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Technical Paper

Development of Plastic Region Tightening 1.6-GPa Ultra-High Strength Bolt with High Delayed Fracture Resistance

2019-04-02
2019-01-1116
A new variable compression turbo (VC-Turbo) engine, which has a multi-link system for controlling the compression ratio from 8:1 to 14:1, requires high axial force for fastening the multi-links because of high input loads and the downsizing requirement. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt with plastic region tightening. One of the biggest technical concerns is delayed fracture. In this study, quenched and tempered alloy steels were chosen for the 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt.
Journal Article

Development of Low Viscosity API SN 0W-16 Fuel-Saving Engine Oil Considering Chain Wear Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-0881
A low viscosity API SN 0W-16 engine oil was developed to achieve a 0.5% improvement in fuel efficiency over the current GF-5/API SN 0W-20 oil. Oil consumption and engine wear are the main roadblocks to the development of low viscosity engine oils. However, optimization of the base oil and additives successfully prevent oil consumption and wear. First, it was confirmed in engine tests that NOACK volatility is still an effective indicator of oil consumption even for a low viscosity grade like 0W-16. As a result of base oil volatility control, the newly developed oil achieves the same level of oil consumption as the current GF-5/API SN 0W-20 oil. Second, it was found that the base oil viscosity and molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) had a significant effect on chain wear in rig testing that simulated silent chain wear. For the same base oil viscosity, the new oil maintains the same oil film thickness under high surface pressure.
Technical Paper

Study on Miniaturization of an Air-Cooled Inverter Integrated with Motor

2014-04-01
2014-01-1872
This paper reports about a trial for miniaturization of an air-cooled inverter integrated with motor, which is realized by reduction of the total volume of smoothing capacitor. An integrated system prototype was constructed with a disk-shaped inverter positioned at the rear end of the motor. We examined the possibility of using a ceramic capacitor, which features a higher heat-resistance temperature, lower internal resistance and higher capacity density than a film capacitor. At the same level of capacitance, the volume of a ceramic capacitor is less than one-half that of a film capacitor, enabling the size of the smoothing capacitor to be reduced to approximately one-fifth that of the currently used device. A suitable circuit configuration and physical layout of distributed smoothing capacitors and corresponding power device modules are proposed and demonstrated.
Technical Paper

DEVELOPMENT OF CRASH SAFETY OF THE NEWLY DEVELOPED ELECTRIC VEHICLE

2011-05-17
2011-39-7232
An electric vehicle (EV) is promising as clean energy powered vehicle, due to increased interest in fuel economy and environment in recent years. However, it requires to meet unique safety performance such as electric safety. Nissan has developed a new electric vehicle which achieves electric safety in addition to maintaining enough cruising distance and cabin space. This was achieved by I he development of an all-new platform for electric vehicles. The electric safety was enhanced by the protection of high-voltage components based on consideration of component layout and body structure, high-voltage shutdown by impact sensing system and prevention of short circuit by fuse in the battery. As an example of the protection of high-voltage components, the battery which locates under the floor was protected by elaborative packaging and multi-layer protection structure.
Technical Paper

DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR AND INVERTER FOR RWD HYBRID VEHICLES

2011-05-17
2011-39-7239
At Nissan we have developed a new parallel hybrid system for rear-wheel-drive hybrid vehicles. As the main components of the hybrid system, both the motor and the inverter have been developed and are manufactured in house to attain high power density for providing responsive acceleration, a quiet EV drive mode and improved fuel economy. Because the motor is located between the engine and the transmission, it had to be shortened to be within the length allowed for the powertrain. Therefore, new technologies have been developed such as high-density, square-shaped windings and an optimized magnetic circuit specially designed for concentrated winding motors. The inverter is sized to a 12V battery, which it replaces in the engine compartment. Despite its compact size, the inverter must have rather large current capacity to drive a high-power motor. Heat management is critical to the design of a small but high-power inverter.
Technical Paper

