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Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

Development of Plastic Region Tightening 1.6-GPa Ultra-High Strength Bolt with High Delayed Fracture Resistance

2019-04-02
2019-01-1116
A new variable compression turbo (VC-Turbo) engine, which has a multi-link system for controlling the compression ratio from 8:1 to 14:1, requires high axial force for fastening the multi-links because of high input loads and the downsizing requirement. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt with plastic region tightening. One of the biggest technical concerns is delayed fracture. In this study, quenched and tempered alloy steels were chosen for the 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt.
Journal Article

Development of Low Viscosity API SN 0W-16 Fuel-Saving Engine Oil Considering Chain Wear Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-0881
A low viscosity API SN 0W-16 engine oil was developed to achieve a 0.5% improvement in fuel efficiency over the current GF-5/API SN 0W-20 oil. Oil consumption and engine wear are the main roadblocks to the development of low viscosity engine oils. However, optimization of the base oil and additives successfully prevent oil consumption and wear. First, it was confirmed in engine tests that NOACK volatility is still an effective indicator of oil consumption even for a low viscosity grade like 0W-16. As a result of base oil volatility control, the newly developed oil achieves the same level of oil consumption as the current GF-5/API SN 0W-20 oil. Second, it was found that the base oil viscosity and molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) had a significant effect on chain wear in rig testing that simulated silent chain wear. For the same base oil viscosity, the new oil maintains the same oil film thickness under high surface pressure.
Technical Paper

High Power Density Motor and Inverter for RWD Hybrid Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0351
This paper describes the motor and inverter of Nissan's newly developed parallel hybrid system for rear-wheel-drive hybrid vehicles. The new system incorporates a high-power lithium-ion battery and a one-motor-two-clutch powertrain to achieve both highly responsive acceleration and better fuel economy. As the main components of the hybrid system, both the motor and the inverter have been developed and are manufactured in house to attain high power density for providing responsive acceleration, a quiet EV drive mode and improved fuel economy. Because the motor is located between the engine and the transmission, it had to be shortened to stay within the length allowed for the powertrain. The rotary position sensor and clutch actuator are located inside the rotor to meet the size requirement. High-density winding of square-shaped wire and a small power distribution busbar also contribute to the compact configuration.
Technical Paper

A Lubrication Analysis of Multi Link VCR Engine Components using a Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Model

2009-04-20
2009-01-1062
Research is under way on an engine system [1] that achieves a variable compression ratio using a multiple-link mechanism between the crankshaft and pistons for the dual purpose of improving fuel economy and power output. At present, there is no database that allows direct judgment of the feasibility of the specific sliding parts in this mechanism. In this paper, the feasibility was examined by making a comparison with the sliding characteristics and material properties of conventional engine parts, for which databases exist, and using evaluation parameters based on mixed elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication calculations. In addition, the innovations made to the mixed EHD calculation method used in this study to facilitate calculations under various lubrication conditions are also explained, including the treatment of surface roughness, wear progress and stiffness around the bearings.
Technical Paper

Evaluations of Physical Fatigue during Long-term Driving with a New Driving Posture

2007-04-16
2007-01-0348
In a previous study, we developed and validated a new driving posture focused on biomechanical loads for physical fatigue reduction in static long-term sitting. In this study, the posture was evaluated in dynamic long-term driving condition by qualitative and quantitative measurements. The results showed physical fatigue of the new posture was halved in comparison with the one of the conventional posture in same car by subjective evaluations. Physiological indices had same tendency with subjective evaluations. From the results, we extracted seven physiological indices as good measures of physical fatigue while driving. Therefore, fatigue reduction of the new posture was qualitatively validated by physiological measurements.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Tooth Surface Fatigue Strength of Automotive Transmission Gears

2007-04-16
2007-01-0117
The life of automotive transmission gears today is often governed by pitting fatigue life. Being able to predict pitting fatigue life accurately is a crucial issue. Pitting fatigue life is substantially influenced by surface hardness and tooth surface geometry. For that reason, this study examined a new method of predicting pitting fatigue life that takes into account changes in these factors over time. This method makes it possible to predict the pitting fatigue life of automotive transmission gears under a wide range of evaluation conditions with markedly better accuracy than conventional methods used previously.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Driving Posture Focused on Biomechanical Loads

2006-04-03
2006-01-1302
Fatigue resulting from long-term driving can be classified into physical and mental fatigue. Physical fatigue seems to be mainly caused by driving posture. The purpose of this study is to develop a new driving posture for reduction of causal factors of physical fatigue, that is, biomechanical loads caused by the posture. In this paper, driving posture was optimized by subjective optimizations of seat contours and biomechanical analysis considering necessary conditions for driving operations and forward view. The new driving posture was tested by subjective evaluations and pelvic movement measurements. It was found that the new posture reduced physical fatigue dramatically.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Cyclic Plastic Zone Size Method, ω*, for Digital Fatigue Life Prediction of Arc-Welded Joints

