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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 2): Evaluation of Thermal Environment and Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin

2019-04-02
2019-01-0698
In the previous paper (Part 1), measurements of equivalent temperature (teq) using a clothed thermal manikin and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation were discussed. In this paper (Part 2), the outline of the proposed mesh-free simulation method is described and comparisons between teq in the calculations and measurements under summer cooling with solar radiation and winter heating without solar radiation conditions in a vehicle cabin are discussed. The key factors for evaluating teq on each body segment of the clothed thermal manikin under cooling and heating conditions are also discussed. In the mesh-free simulation, even if there is a hole or an unnecessary shape on the CAD model, only a group of points whose density is controlled in the simulation area is generated without modifying the CAD model. Therefore, the fluid mesh required by conventional CFD code is not required, and the analysis load is significantly reduced.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 1): Measurement of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin and Development of a Numerical Thermal Manikin

2019-04-02
2019-01-0697
The present paper is Part 1 of two consecutive studies. Part 1 describes three subjects: definition of the equivalent temperature (teq), measurements of teq using a clothed thermal manikin in a vehicle cabin, and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation. After defining teq, a method for measuring teq with a clothed thermal manikin was examined. Two techniques were proposed in this study: the definition of “the total heat transfer coefficient between the skin surface and the environment in a standard environment (hcal)” based on the thermal insulation of clothing (Icl), and a method of measuring Icl in consideration of the area factor (fcl), which indicates the ratio of the clothing surface to the manikin surface area. Then, teq was measured in an actual vehicle cabin by the proposed method under two conditions: a summer cooling condition with solar radiation and a winter heating condition without solar radiation.
Technical Paper

Development of Plastic Region Tightening 1.6-GPa Ultra-High Strength Bolt with High Delayed Fracture Resistance

2019-04-02
2019-01-1116
A new variable compression turbo (VC-Turbo) engine, which has a multi-link system for controlling the compression ratio from 8:1 to 14:1, requires high axial force for fastening the multi-links because of high input loads and the downsizing requirement. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt with plastic region tightening. One of the biggest technical concerns is delayed fracture. In this study, quenched and tempered alloy steels were chosen for the 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt.
Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of an Open-grill Vehicle Aerodynamics Simulation Method Considering Dirty CAD Geometries

2018-04-03
2018-01-0733
In open-grille vehicle aerodynamics simulation using computational fluid dynamics, in addition to basic flow characteristics, such as turbulent flow with a Reynolds number of several million on the bluff body, it is important to accurately estimate the cooling air flow introduced from the front opening. It is therefore necessary to reproduce the detailed geometry of the entire vehicle including the engine bay as precisely as possible. However, there is a problem of generating a good-quality calculation grid with a small workload. It usually takes several days to a week for the pretreatment process to make the geometry data ‘clean’ or ‘watertight’. The authors proposed a computational method for complex geometries with a hierarchical Cartesian grid and a topology-independent immersed boundary method with dummy cells that discretize the geometry on a cell-by-cell basis and can set an imaginary point arbitrarily.
Journal Article

New Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Pitch Sequence Optimization of CVT Variator Chain

2017-03-28
2017-01-1120
A CVT variator chain system is superior in transmission efficiency to a belt system because of its lower internal friction. However, a chain produces more noise than a belt due to the long pitch length of contact between the pulleys and rocker pins. This study focuses on optimization of the pitch sequence for reducing chain noise. The previous pitch sequence was suitably combined of links of different lengths to improve noise dispersibility for reducing chain noise. First, the object function was defined as the reduction of the peak level of 1st-order chain noise combined with a well-balanced the levels on the low and high frequency sides. Interior background noise consisting of road noise and wind noise have the characteristic that they increase as the frequency decreases.
Journal Article

Development of Low Viscosity API SN 0W-16 Fuel-Saving Engine Oil Considering Chain Wear Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-0881
A low viscosity API SN 0W-16 engine oil was developed to achieve a 0.5% improvement in fuel efficiency over the current GF-5/API SN 0W-20 oil. Oil consumption and engine wear are the main roadblocks to the development of low viscosity engine oils. However, optimization of the base oil and additives successfully prevent oil consumption and wear. First, it was confirmed in engine tests that NOACK volatility is still an effective indicator of oil consumption even for a low viscosity grade like 0W-16. As a result of base oil volatility control, the newly developed oil achieves the same level of oil consumption as the current GF-5/API SN 0W-20 oil. Second, it was found that the base oil viscosity and molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) had a significant effect on chain wear in rig testing that simulated silent chain wear. For the same base oil viscosity, the new oil maintains the same oil film thickness under high surface pressure.
Journal Article

