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Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Study of the Flow around a Stationary and Rotating Isolated Wheel and the Influence of a Moving Ground Plane

2019-04-02
2019-01-0647
This study investigates the aerodynamic behavior of the flow around a rotating and stationary 60% scale isolated wheel, with and without the use of a moving ground plane. The aim of this research was to improve the understanding of the fundamental aerodynamic flow features around a wheel and to examine how rotation and moving ground planes modify these and affect the production of drag. A bespoke rotating wheel rig was designed and wind tunnel tests were performed over a range of pre to post critical Reynolds numbers. Force coefficients were obtained using balance measurements and flow field data were obtained using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The unsteady flow field data generated was used to validate unsteady CFD predictions. These were performed using STAR-CCM+ and a k-ω SST Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES) turbulence model. This was seen to outperform other models by capturing an increased amount of finer detailed, high frequency vortical structures.
Technical Paper

Towards In-Cylinder Flow Informed Engine Control Strategies Using Linear Stochastic Estimation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0717
Many modern I.C. engines rely on some form of active control of injection, timing and/or ignition timing to help combat tailpipe out emissions, increase the fuel economy and improve engine drivability. However, development of these strategies is often optimised to suit the average cycle at each condition; an assumption that can lead to sub-optimal performance, especially an increase in particulate (PN) emissions as I.C. engine operation, and in-particular its charge motion is subject to cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV). Literature shows that the locations of otherwise repeatable large-scale flow structures may vary by as much 25% of the bore dimension; this could have an impact on fuel break-up and distribution and therefore subsequent combustion performance and emissions.
Technical Paper

Application of Multi-Objective Optimization Techniques for Improved Emissions and Fuel Economy over Transient Manoeuvres

2019-04-02
2019-01-1177
This paper presents a novel approach to augment existing engine calibrations to deliver improved engine performance during a transient, through the application of multi-objective optimization techniques to the calibration of the Variable Valve Timing (VVT) system of a 1.0 litre gasoline engine. Current mature calibration approaches for the VVT system are predominantly based on steady state techniques which fail to consider the engine dynamic behaviour in real world driving, which is heavily transient. In this study the total integrated fuel consumption and engine-out NOx emissions over a 2-minute segment of the transient Worldwide Light-duty Test Cycle are minimised in a constrained multi-objective optimisation framework to achieve an updated calibration for the VVT control. The cycle segment was identified as an area with high NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Design for Characterization of Force Transmissibility through Bearings in Electric Machines and Transmissions

2018-06-13
2018-01-1473
With the increasing stringent emissions legislation on ICEs, alongside requirements for enhanced fuel efficiency as key driving factors for many OEMs, there are many research activities supported by the automotive industry that focus on the development of hybrid and pure EVs. This change in direction from engine downsizing to the use of electric motors presents many new challenges concerning NVH performance, durability and component life. This paper presents the development of experimental methodology into the measurement of NVH characteristics in these new powertrains, thus characterizing the structure borne noise transmissibility through the shaft and the bearing to the housing. A feasibility study and design of a new system level test rig have been conducted to allow for sinusoidal radial loading of the shaft, which is synchronized with the shaft’s rotary frequency under high-speed transient conditions in order to evaluate the phenomena in the system.
Technical Paper

A Computational and Experimental Investigation into the Effects of Debris on an Inverted Double Wing in Ground Effect

