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Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

Development of Plastic Region Tightening 1.6-GPa Ultra-High Strength Bolt with High Delayed Fracture Resistance

A new variable compression turbo (VC-Turbo) engine, which has a multi-link system for controlling the compression ratio from 8:1 to 14:1, requires high axial force for fastening the multi-links because of high input loads and the downsizing requirement. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt with plastic region tightening. One of the biggest technical concerns is delayed fracture. In this study, quenched and tempered alloy steels were chosen for the 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt.
Technical Paper

Application of 980 MPa Grade Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

There are strong demands for vehicle weight reductions so as to improve fuel economy. At the same time, it is also necessary to ensure crash safety. One effective measure for accomplishing such both requirements conflicting each other is to apply advanced high strength steel (AHSS) of 780 MPa grade or higher to the vehicle body. On the other hand, higher strength steels generally tend to display lower elongation causing formability deterioration. Nissan Motor Corporation have jointly developed with steel manufacturers a new 980 MPa grade AHSS with high formability with the aim of substituting it for the currently used 590 MPa grade high-tensile steel. Several application technologies have been developed through the verifications such as formability, resistance spot weldability, crashworthiness, and delayed fracture.
Journal Article

Development of Low Viscosity API SN 0W-16 Fuel-Saving Engine Oil Considering Chain Wear Performance

A low viscosity API SN 0W-16 engine oil was developed to achieve a 0.5% improvement in fuel efficiency over the current GF-5/API SN 0W-20 oil. Oil consumption and engine wear are the main roadblocks to the development of low viscosity engine oils. However, optimization of the base oil and additives successfully prevent oil consumption and wear. First, it was confirmed in engine tests that NOACK volatility is still an effective indicator of oil consumption even for a low viscosity grade like 0W-16. As a result of base oil volatility control, the newly developed oil achieves the same level of oil consumption as the current GF-5/API SN 0W-20 oil. Second, it was found that the base oil viscosity and molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) had a significant effect on chain wear in rig testing that simulated silent chain wear. For the same base oil viscosity, the new oil maintains the same oil film thickness under high surface pressure.
Technical Paper

1.2GPa Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

To reduce the Body in White (BIW) mass, it is necessary to expand the application of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) to complex shaped parts. In order to apply AHSS to complex shaped parts with thinner gauge, high formability steel is required. However, higher strength steels tend to display lower elongations, compared with low/medium strength steels. Current AHSS are applied to limited parts for this reason. The new 1.2GPa material, with high formability, was developed to solve this issue. The mechanical property targets for the high elongation 1.2GPa material were achieved by precise metallurgical optimization. Many material aspects were studied, such as formability, weldabilty, impact strength, and delayed fracture. As the result of this development, 1.2GPa AHSS has been applied to a new vehicle launched in 2013.The application of this material was the 1st in the world, and achieved a 11kg mass reduction.
Technical Paper

High Power Density Motor and Inverter for RWD Hybrid Vehicles

This paper describes the motor and inverter of Nissan's newly developed parallel hybrid system for rear-wheel-drive hybrid vehicles. The new system incorporates a high-power lithium-ion battery and a one-motor-two-clutch powertrain to achieve both highly responsive acceleration and better fuel economy. As the main components of the hybrid system, both the motor and the inverter have been developed and are manufactured in house to attain high power density for providing responsive acceleration, a quiet EV drive mode and improved fuel economy. Because the motor is located between the engine and the transmission, it had to be shortened to stay within the length allowed for the powertrain. The rotary position sensor and clutch actuator are located inside the rotor to meet the size requirement. High-density winding of square-shaped wire and a small power distribution busbar also contribute to the compact configuration.
Technical Paper

A Lubrication Analysis of Multi Link VCR Engine Components using a Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Model

Research is under way on an engine system [1] that achieves a variable compression ratio using a multiple-link mechanism between the crankshaft and pistons for the dual purpose of improving fuel economy and power output. At present, there is no database that allows direct judgment of the feasibility of the specific sliding parts in this mechanism. In this paper, the feasibility was examined by making a comparison with the sliding characteristics and material properties of conventional engine parts, for which databases exist, and using evaluation parameters based on mixed elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication calculations. In addition, the innovations made to the mixed EHD calculation method used in this study to facilitate calculations under various lubrication conditions are also explained, including the treatment of surface roughness, wear progress and stiffness around the bearings.
Journal Article

