving cycles, including the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), Japanese JC-08, and FTP-75 (Federal Test Procedure). The type of vehicle used in fuel economy evaluation in the same cycle plays a significant role. Fuel consumption rates for the same vehicle measured in these driving cycles vary due to the differences in the cycles. Thus, to assess the effect of the lubricant on fuel efficiency in various cycles, the fuel consumption is measured relative to a reference oil.
Journal Article

Field and Bench Study of Shear Stability of Heavy Duty Diesel Lubricants

Global environmental and economic concerns of today's world dictate strict requirements for modern heavy duty engines, especially in emissions, noise control, power generation, and extended oil drain intervals. These requirements lead to increased stresses imposed on lubricants in modern heavy duty engines. At the same time, the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) desire additional fuel economy from the lubricating oil, requiring the use of lower viscosity lubricants to minimize frictional losses in the engine. These lower viscosity oils are subjected to increased stresses in the engine and need to provide robust performance throughout their lifetime in order to protect engine parts from wear and damage. One of the most important lubricant qualities is to maintain viscosity throughout the drain interval and thus provide continuous engine protection.
Technical Paper

Understanding Lubricant Requirements of Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

Innovation of Hybrid-Electrical Vehicles (HEV) has led to consumer demand for their fuel efficiency and emissions benefits among a growing segment of the population. An HEV is driven by a combination of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A distinguishing feature of the HEV is the ability to turn off the IC engine when the power available from the electrical system exceeds that required to propel the vehicle. This results in net cooler operating temperatures of the IC engine and more frequent starts of the engine. This research program was initiated to determine if the HEVs have any special lubrication requirements relative to those used in non-hybrid variety, and to look for opportunities to develop lubricant systems specifically tailored for such vehicles.
Journal Article

The Effect of Low Viscosity Oil on the Wear, Friction and Fuel Consumption of a Heavy Duty Truck Engine

This paper describes the results of a series of tests on a heavy-duty truck diesel engine using conventional and low viscosity lubricants. The objectives were to explore the impact of reducing lubricant viscosity on wear, friction and fuel consumption. The radiotracing Thin Layer Activation method was used to make on-line measurements of wear at the cylinder liner, top piston ring, connecting rod small end bush and intake cam lobe. The engine was operated under a wide range of conditions (load, speed and temperature) and with lubricants of several different viscosity grades. Results indicate the relationship between lubricant viscosity and wear at four critical locations. Wear at other locations was assessed by analysis of wear metals and post test inspection. The fuel consumption was then measured on the same engine with the same lubricants. Results indicate the relationship between oil viscosity and fuel consumption under a wide range of operating conditions.
Journal Article

FAME Filterability: Understanding and Solutions

The introduction of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) into the diesel pool has led to an increase in the incidence of diesel fuel filter blocking. In contrast to conventional diesel, filter blocking events can occur above a fuel's Cloud Point (CP). It has been shown that this phenomenon is due to trace levels of impurities carried over from the original oil source into the final fuel. The two species identified as being the main cause of the filtration problems are saturated monoglycerides (sMG) and sterol glucosides (SG). Reported in this paper is an extensive study completed to understand the impact that these impurities have on the filterability of FAME and FAME containing fuels. This has been investigated using laboratory based filterability tests that incorporate a specific cold soak and the critical contaminant levels causing failure have been determined.
Technical Paper

Development of New CNG-Gasoline (Bi-fuel) Lubricant, by Taxi Fleet Screening Test and Field Trial in Thailand

An internal combustion engine operating on compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel is usually under higher thermal stress compared to the same engine using gasoline fuel. This leads to various concerns on the operation of CNG engine and the performance of the lubricant, such increased wear, accelerated total base number depletion, and faster deterioration of the lubricant. Engine oil intended for compressed natural gas (CNG)-gasoline bi-fuel passenger car application must therefore be formulated to withstand the varied and often severe operating conditions, as well as maintain superior lubrication control and prolong engine life. PTT Public Company Limited (PTT) has developed a new CNG-gasoline lubricant meeting API SN/GF-5 performance category that is able to address the various operating concerns of bi-fuel passenger car engines, and at the same time provides extended oil drain interval (ODI) capability.
Journal Article

Extending SAE J300 to Viscosity Grades below SAE 20

The SAE Engine Oil Viscosity Classification (EOVC) Task Force has been gathering data in consideration of extending SAE J300 to include engine oils with high temperature, high shear rate (HTHS) viscosity below the current minimum of 2.6 mPa⋅s for the SAE 20 grade. The driving force for doing so is fuel economy, although it is widely recognized that hardware durability can suffer if HTHS viscosity is too low. Several Japanese OEMs have expressed interest in revising SAE J300 to allow official designation of an engine oil viscosity category with HTHS viscosity below 2.6 mPa⋅s to enable the development of ultra-low-friction engines in the future. This paper summarizes the work of the SAE EOVC Low Viscosity Grade Working Group comprising members from OEMs, oil companies, additive companies and instrument manufacturers to explore adoption of one or more new viscosity grades.
Technical Paper

