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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 2): Evaluation of Thermal Environment and Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin

2019-04-02
2019-01-0698
In the previous paper (Part 1), measurements of equivalent temperature (teq) using a clothed thermal manikin and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation were discussed. In this paper (Part 2), the outline of the proposed mesh-free simulation method is described and comparisons between teq in the calculations and measurements under summer cooling with solar radiation and winter heating without solar radiation conditions in a vehicle cabin are discussed. The key factors for evaluating teq on each body segment of the clothed thermal manikin under cooling and heating conditions are also discussed. In the mesh-free simulation, even if there is a hole or an unnecessary shape on the CAD model, only a group of points whose density is controlled in the simulation area is generated without modifying the CAD model. Therefore, the fluid mesh required by conventional CFD code is not required, and the analysis load is significantly reduced.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 1): Measurement of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin and Development of a Numerical Thermal Manikin

2019-04-02
2019-01-0697
The present paper is Part 1 of two consecutive studies. Part 1 describes three subjects: definition of the equivalent temperature (teq), measurements of teq using a clothed thermal manikin in a vehicle cabin, and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation. After defining teq, a method for measuring teq with a clothed thermal manikin was examined. Two techniques were proposed in this study: the definition of “the total heat transfer coefficient between the skin surface and the environment in a standard environment (hcal)” based on the thermal insulation of clothing (Icl), and a method of measuring Icl in consideration of the area factor (fcl), which indicates the ratio of the clothing surface to the manikin surface area. Then, teq was measured in an actual vehicle cabin by the proposed method under two conditions: a summer cooling condition with solar radiation and a winter heating condition without solar radiation.
Technical Paper

Development of Plastic Region Tightening 1.6-GPa Ultra-High Strength Bolt with High Delayed Fracture Resistance

2019-04-02
2019-01-1116
A new variable compression turbo (VC-Turbo) engine, which has a multi-link system for controlling the compression ratio from 8:1 to 14:1, requires high axial force for fastening the multi-links because of high input loads and the downsizing requirement. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt with plastic region tightening. One of the biggest technical concerns is delayed fracture. In this study, quenched and tempered alloy steels were chosen for the 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt.
Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

Application of 980 MPa Grade Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

2018-04-03
2018-01-0625
There are strong demands for vehicle weight reductions so as to improve fuel economy. At the same time, it is also necessary to ensure crash safety. One effective measure for accomplishing such both requirements conflicting each other is to apply advanced high strength steel (AHSS) of 780 MPa grade or higher to the vehicle body. On the other hand, higher strength steels generally tend to display lower elongation causing formability deterioration. Nissan Motor Corporation have jointly developed with steel manufacturers a new 980 MPa grade AHSS with high formability with the aim of substituting it for the currently used 590 MPa grade high-tensile steel. Several application technologies have been developed through the verifications such as formability, resistance spot weldability, crashworthiness, and delayed fracture.
Journal Article

Development of Low Viscosity API SN 0W-16 Fuel-Saving Engine Oil Considering Chain Wear Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-0881
A low viscosity API SN 0W-16 engine oil was developed to achieve a 0.5% improvement in fuel efficiency over the current GF-5/API SN 0W-20 oil. Oil consumption and engine wear are the main roadblocks to the development of low viscosity engine oils. However, optimization of the base oil and additives successfully prevent oil consumption and wear. First, it was confirmed in engine tests that NOACK volatility is still an effective indicator of oil consumption even for a low viscosity grade like 0W-16. As a result of base oil volatility control, the newly developed oil achieves the same level of oil consumption as the current GF-5/API SN 0W-20 oil. Second, it was found that the base oil viscosity and molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) had a significant effect on chain wear in rig testing that simulated silent chain wear. For the same base oil viscosity, the new oil maintains the same oil film thickness under high surface pressure.
Journal Article

A Study of Combustion Technology for a High Compression Ratio Engine: The Influence of Combustion Chamber Wall Temperature on Knocking

2016-04-05
2016-01-0703
Technologies for improving the fuel economy of gasoline engines have been vigorously developed in recent years for the purpose of reducing CO2 emissions. Increasing the compression ratio is an example of a technology for improving the thermal efficiency of gasoline engines. A significant issue of a high compression ratio engine for improving fuel economy and low-end torque is prevention of knocking under a low engine speed. Knocking is caused by autoignition of the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder and seems to be largely affected by heat transfer from the intake port and combustion chamber walls. In this study, the influence of heat transfer from the walls of each part was analyzed by the following three approaches using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experiments conducted with a multi-cooling engine system. First, the temperature rise of the air-fuel mixture by heat transfer from each part was analyzed.
Technical Paper