2018-04-03
2018-01-0726
Cars in several motor sports series, such as Formula 1, make use of multi-element front wings to provide downforce. These wings also provide onset flows to other surfaces that generate downforce. These elements are highly loaded to maximise their performance and are generally operating close to stall. Rubber debris, often known as marbles, created from the high slip experienced by the soft compound tyres can become lodged in the multiple elements of a front wing. This will lead to a reduction in the effectiveness of the wing over the course of a race. This work will study the effect of such debris, both experimentally and numerically, on an inverted double element wing in ground effect at representative Reynolds numbers. The wing was mounted at two different ride heights above a fixed false-floor in the Loughborough University wind tunnel and the effect of debris blockage modelled by closing sections of the gap between elements with tape.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of Asymmetric Side Tapering in Constant Cross Wind Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0718
Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) often have blunt rear end geometries for design and practicality, which is not typically aerodynamic. Drag can be reduced with a number of passive and active methods, which are generally prioritised at zero yaw, which is not entirely representative of the “on road” environment. As such, to combine a visually square geometry (at rest) with optimal drag reductions at non-zero yaw, an adaptive system that applies vertical side edge tapers independently is tested statically. A parametric study has been undertaken in Loughborough University’s Large Wind Tunnel with the ¼ scale Windsor Model. The aerodynamic effect of implementing asymmetric side tapering has been assessed for a range of yaw angles (0°, ±2.5°, ±5° and ±10°) on the force and moment coefficients.
Journal Article

A Drag Coefficient for Test Cycle Application

2018-04-03
2018-01-0742
The drag coefficient at zero yaw angle is the single parameter usually used to define the aerodynamic drag characteristics of a passenger car. However, this is usually the minimum drag condition and will, for example, lead to an underestimate of the effect of aerodynamic drag on fuel consumption because the important influence of the natural wind has been excluded. An alternative measure of aerodynamic drag should take into account the effect of nonzero yaw angles and a variant of wind-averaged drag is suggested as the best option. A wind-averaged drag coefficient (CDW) is usually derived for a particular vehicle speed using a representative wind speed distribution. In the particular case where the road speed distribution is specified, as for a drive cycle to determine fuel economy, a relevant drag coefficient can be derived by using a weighted road speed.
Journal Article

An Objective Measure for Automotive Surface Contamination

2018-04-03
2018-01-0727
Surface contamination, or soiling, of the exterior of road vehicles can be unsightly, can reduce visibility and customer satisfaction, and, with the increasing application of surface-mounted sensors, can degrade the performance of advanced driver-assistance systems. Experimental methods of evaluating surface contamination are increasingly used in the product development process, but the results are generally subjective. The use of computational methods for predicting contamination makes objective measures possible, but comparable data from experiment is an important validation requirement. This article describes the development of an objective measure of surface contamination arising during experiments. A series of controlled experiments using ultraviolet (UV) dye-doped water are conducted to develop a robust methodology. This process is then applied to a simplified contamination test.
Technical Paper

Tribodynamics of a New De-Clutch Mechanism Aimed for Engine Downsizing in Off-Road Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2017-06-05
2017-01-1835
Clutches are commonly utilised in passenger type and off-road heavy-duty vehicles to disconnect the engine from the driveline and other parasitic loads. In off-road heavy-duty vehicles, along with fuel efficiency start-up functionality at extended ambient conditions, such as low temperature and intake absolute pressure are crucial. Off-road vehicle manufacturers can overcome the parasitic loads in these conditions by oversizing the engine. Caterpillar Inc. as the pioneer in off-road technology has developed a novel clutch design to allow for engine downsizing while vehicle’s performance is not affected. The tribological behaviour of the clutch will be crucial to start engagement promptly and reach the maximum clutch capacity in the shortest possible time and smoothest way in terms of dynamics. A multi-body dynamics model of the clutch system is developed in MSC ADAMS. The flywheel is introducing the same speed and torque as the engine (represents the engine input to the clutch).
Technical Paper

Improved Thermoelectric Generator Performance Using High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials

2017-03-28
2017-01-0121
Thermoelectric generator (TEG) has received more and more attention in its application in the harvesting of waste thermal energy in automotive engines. Even though the commercial Bismuth Telluride thermoelectric material only have 5% efficiency and 250°C hot side temperature limit, it is possible to generate peak 1kW electrical energy from a heavy-duty engine. If being equipped with 500W TEG, a passenger car has potential to save more than 2% fuel consumption and hence CO2 emission reduction. TEG has advantages of compact and motionless parts over other thermal harvest technologies such as Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and Turbo-Compound (TC). Intense research works are being carried on improving the thermal efficiency of the thermoelectric materials and increasing the hot side temperature limit. Future thermoelectric modules are expected to have 10% to 20% efficiency and over 500°C hot side temperature limit.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Thermoelectric Generator in Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-0189
This paper reports on an investigation into the potential for a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to improve the fuel economy of a mild hybrid vehicle. A simulation model of a parallel hybrid vehicle equipped with a TEG in the exhaust system is presented. This model is made up by three sub-models: a parallel hybrid vehicle model, an exhaust model and a TEG model. The model is based on a quasi-static approach, which runs a fast and simple estimation of the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The model is validated against both experimental and published data. Using this model, the annual fuel saving, CO2 reduction and net present value (NPV) of the TEG’s life time fuel saving are all investigated. The model is also used as a flexible tool for analysis of the sensitivity of vehicle fuel consumption to the TEG design parameters. The analysis results give an effective basis for optimization of the TEG design.
Journal Article

A Parametric Study of Automotive Rear End Geometries on Rear Soiling

2017-03-28
2017-01-1511
The motivation for this paper is to consider the effect of rear end geometry on rear soiling using a representative generic SUV body. In particular the effect of varying the top slant angle is considered using both experiment and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Previous work has shown that slant angle has a significant effect on wake shape and drag and the work here extends this to investigate the effect on rear soiling. It is hoped that this work can provide an insight into the likely effect of such geometry changes on the soiling of similarly shaped road vehicles. To increase the generality of results, and to allow comparison with previously obtained aerodynamic data, a 25% scale generic SUV model is used in the Loughborough University Large Wind Tunnel. UV doped water is sprayed from a position located at the bottom of the left rear tyre to simulate the creation of spray from this tyre.
Journal Article

The Effect of a Sheared Crosswind Flow on Car Aerodynamics

2017-03-28
2017-01-1536
In the wind tunnel the effect of a wind input on the aerodynamic characteristics of any road vehicle is simulated by yawing the vehicle. This represents a wind input where the wind velocity is constant with height above the ground. In reality the natural wind is a boundary layer flow and is sheared so that the wind velocity will vary with height. A CFD simulation has been conducted to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of a DrivAer model, in fastback and squareback form, subject to a crosswind flow, with and without shear. The yaw simulation has been carried out at a yaw angle of 10° and with one shear flow exponent. It is shown that the car experiences almost identical forces and moments in the two cases when the mass flow in the crosswind over the height of the car is similar. Load distributions are presented for the two cases. The implications for wind averaged drag are discussed.
Journal Article

The Effect of Passive Base Ventilation on the Aerodynamic Drag of a Generic SUV Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1548
Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) typically have a blunt rear end shape (for design and practicality), however this is not beneficial for aerodynamic drag. Drag can be reduced by a number of passive and active methods such as tapering and blowing into the base. In an effort to combine these effects and to reduce the drag of a visually square geometry slots have been introduced in the upper side and roof trailing edges of a squareback geometry, to take air from the freestream and passively injects it into the base of the vehicle to effectively create a tapered body. This investigation has been conducted in the Loughborough University’s Large Wind Tunnel with the ¼ scale generic SUV model. The basic aerodynamic effect of a range of body tapers and straight slots have been assessed for 0° yaw. This includes force and pressure measurements for most configurations.
Technical Paper

MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output) Control for Optimising the Future Gasoline Powertrain - A Survey

2017-03-28
2017-01-0600
This paper surveys publications on automotive powertrain control, relating to modern GTDI (Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection) engines. The requirements for gasoline engines are optimising the airpath but future legislation suggests not only a finely controlled airpath but also some level of electrification. Fundamentals of controls modelling are revisited and advancements are highlighted. In particular, a modern GTDI airpath is presented based on basic building blocks (volumes, turbocharger, throttle, valves and variable cam timing or VCT) with an example of a system interaction, based on boost pressure and lambda control. Further, an advanced airpath could be considered with applications to downsizing and fuel economy. A further electrification step is reviewed which involves interactions with the airpath and requires a robust energy management strategy. Examples are taken of energy recovery and e-machine placement.
Journal Article