Dissimilar Joining of Aluminum Alloy and Steel by Resistance Spot Welding

This study concerns a dissimilar materials joining technique for aluminum (Al) alloys and steel for the purpose of reducing the vehicle body weight. The tough oxide layer on the Al alloy surface and the ability to control the Fe-Al intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness are issues that have so far complicated the joining of Al alloys and steel. Removing the oxide layer has required a high heat input, resulting in the formation of a thick Fe-Al IMC layer at the joint interface, making it impossible to obtain satisfactory joint strength. To avoid that problem, we propose a unique joining concept that removes the oxide layer at low temperature by using the eutectic reaction between Al in the Al alloy and zinc (Zn) in the coating on galvanized steel (GI) and galvannealed steel (GA). This makes it possible to form a thin, uniform Fe-Al IMC layer at the joint interface. Welded joints of dissimilar materials require anticorrosion performance against electrochemical corrosion.
Technical Paper

Uniform Quenching Technology by Using Controlled High Pressure Gas after Low Pressure Carburizing

To reduce quenching distortion, step gas quenching has been proposed in recent years, which refers to rapid gas cooling of steel from austenitizing temperature to a point above or below Ms temperature, where it is held for a specific period of time, followed by gas cooling. In this study, by using infrared thermography combined with conventional thermocouple, a new temperature monitoring and control system was developed to realize the step gas quenching process of a hypoid ring gear after low pressure carburizing. The test production results indicate that by using the new monitoring and control system, we can control the gas quenching process and the distortion of carburized gear treated by step gas quenching can be reduced significantly compared with standard gas quenching.
Technical Paper

Development of Microalloyed Steel for Fracture Split Connecting Rod

In Europe and the U.S., fracture split connecting rods are used in many types of current engines. This process can eliminate the machining of crankshaft end and eliminate the dowel pin for positioning. The most important key for fracture split connecting rods is a reduction in the plastic deformation during the fracture splitting process. For this reason, sinter-forged materials and pearlitic steels (C70S6) are used for fracture split connecting rods because of their low ductility. Such types of steel, however, are inferior to the hot forged microalloyed steels typically used as connecting rod material in Japan in terms of buckling strength and machinability although they are easier to fracture split. On the other hand, the conventional microalloyed steels used for connecting rods in Japan are not suitable for fracture splitting. The reason is that these steels have too much ductility and associated plastic deformation for fracture splitting.
Technical Paper

Evaluations of Physical Fatigue during Long-term Driving with a New Driving Posture

In a previous study, we developed and validated a new driving posture focused on biomechanical loads for physical fatigue reduction in static long-term sitting. In this study, the posture was evaluated in dynamic long-term driving condition by qualitative and quantitative measurements. The results showed physical fatigue of the new posture was halved in comparison with the one of the conventional posture in same car by subjective evaluations. Physiological indices had same tendency with subjective evaluations. From the results, we extracted seven physiological indices as good measures of physical fatigue while driving. Therefore, fatigue reduction of the new posture was qualitatively validated by physiological measurements.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Tooth Surface Fatigue Strength of Automotive Transmission Gears

The life of automotive transmission gears today is often governed by pitting fatigue life. Being able to predict pitting fatigue life accurately is a crucial issue. Pitting fatigue life is substantially influenced by surface hardness and tooth surface geometry. For that reason, this study examined a new method of predicting pitting fatigue life that takes into account changes in these factors over time. This method makes it possible to predict the pitting fatigue life of automotive transmission gears under a wide range of evaluation conditions with markedly better accuracy than conventional methods used previously.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Driving Posture Focused on Biomechanical Loads

Fatigue resulting from long-term driving can be classified into physical and mental fatigue. Physical fatigue seems to be mainly caused by driving posture. The purpose of this study is to develop a new driving posture for reduction of causal factors of physical fatigue, that is, biomechanical loads caused by the posture. In this paper, driving posture was optimized by subjective optimizations of seat contours and biomechanical analysis considering necessary conditions for driving operations and forward view. The new driving posture was tested by subjective evaluations and pelvic movement measurements. It was found that the new posture reduced physical fatigue dramatically.
Technical Paper

Application Development of Low Carbon Type Dual Phase 980MPa High Strength Steel

Use of high strength steel (HSS) could be an important consideration in achieving competitive weight and safety performance of the body-in-white (BIW). This study covers key technical issues in the application development. Many aspects were studied such as formability, weldability and impact strength for application of this grade to the BIW. One of the key issues is spot weldability, especially in the assembly of heavy gauge materials for structural parts. The spot weld strength appears not to satisfy the target for some HSS applications, when hardness of the nugget is high. The relation between weld strength and the chemical composition of steel sheets was studied, because hardness can be controlled by chemical composition and welding conditions. It was found that using lower carbon content or carbon equivalent compared to conventional grades could improve weld strength.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Cyclic Plastic Zone Size Method, ω*, for Digital Fatigue Life Prediction of Arc-Welded Joints