1.2GPa Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

2014-04-01
2014-01-0991
To reduce the Body in White (BIW) mass, it is necessary to expand the application of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) to complex shaped parts. In order to apply AHSS to complex shaped parts with thinner gauge, high formability steel is required. However, higher strength steels tend to display lower elongations, compared with low/medium strength steels. Current AHSS are applied to limited parts for this reason. The new 1.2GPa material, with high formability, was developed to solve this issue. The mechanical property targets for the high elongation 1.2GPa material were achieved by precise metallurgical optimization. Many material aspects were studied, such as formability, weldabilty, impact strength, and delayed fracture. As the result of this development, 1.2GPa AHSS has been applied to a new vehicle launched in 2013.The application of this material was the 1st in the world, and achieved a 11kg mass reduction.
Technical Paper

Microfluidic Simulation of Diesel Exhaust Gas and Soot Oxidation in Diesel Particulate Filter

2013-03-25
2013-01-0009
Particulate matter (PM) including soot in diesel exhaust gas is a serious atmospheric pollutant, and stricter exhaust emission standards are being set in many countries. As one of the key technologies, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) for PM trap in the after-treatment of the exhaust gas has been developed. Typically, the inlet size of filter monolith is about 2 mm, and the thickness of the filter wall is only 0.2 mm, where soot particles are removed. It is impossible to observe the small-scale phenomena inside the filter, experimentally. Then, in the present study, we conducted microfluidic simulation with soot oxidation. Here, a real cordierite filter was used in the simulation. The inner structure of the filter was scanned by a 3D X-ray CT Computed Tomography) technique. The advantage is that it is non-intrusive system, and it has a high spatial resolution in the micrometer.
Technical Paper

High Power Density Motor and Inverter for RWD Hybrid Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0351
This paper describes the motor and inverter of Nissan's newly developed parallel hybrid system for rear-wheel-drive hybrid vehicles. The new system incorporates a high-power lithium-ion battery and a one-motor-two-clutch powertrain to achieve both highly responsive acceleration and better fuel economy. As the main components of the hybrid system, both the motor and the inverter have been developed and are manufactured in house to attain high power density for providing responsive acceleration, a quiet EV drive mode and improved fuel economy. Because the motor is located between the engine and the transmission, it had to be shortened to stay within the length allowed for the powertrain. The rotary position sensor and clutch actuator are located inside the rotor to meet the size requirement. High-density winding of square-shaped wire and a small power distribution busbar also contribute to the compact configuration.
Technical Paper

A Lubrication Analysis of Multi Link VCR Engine Components using a Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Model

2009-04-20
2009-01-1062
Research is under way on an engine system [1] that achieves a variable compression ratio using a multiple-link mechanism between the crankshaft and pistons for the dual purpose of improving fuel economy and power output. At present, there is no database that allows direct judgment of the feasibility of the specific sliding parts in this mechanism. In this paper, the feasibility was examined by making a comparison with the sliding characteristics and material properties of conventional engine parts, for which databases exist, and using evaluation parameters based on mixed elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication calculations. In addition, the innovations made to the mixed EHD calculation method used in this study to facilitate calculations under various lubrication conditions are also explained, including the treatment of surface roughness, wear progress and stiffness around the bearings.
Journal Article

Dissimilar Joining of Aluminum Alloy and Steel by Resistance Spot Welding

2009-04-20
2009-01-0034
This study concerns a dissimilar materials joining technique for aluminum (Al) alloys and steel for the purpose of reducing the vehicle body weight. The tough oxide layer on the Al alloy surface and the ability to control the Fe-Al intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness are issues that have so far complicated the joining of Al alloys and steel. Removing the oxide layer has required a high heat input, resulting in the formation of a thick Fe-Al IMC layer at the joint interface, making it impossible to obtain satisfactory joint strength. To avoid that problem, we propose a unique joining concept that removes the oxide layer at low temperature by using the eutectic reaction between Al in the Al alloy and zinc (Zn) in the coating on galvanized steel (GI) and galvannealed steel (GA). This makes it possible to form a thin, uniform Fe-Al IMC layer at the joint interface. Welded joints of dissimilar materials require anticorrosion performance against electrochemical corrosion.
Technical Paper

Uniform Quenching Technology by Using Controlled High Pressure Gas after Low Pressure Carburizing

2008-04-14
2008-01-0365
To reduce quenching distortion, step gas quenching has been proposed in recent years, which refers to rapid gas cooling of steel from austenitizing temperature to a point above or below Ms temperature, where it is held for a specific period of time, followed by gas cooling. In this study, by using infrared thermography combined with conventional thermocouple, a new temperature monitoring and control system was developed to realize the step gas quenching process of a hypoid ring gear after low pressure carburizing. The test production results indicate that by using the new monitoring and control system, we can control the gas quenching process and the distortion of carburized gear treated by step gas quenching can be reduced significantly compared with standard gas quenching.
Technical Paper