A Fully Coupled, 6 Degree-of-Freedom, Aerodynamic and Vehicle Handling Crosswind Simulation using the DrivAer Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-1601
In a real-world environment, a vehicle on the road is subjected to a range of flow yaw angles, the most severe of which can impact handling and stability. A fully coupled, six degrees-of-freedom CFD and vehicle handling simulation has modelled the complete closed loop system. Varying flow yaw angles are introduced via time dependent boundary conditions and aerodynamic loads predicted, whilst a handling model running simultaneously calculates the resulting vehicle response. Updates to the vehicle position and orientation within the CFD simulation are achieved using the overset grid method. Using this approach, a crosswind simulation that follows the parameters of ISO 12021:2010 (Sensitivity to lateral wind - Open-loop test method using wind generator input), was performed using the fastback variant of the DrivAer model. Fully coupled aerodynamic and vehicle response was compared to that obtained using the simplified quasi-steady and unsteady, one way coupled method.
Technical Paper

Robust Methodology for Fast Crank Angle Based Temperature Measurement

2016-04-05
2016-01-1072
The paper presents a measurement methodology which combines a fine-wire thermocouple with input reconstruction in order to measure crank angle resolved temperature in an engine air-intake system. Thermocouples that are of practical use in engine experiments tend to have a large time constant which affects measurement accuracy during rapid temperature transients. Input reconstruction methods have previously been applied to thermocouples but have not been specifically used in combination with an ultra-thin uninsulated wire thermocouple to investigate cyclic intake temperature behavior. Accurate measurement results are of interest to improve the validity of many crank-angle resolved engine models. An unshielded thermocouple sensor has been developed which is rigid enough to withstand the aerodynamic forces of the intake air.
Technical Paper

A Parallel Hybrid Drive System for Small Vehicles: Architecture and Control Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-1170
The TC48 project is developing a state-of-the-art, exceptionally low cost, 48V Plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) demonstration drivetrain suitable for electrically powered urban driving, hybrid operation, and internal combustion engine powered high speed motoring. This paper explains the motivation for the project, and presents the layout options considered and the rationale by which these were reduced. The vehicle simulation model used to evaluate the layout options is described and discussed. The modelling work was used in order to support and justify the design choices made. The design of the vehicle's control systems is discussed, presenting simulation results. The physical embodiment of the design is not reported in this paper. The paper describes analysis of small vehicles in the marketplace, including aspects of range and cost, leading to the justification for the specification of the TC48 system.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Study of Vehicle Surface Contamination on a Generic Bluff Body

2016-04-05
2016-01-1604
This paper focuses on methods used to model vehicle surface contamination arising as a result of rear wake aerodynamics. Besides being unsightly, contamination, such as self-soiling from rear tyre spray, can degrade the performance of lighting, rear view cameras and obstruct visibility through windows. In order to accurately predict likely contamination patterns, it is necessary to consider the aerodynamics and multiphase spray processes together. This paper presents an experimental and numerical (CFD) investigation of the phenomenon. The experimental study investigates contamination with controlled conditions in a wind tunnel using a generic bluff body (the Windsor model.) Contamination is represented by a water spray located beneath the rear of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Role of New Automotive Engineering Masters Programme in the Industry in China

2016-04-05
2016-01-0171
China is the world’s largest automotive producer and has the world’s biggest automobile market. However, in the past decades, the development of China’s automotive industry has depended primarily on the foreign direct investment; domestic automakers have struggled in the lower ranks of car producers. In recent years, China’s automotive industry, supported by government policies, has been improving their Research and Development (R&D) capacity, to compete with their international peers. Against this background, China’s automotive industry requires a large number of R&D professionals who have not only a higher degree but also the applied and practical knowledge and skills of research. For the purpose of meeting the industry’s needs, a new Professional Automotive Engineering Masters Programme was launched in 2009, which aims to deliver the Masters to be the R&D professionals in the future.
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