Various prediction methods have been proposed for evaluating the fatigue life of welded joints by combining finite element analysis (FEA) with an experimental database. However, to obtain more universal and accurate fatigue life predictions, it is necessary to have criteria for making integrated evaluations of the fatigue strength of welded joints. This paper presents a study that focuses on the local cyclic plastic zone size (ω*) as the criterion of fatigue strength and investigates its validity. The definition of ω* was given by the relationship between the stress state at the notch tip and the elastic strain which was defined along the strain-life fatigue curve (ε - N diagram) of a base metal. As a result of using ω*, it was found that an integrated fatigue life prediction was possible to a certain extent for notch and arc-welded joint specimens.
Technical Paper

Development of High Impact Strength Case Hardening Steel

Improving the impact strength of the differential gears is one way to reduce the size and weight of the final drive unit. Previously, we developed high-strength steel for gear use by adding molybdenum and reducing impurities such as phosphorus and sulfur. However, additional improvement of impact strength is required these days due to higher engine torque and demands for further weight reductions. Toward that end, we focused on boron, which has been used as an element for improving hardenability, and analyzed what effect its addition would have on impact strength. Useful knowledge was obtained for improving impact strength through enhancement of grain boundary toughness. Various steels were then produced experimentally and used in gear strength tests. The results made it possible to improve impact strength while reducing the content of other alloys, resulting in the development of a chromium-molybdenum-boron case hardening steel with superior cold forgeabilty.
Technical Paper

Work Hardening and Strength Analysis of Steel Structure with Special Cross Section

This paper presents the results of a strength analysis of a newly developed steel structure featuring a special cross section achieved with the hydroforming process that minimizes the influence of springback. This structure has been developed in pursuit of further weight reductions for the steel body in white. A steel tube with tensile strength of 590 MPa was fabricated in a low-pressure hydroforming operation, resulting in thicker side walls. The results of a three-point bending test showed that the bending strength of the new steel structure with thicker side walls was substantially increased. A finite element crush analysis based on the results of a forming analysis was shown to be effective in predicting the strength of the structure, including the effect of work hardening.
Technical Paper

Thermal Fatigue Life of Exhaust Manifolds Predicted by Simulation

A combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element (FE) analysis approach has been developed to simulate in the early stages of design the temperature distribution and estimate the thermal fatigue life of an engine exhaust manifold. To simulate the temperature distribution under actual operating conditions, we considered the external and internal flow fields. Digital mock-ups of the vehicle and engine were used to define the geometry of the engine compartment. External-air-flow simulation using in-house CFD code was used to predict the flow fields in the engine compartment and the heat transfer coefficients between the air and the exhaust manifold wall at various vehicle speeds. Unsteady-gas-flow calculation using the STAR-CD thermal- fluids analysis code was to predict the heat transfer coefficients between the exhaust gas and the manifold wall under various operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Pitting Resistant Steel for Transmission Gears

It was found that pitting resistance of gears is strongly influenced by resistance to temper softening of carburized steel. The investigation about the influence of chemical compositions on hardness after tempering revealed that silicon, chromium and molybdenum are effective elements to improve resistance to temper softening and pitting resistance. Considering the production of gears, molybdenum is unfavorable because it increases hardness of normalized or annealed condition. Developed new steel contains about 0.5 mass% of silicon and 2.7 mass% chromium. The new steel has excellent pitting resistance and wear resistance. Fatigue and impact strength are equivalent to conventional carburized steels. Cold-formability and machinability of the new steel are adequate for manufacturing gears because of its ordinary hardness before carburizing. The new steel has already been put to practical use in automatic transmission gears. Application test results are also reported.
Technical Paper

Development of the Sequence IVA Valve Train Wear Lubricant Test: Part 1

The ASTM Sequence VE test evaluates lubricant performance for controlling sludge deposits and minimizing overhead camshaft lobe wear. ILSAC asked JAMA to develop a new valve train wear replacement test since the Sequence VE test engine hardware will become obsolete in the year 2000. JAMA submitted the JASO specification M 328-951) KA24E valve train wear test. This first report presents the results of technical studies conducted when JASO M 328-95 was reviewed and the ASTM standardized version of the KA24E test (the Sequence IVA) was proposed. The cam wear mechanism was studied with the goal of improving reproducibility and repeatability. Engine torque was specified to stabilize the NOx concentration in blow-by, which improved test precision. Additionally, the specifications for induction air humidity and temperature, oil temperature control, and test fuel composition were modified when the ASTM version of the KA24E test was proposed.