2003-10-27
2003-01-2835
Various prediction methods have been proposed for evaluating the fatigue life of welded joints by combining finite element analysis (FEA) with an experimental database. However, to obtain more universal and accurate fatigue life predictions, it is necessary to have criteria for making integrated evaluations of the fatigue strength of welded joints. This paper presents a study that focuses on the local cyclic plastic zone size (ω*) as the criterion of fatigue strength and investigates its validity. The definition of ω* was given by the relationship between the stress state at the notch tip and the elastic strain which was defined along the strain-life fatigue curve (ε - N diagram) of a base metal. As a result of using ω*, it was found that an integrated fatigue life prediction was possible to a certain extent for notch and arc-welded joint specimens.
Technical Paper

Work Hardening and Strength Analysis of Steel Structure with Special Cross Section

2002-07-09
2002-01-2114
This paper presents the results of a strength analysis of a newly developed steel structure featuring a special cross section achieved with the hydroforming process that minimizes the influence of springback. This structure has been developed in pursuit of further weight reductions for the steel body in white. A steel tube with tensile strength of 590 MPa was fabricated in a low-pressure hydroforming operation, resulting in thicker side walls. The results of a three-point bending test showed that the bending strength of the new steel structure with thicker side walls was substantially increased. A finite element crush analysis based on the results of a forming analysis was shown to be effective in predicting the strength of the structure, including the effect of work hardening.
Technical Paper

Thermal Fatigue Life of Exhaust Manifolds Predicted by Simulation

2002-03-04
2002-01-0854
A combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element (FE) analysis approach has been developed to simulate in the early stages of design the temperature distribution and estimate the thermal fatigue life of an engine exhaust manifold. To simulate the temperature distribution under actual operating conditions, we considered the external and internal flow fields. Digital mock-ups of the vehicle and engine were used to define the geometry of the engine compartment. External-air-flow simulation using in-house CFD code was used to predict the flow fields in the engine compartment and the heat transfer coefficients between the air and the exhaust manifold wall at various vehicle speeds. Unsteady-gas-flow calculation using the STAR-CD thermal- fluids analysis code was to predict the heat transfer coefficients between the exhaust gas and the manifold wall under various operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Pitting Resistant Steel for Transmission Gears

2001-03-05
2001-01-0827
It was found that pitting resistance of gears is strongly influenced by resistance to temper softening of carburized steel. The investigation about the influence of chemical compositions on hardness after tempering revealed that silicon, chromium and molybdenum are effective elements to improve resistance to temper softening and pitting resistance. Considering the production of gears, molybdenum is unfavorable because it increases hardness of normalized or annealed condition. Developed new steel contains about 0.5 mass% of silicon and 2.7 mass% chromium. The new steel has excellent pitting resistance and wear resistance. Fatigue and impact strength are equivalent to conventional carburized steels. Cold-formability and machinability of the new steel are adequate for manufacturing gears because of its ordinary hardness before carburizing. The new steel has already been put to practical use in automatic transmission gears. Application test results are also reported.
Technical Paper

Development of the Sequence IVA Valve Train Wear Lubricant Test: Part 1

2000-06-19
2000-01-1820
The ASTM Sequence VE test evaluates lubricant performance for controlling sludge deposits and minimizing overhead camshaft lobe wear. ILSAC asked JAMA to develop a new valve train wear replacement test since the Sequence VE test engine hardware will become obsolete in the year 2000. JAMA submitted the JASO specification M 328-951) KA24E valve train wear test. This first report presents the results of technical studies conducted when JASO M 328-95 was reviewed and the ASTM standardized version of the KA24E test (the Sequence IVA) was proposed. The cam wear mechanism was studied with the goal of improving reproducibility and repeatability. Engine torque was specified to stabilize the NOx concentration in blow-by, which improved test precision. Additionally, the specifications for induction air humidity and temperature, oil temperature control, and test fuel composition were modified when the ASTM version of the KA24E test was proposed.
Technical Paper

Increase in fatigue life of gears hardened by contour induction using double shot peening