Coupled 6DoF Motion and Aerodynamic Crosswind Simulation Incorporating Driver Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-1525
Because of rising demands to improve aerodynamic performance owing to its impact on vehicle dynamics, efforts were previously made to reduce aerodynamic lift and yawing moment based on steady-state measurements of aerodynamic forces. In recent years, increased research on dynamic aerodynamics has partially explained the impact of aerodynamic forces on vehicle dynamics. However, it is difficult to measure aerodynamic forces while a vehicle is in motion, and also analyzing the effect on vehicle dynamics requires measurement of vehicle behavior, amount of steering and other quantities noiselessly, as well as an explanation of the mutual influence with aerodynamic forces. Consequently, the related phenomena occurring in the real world are still not fully understood.
Technical Paper

A Study of Drag Reduction Devices for Production Pick-up Trucks

2017-03-28
2017-01-1531
This paper describes a study of drag reduction devices for production pick-up trucks with a body-on-frame structure using full-scale wind tunnel testing and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. First, the flow structure around a pick-up truck was investigated and studied, focusing in particular on the flow structure between the cabin and tailgate. It was found that the flow structure around the tailgate was closely related to aerodynamic drag. A low drag flow structure was found by flow analysis, and the separation angle at the roof end was identified as being important to achieve the flow structure. While proceeding with the development of a new production model, a technical issue of the flow structure involving sensitivity to the vehicle velocity was identified in connection with optimization of the roof end shape. (1)A tailgate spoiler was examined for solving this issue.
Journal Article

A Study of Combustion Technology for a High Compression Ratio Engine: The Influence of Combustion Chamber Wall Temperature on Knocking

2016-04-05
2016-01-0703
Technologies for improving the fuel economy of gasoline engines have been vigorously developed in recent years for the purpose of reducing CO2 emissions. Increasing the compression ratio is an example of a technology for improving the thermal efficiency of gasoline engines. A significant issue of a high compression ratio engine for improving fuel economy and low-end torque is prevention of knocking under a low engine speed. Knocking is caused by autoignition of the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder and seems to be largely affected by heat transfer from the intake port and combustion chamber walls. In this study, the influence of heat transfer from the walls of each part was analyzed by the following three approaches using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experiments conducted with a multi-cooling engine system. First, the temperature rise of the air-fuel mixture by heat transfer from each part was analyzed.
Journal Article

A Study of a Multistage Injection Mechanism for Improving the Combustion of Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0883
Technologies for improving the fuel economy of gasoline engines have been vigorously developed in recent years for the purpose of reducing CO2 emissions. Increasing the compression ratio for improving thermal efficiency and downsizing the engine based on fuel-efficient operating conditions are good examples of technologies for enhancing gasoline engine fuel economy. A direct-injection system is adopted for most of these engines. Direct injection can prevent knocking by lowering the in-cylinder temperature through fuel evaporation in the cylinder. Therefore, direct injection is highly compatible with downsized engines that frequently operate under severe supercharging conditions for improving fuel economy as well as with high compression ratio engines for which susceptibility to knocking is a disadvantage.
Journal Article

Development of Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation System for Steering Evaluation Using Multibody Kinematic Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0086
The adoption of the electronic controlled steering systems with new technologies has been extended in recent years. They have interactions with other complex vehicle subsystems and it is a hard task for the vehicle developer to find the best solution from huge number of the combination of parameter settings with track tests. In order to improve the efficiency of the steering system development, the authors had developed a steering bench test method for steering system using a Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation (HILS). In the steering HILS system, vehicle dynamics simulation and the tie rod axial force calculation are required at the same time in the real-time simulation environment. The accuracy of the tie rod axial force calculation is one of the key factors to reproduce the vehicle driving condition. But the calculation cannot be realized by a commercial software for the vehicle dynamics simulation.
Journal Article

Instantaneous Estimation of Road Friction based on Front Tire SAT using Kalman Filter

2013-04-08
2013-01-0680
This paper proposes a method of estimating road friction and tire slip angle in a cornering maneuver. The method can estimate front tire road friction accurately at low lateral acceleration because it is based on the tire self-aligning torque (SAT) that exhibits high sensitivity to road friction at low slip angles. Road friction and tire slip angle, which are mutually interdependent, are estimated simultaneously using an extended Kalman filter designed around a model describing the relationship between road friction and SAT and a vehicle lateral dynamic model. The front tire SAT is calculated with a mathematical model that describes the torque transmission characteristics from the electric power steering torque to SAT. Therefore, the proposed method is readily applicable to production vehicles. Results of an experimental study show that the change in road friction is instantaneously estimated at low lateral acceleration.
Journal Article