Thermal Imaging Technology using a Thermoelectric Infrared Sensor

2008-04-14
2008-01-0912
This paper describes a low-cost 48 × 48 element thermal imaging camera intended for use in measuring the temperature in a car interior for advanced air conditioning systems. The compact camera measures 46 × 46 × 60 mm. It operates under a program stored in the central processing unit and can measure the interior temperature distribution with an accuracy of ±0.7°C in range from 0 to 40°C. The camera includes a thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) housed in a low-cost vacuum-sealed package. The FPA is fabricated with the conventional IC manufacturing process and micromachining technology. The chip is 6.5 × 6.5 mm in size and achieves high sensitivity of 4,300 V/W, which is higher than the performance reported for any other thermopile. This high performance has been achieved by optimizing the sensor's thermal isolation structure and a precisely patterned Au-black absorber that attains high infrared absorptivity of more than 90%.
Technical Paper

Direct Heat Loss to Combustion Chamber Walls in a D.I. Diesel Engine-Development of Measurement Technique and Evaluation of Direct Heat Loss to Cylinder Liner Wall

2007-09-16
2007-24-0006
The purpose of this study is to clarify the state of heat loss to the cylinder liner of the tested engine of which piston and cylinder head were previously measured. The authors' group developed an original measurement technique of instantaneous surface temperature at the cylinder liner wall using thin-film thermocouples. The temperature was measured at 36 points in total. The instantaneous heat flux was calculated by heat transfer analysis using measurement results of the temperature at the wall. As a result, the heat loss ratio to all combustion chamber walls is evaluated except the intake and exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

Development of Microalloyed Steel for Fracture Split Connecting Rod

2007-04-16
2007-01-1004
In Europe and the U.S., fracture split connecting rods are used in many types of current engines. This process can eliminate the machining of crankshaft end and eliminate the dowel pin for positioning. The most important key for fracture split connecting rods is a reduction in the plastic deformation during the fracture splitting process. For this reason, sinter-forged materials and pearlitic steels (C70S6) are used for fracture split connecting rods because of their low ductility. Such types of steel, however, are inferior to the hot forged microalloyed steels typically used as connecting rod material in Japan in terms of buckling strength and machinability although they are easier to fracture split. On the other hand, the conventional microalloyed steels used for connecting rods in Japan are not suitable for fracture splitting. The reason is that these steels have too much ductility and associated plastic deformation for fracture splitting.
Technical Paper

Evaluations of Physical Fatigue during Long-term Driving with a New Driving Posture

2007-04-16
2007-01-0348
In a previous study, we developed and validated a new driving posture focused on biomechanical loads for physical fatigue reduction in static long-term sitting. In this study, the posture was evaluated in dynamic long-term driving condition by qualitative and quantitative measurements. The results showed physical fatigue of the new posture was halved in comparison with the one of the conventional posture in same car by subjective evaluations. Physiological indices had same tendency with subjective evaluations. From the results, we extracted seven physiological indices as good measures of physical fatigue while driving. Therefore, fatigue reduction of the new posture was qualitatively validated by physiological measurements.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Tooth Surface Fatigue Strength of Automotive Transmission Gears

2007-04-16
2007-01-0117
The life of automotive transmission gears today is often governed by pitting fatigue life. Being able to predict pitting fatigue life accurately is a crucial issue. Pitting fatigue life is substantially influenced by surface hardness and tooth surface geometry. For that reason, this study examined a new method of predicting pitting fatigue life that takes into account changes in these factors over time. This method makes it possible to predict the pitting fatigue life of automotive transmission gears under a wide range of evaluation conditions with markedly better accuracy than conventional methods used previously.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Driving Posture Focused on Biomechanical Loads

2006-04-03
2006-01-1302
Fatigue resulting from long-term driving can be classified into physical and mental fatigue. Physical fatigue seems to be mainly caused by driving posture. The purpose of this study is to develop a new driving posture for reduction of causal factors of physical fatigue, that is, biomechanical loads caused by the posture. In this paper, driving posture was optimized by subjective optimizations of seat contours and biomechanical analysis considering necessary conditions for driving operations and forward view. The new driving posture was tested by subjective evaluations and pelvic movement measurements. It was found that the new posture reduced physical fatigue dramatically.
Technical Paper

Application Development of Low Carbon Type Dual Phase 980MPa High Strength Steel

2006-04-03
2006-01-1586
Use of high strength steel (HSS) could be an important consideration in achieving competitive weight and safety performance of the body-in-white (BIW). This study covers key technical issues in the application development. Many aspects were studied such as formability, weldability and impact strength for application of this grade to the BIW. One of the key issues is spot weldability, especially in the assembly of heavy gauge materials for structural parts. The spot weld strength appears not to satisfy the target for some HSS applications, when hardness of the nugget is high. The relation between weld strength and the chemical composition of steel sheets was studied, because hardness can be controlled by chemical composition and welding conditions. It was found that using lower carbon content or carbon equivalent compared to conventional grades could improve weld strength.
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