2000-06-12
2000-05-0112
Countour Induction Hardening (CIH) method is in the limelight as a new possible surface refining method for gears as it reduces quenching distortion considerably and increases compressive residual stress. Also, Double Shot Peening (DSP) method, especially its advanced technique of using extensively small shots (less than 100 m) at the secondary peening, enables increased compressive residual stress under the surface of the gears. Therefore, the new Compound Surface Refining Method of using CIH + DSP is expected to give much higher compressive residual stress than the conventional methods. On studying the application of this new method, the authors evaluated their surface-refining characteristics and the fatigue limits.
Technical Paper

Method of Fatigue Life Estimation for Arc–Welded Structures

2000-03-06
2000-01-0781
Two working groups in the JSAE Committee of Fatigue–Reliability Section1 are currently researching the issue of fatigue life by both experimental and the CAE approach. Information regarding frequent critical problems on arc–welded structures were sought from auto–manufacturers, vehicle component suppliers, and material suppliers. The method for anti–fatigue design on arc–welded structures was established not only by a database created by physical test results in accordance with the collected information but also with design procedure taking Fracture–Mechanics into consideration. This method will be applied to vehicle development as one of the virtual laboratories in the digital prototype phase. In this paper, both the database from bench–test results on arc welded structures and FEA algorithm unique to JSAE are proposed some of the analysis results associated with the latter proposal are also reported.
Technical Paper

A Study on Engine Bearing Wear and Fatigue Using EHL Analysis and Experimental Analysis

1999-05-03
1999-01-1514
The possibility of predicting engine bearing durability by elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) calculations was investigated with the aim of being able to improve durability efficiently without conducting numerous confirmation tests. This study focused on the connecting rod big-end bearing of an automotive engine. The mechanisms of wear and fatigue, which determine bearing durability, were estimated by comparing the results of EHL analysis and experimental data. This comparison showed the possibility of predicting the wear amount and the occurrence of fatigue by calculation.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Bearing Wear and Its Influence Upon Bearing Performance Based on Elastohydrodynamic Analysis

1999-05-03
1999-01-1522
This paper reports attempts to gain better understanding of the influence of bearing wear on the performance of hydrodynamically lubricated bearings. An analysis was carried out on bearings from a Sapphire bearing test rig using an elastohydrodynamic model. This involved the use of both the original and worn bearing surface profiles. The results indicated that bearing wear could improve the lubrication conditions. Also the progress of wear in the bearing was simulated using a simple model of the wear process. This model predicted that the wear would progress at a reducing rate. The predicted wear agreed well with measurements both in terms of the wear profile and the location of wear.
Technical Paper

Development of a Small Pitch Silent Chain for a Single-Stage Cam Drive System

1999-03-01
1999-01-1226
In contrast to the conventional two-stage cam drive system with a 9.52- mm pitch roller chain, a newly developed silent chain with a 6.35-mm pitch has made it possible to achieve a single-stage system. One traditional drawback of silent chains has been wear elongation. In developing the new chain, reliability was substantially improved by identifying the factors causing wear elongation and their effects and also by optimizing the characteristics of the chain components. The application of this single-stage cam drive system to the new QG engine series has resulted in reduced chain noise, a more compact cylinder head and significant weight savings due to the smaller part count and other improvements.
Technical Paper

Development of a Wear Resistant Aluminum Alloy for Automotive Components

1999-03-01
1999-01-0350
Hypereutectic Al-Si alloy 390, containing large amounts of hard silicon particles, has mainly been used for wear-resistant alloy applications. In the case of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys, the primary silicon particle size and distribution must be controlled to obtain stable wear resistance. The service life of furnaces and molds is shortened by the high melting and casting temperatures required for controlling primary silicon. Furthermore, machinability is degraded by large primary silicon particles. To overcome these problems, a new wear-resistant Al-Si alloy has been developed which provides good castability and machinability. This alloy also has wear resistance and mechanical properties similar to those of the 390 alloy. Specifically, the problems regarding castability and machinability were solved by decreasing the silicon content of the 390 alloy, but that also reduced wear resistance.
Technical Paper

Joint PAJ/JAMA Project - Development of a JASO Gasoline Bench Engine Test for Measuring CCDs

1997-10-01
972837
Detergent additives in automotive gasoline fuel are mainly designed to reduce deposit formation on intake valves and fuel injectors, but it has been reported that some additives may contribute to CCD formation. Therefore, a standardized bench engine test method for CCDs needs to be developed in response to industry demands. Cooperative research between the Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA), has led to the development of a 2.2L Honda engine dynamometer-based CCD test procedure to evaluate CCDs from fuel additives. Ten automobile manufacturers, nine petroleum companies and the Petroleum Energy Center joined the project, which underwent PAJ-JAMA round robin testing. This paper describes the CCD test development activities, which include the selection of an engine and the determination of the optimum test conditions and other test criteria.
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