Improvement of Combustion Stability under Cold Ambient Condition by Mixture Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-1303
For diesel engine, lower compression ratio has been demanded to improve fuel consumption, exhaust emission and maximum power recently. However, low compression ratio engine might have combustion instability issues under cold temperature condition, especially just after engine started. As a first step of this study, cold temperature combustion was investigated by in-cylinder pressure analysis and it found out that higher heat release around top dead center, which was mainly contributed by pilot injection, was the key factor to improve engine speed fluctuation. For further understanding of combustion in cold condition, particularly mixture formation near a glow plug, 3D CFD simulation was applied. Specifically for this purpose, TI (Time-scale Interaction) combustion model has been developed for simulating combustion phenomena. This model was based on a reasonable combustion mode, taking into account the characteristic time scale of chemical reactions and turbulence eddy break-up.
Technical Paper

High Power Density Motor and Inverter for RWD Hybrid Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0351
This paper describes the motor and inverter of Nissan's newly developed parallel hybrid system for rear-wheel-drive hybrid vehicles. The new system incorporates a high-power lithium-ion battery and a one-motor-two-clutch powertrain to achieve both highly responsive acceleration and better fuel economy. As the main components of the hybrid system, both the motor and the inverter have been developed and are manufactured in house to attain high power density for providing responsive acceleration, a quiet EV drive mode and improved fuel economy. Because the motor is located between the engine and the transmission, it had to be shortened to stay within the length allowed for the powertrain. The rotary position sensor and clutch actuator are located inside the rotor to meet the size requirement. High-density winding of square-shaped wire and a small power distribution busbar also contribute to the compact configuration.
Technical Paper

Development of “Hybrid EPS”

2011-04-12
2011-01-0564
Hydraulic power steering is applied for petrol and diesel models of Infinity M series to provide supreme feeling of steering. Power assist of hydraulic power steering (here after called HPS), however, does not work when hybrid vehicle is in EV drive mode because the engine, which is the power source stops and the power is not supplied. Electric Power Steering (hereafter called EPS), therefore, “MUST” be installed to assist the power. Here comes the need that Nissan has developed our Hybrid EPS for Infinity M Hybrid model to keep providing supreme feeling of steering of hydraulic power steering without huge packaging change from the standard packaging of petrol & diesel models with hydraulic power steering. Our Hybrid EPS is the 1st hybrid EPS system in the world that is effectuated by oil pressure, and succesively realized by unique and excellent technology of Nissan.
Technical Paper

Appling CAE to Understand the Causality of Dummy Neck Injury Readings

2011-04-12
2011-01-1069
The progress of computer technology and CAE methodology makes it possible to simulate dummy injury readings in vehicle crash simulations. Dummy neck injuries are generally more difficult to simulate than injuries to other regions such as the head or chest. Accordingly, improving the accuracy of dummy neck injury data is a major concern in frontal occupant safety simulations. This paper describes the use of an advanced airbag modeling methodology to improve the accuracy of dummy neck injury readings. First, the following items incorporated in the advanced airbag model are explained. (1) The Finite Point Method (FPM) is used to simulate the flow of gas. (2) A folding model is applied to simulate the folded condition. (3) The fabric material properties used in the simulation take into account anisotropy in the fiber directions and the nonlinear, hysteresis characteristics of stiffness.
Technical Paper

A New Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model Applicable to Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0544
Gasoline engines employ various mechanisms for improvement of fuel consumption and reduction of exhaust emissions to deal with environmental problems. Direct fuel injection is one such technology. This paper presents a new quasi-dimensional combustion model applicable to direct injection gasoline engine. The Model consists of author's original in-cylinder turbulence and mixture homogeneity sub model suitable for direct fuel injection conditions. Model validation results exhibit good agreement with experimental and 3D CFD data at steady state and transient operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Lubrication Analysis of Multi Link VCR Engine Components using a Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Model

2009-04-20
2009-01-1062
Research is under way on an engine system [1] that achieves a variable compression ratio using a multiple-link mechanism between the crankshaft and pistons for the dual purpose of improving fuel economy and power output. At present, there is no database that allows direct judgment of the feasibility of the specific sliding parts in this mechanism. In this paper, the feasibility was examined by making a comparison with the sliding characteristics and material properties of conventional engine parts, for which databases exist, and using evaluation parameters based on mixed elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication calculations. In addition, the innovations made to the mixed EHD calculation method used in this study to facilitate calculations under various lubrication conditions are also explained, including the treatment of surface roughness, wear progress and stiffness around the bearings.
Journal Article

A Novel Multiple DC-Inputs Direct Electric-Power Converter

2009-04-20
2009-01-0293
A new multiple dc-inputs direct electric-power converter (D-EPC) has been developed. It is placed between multiple dc power sources and an ac motor, eliminating the need for a dc/dc converter generally used in conventional converter/inverter systems. The D-PEC can improve the efficiency of the motor drive system with a more compact size. Its power distribution control is carried out by allotting voltage ratios to each of two different dc power sources on a time average basis. A new pulse-width-modulation (PWM) generation technique to drive switching devices in the D-EPC has also been developed. Tests have verified that the three-phase ac motor can be operated by controlling the power distribution between the two power sources.
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