Studies on the Interchangeability of Group III Base Oils in ATF

We have compared five different, commercially produced, API Group III base oils in a next-generation, OEM automatic transmission fluid (ATF) formulation. One objective of this work is to understand the impact of base oil selection on the performance properties of finished ATF. This may help us to develop technically sound criteria for allowing interchange among premium Group III base oils in both factory-fill and service-fill ATFs. The performance data, measured from lab bench tests, include such properties as seal swell, low temperature viscometrics, oxidation life, and LVFA static and dynamic friction. Certain properties of the base oils, such as low temperature viscosity and oxidation stability, have a strong impact on the ATF performance. However, there are many chemical similarities between the Group III base oils, and this results in little to no differences observed in many performance areas.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of SAE 0W-20 GF-4 Prototype Formulation in Severe Taxi Fleet Service

This paper reviews the relative performance of prototype SAE 0W-20 and SAE 5W-20 ILSAC GF-4 [1, 2] mineral oils in severe taxi fleet service. Both oils contained the same additive technology, formulated to 0.05% mass Phosphorus. This level was targeted to gain field experience with oils formulated to meet proposed chemical limits for the ILSAC GF-4 specification [1, 2]. Though the limits in the final ILSAC GF-4 specification were increased to 0.08% mass Phosphorus, the 0.05% mass Phosphorus maximum is again proposed for the ILSAC GF-5 specification [3]. Used oil Chemical and Physical analysis was carried out at both interim and final drains (10,000 miles). Oil and fuel consumption were also monitored during the test. After a total mileage accumulation of 100,000 miles per vehicle, engine teardowns and physical ratings were performed on key engine components. It was concluded the performance of both lubricants was equivalent and acceptable.
Technical Paper

Development of Mini-Rotary Viscometer Measurement Techniques for Highly Sooted Diesel Engine Oils

In 1999 the ASTM Low Temperature Rheology of Used Engine Oils or LOTRUO task force was formed within Subcommittee D02.07 to address potential method and measurement issues for low temperature rheological determinations of used engine oils. A primary focus of this task force was to assist the heavy duty engine oil classification panel which was developing the new PC-9 category, to include a used oil pumpability specification from one of the new multicylinder EGR diesel engine tests. With anticipated soot loadings of 5-10% in some of these used oils, there was concern that standard ASTM test methods developed for fresh oil pumpability might not be suitable for these sooted oils. The task force conducted some preliminary work on a used Mack T8E test sample of approximately 5% soot loading. These data indicated that variation in preheating conditions could have significant influence on the low temperature properties measured by standard procedures.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Evolving Automatic Transmission Fluid Specifications on Base Oil Selection

Automatic transmission fluid (ATF) performance is determined by the choice of lubricant basestocks and additives used to formulate the fluid. The lubricant basestocks employed set the fundamental low temperature capabilities and resistance to oxidation of the fluid. Over the last decade, ATF specifications issued by the major North American transmission builders have required significant improvements in low temperature fluidity and oxidation stability. These required improvements have begun to limit the number of basestocks capable of producing suitable fluids. The practical impact of this evolution is that API Group I basestocks are rapidly becoming incapable of producing the new generation of ATFs. Recently issued, and proposed, specifications will clearly continue this trend. Future ATF formulations may well be forced to move to API Group II, Group III and/or synthetic base fluids to meet these increasing performance requirements.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Operability Limits of Late Model Heavy Duty Diesel Trucks and the Effect Operability Additives and Changes to the Fuel Delivery System Have on Low Temperature Performance

Engine manufacturers have raised concerns at recent industry meetings regarding the effect that 2 mm porosity filters will have on low temperature operability. An All Weather Chassis Dynamometer (AWCD) program was carried out to address this concern and to extend our general knowledge of low temperature additive performance in 1998/9 model year Heavy Duty Trucks. Known laboratory tests were also evaluated as to their ability to predict vehicle performance. Four trucks equipped with Cummins M11, Detroit Diesel Series 60, Caterpillar C12 (Southern), and Caterpillar C12 (Northern) engines were leased and fitted appropriately to measure their performance under low temperature conditions using Imperial Oil's AWCD in Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. Commercial Low Sulfur No. 2 and Low Sulfur No. 1 diesel fuels were purchased, and a series of blends were prepared representing fuels that would typically be sold during the winter.