High Power Density Motor and Inverter for RWD Hybrid Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0351
This paper describes the motor and inverter of Nissan's newly developed parallel hybrid system for rear-wheel-drive hybrid vehicles. The new system incorporates a high-power lithium-ion battery and a one-motor-two-clutch powertrain to achieve both highly responsive acceleration and better fuel economy. As the main components of the hybrid system, both the motor and the inverter have been developed and are manufactured in house to attain high power density for providing responsive acceleration, a quiet EV drive mode and improved fuel economy. Because the motor is located between the engine and the transmission, it had to be shortened to stay within the length allowed for the powertrain. The rotary position sensor and clutch actuator are located inside the rotor to meet the size requirement. High-density winding of square-shaped wire and a small power distribution busbar also contribute to the compact configuration.
Journal Article

Development of a Parallel Hybrid System for RWD Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0884
In December 2006, Nissan announced its Nissan Green Program 2010 (NGP 2010), a mid-term environmental action plan that includes initiatives to reduce vehicle emissions. In line with this plan, the company intends to introduce a new and original hybrid system in fiscal year 2010. Specifically, this system-called the “Infiniti Direct Response Hybrid”-is a one-motor, two-clutch parallel hybrid system that eliminates the need for a torque converter. It will be featured in the 2012 Infiniti M35 Hybrid and provides the following advantages. 1 Significant improvement in fuel economy even in Highway driving 2 Better response and a more direct feeling 3 Lightweight and low cost This one-motor, two-clutch system without torque converter possesses a simple but highly capable architecture that is new to the passenger vehicle segment.
Technical Paper

Challenges of Widespread Marketplace Acceptance of Electric Vehicles -- Towards a Zero-Emission Mobility Society

2010-10-19
2010-01-2312
Curbing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), which is believed by many scientists to be a major contributor to global warming, is one of the top priority issues that must be addressed by automobile manufacturers. Automakers have set their own strategies to improve fuel economy and to reduce CO₂ emissions. Some of them include integrated approaches, focusing on not only improvement of vehicle technology, but also human factors (eco-driving support for drivers) and social and transportation factors (traffic management by intelligent transportation systems [ITS]). Among them, electric vehicles (EVs) will be a key contributor to attaining the challenging goal of CO₂ reduction. Mass deployment of EVs is required to achieve a zero-emission society. To accomplish that, new advanced technologies, new business schemes, and new partnerships are required.
Technical Paper

A Lubrication Analysis of Multi Link VCR Engine Components using a Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Model

2009-04-20
2009-01-1062
Research is under way on an engine system [1] that achieves a variable compression ratio using a multiple-link mechanism between the crankshaft and pistons for the dual purpose of improving fuel economy and power output. At present, there is no database that allows direct judgment of the feasibility of the specific sliding parts in this mechanism. In this paper, the feasibility was examined by making a comparison with the sliding characteristics and material properties of conventional engine parts, for which databases exist, and using evaluation parameters based on mixed elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication calculations. In addition, the innovations made to the mixed EHD calculation method used in this study to facilitate calculations under various lubrication conditions are also explained, including the treatment of surface roughness, wear progress and stiffness around the bearings.
Technical Paper

Research on Large Capacity, High Power Lithium-ion Batteries

2009-04-20
2009-01-1389
Aiming for an environmental vehicle, since the 1990s we have narrowed our focus to the development of an exclusive use lithium-ion battery, and we have strongly advanced our examinations into high-performance power supply systems. In order to adapt a battery to meet vehicle requirements, it is necessary to more accurately predict battery performance, and have the ability to design it. For example, in the applicability to HEVs(Hybrid Electric Vehicles), ensuring battery power with certainty is required, but in order to improve battery power, the basic process that occurs inside the battery was restrained, so it is possible that the quantitative analytical approach is the necessary fundamental technology.
Technical Paper

Research and Development Work on High-performance Lithium-ion Batteries for EV Application

2008-04-14
2008-01-1332
From the beginning of the 1990s, we have been vigorously investigating a high-performance power source system for application to environmental vehicles, focusing our research and development efforts specifically on lithium-ion batteries. In order to adapt a battery system to the requirements of the target vehicle, battery performance must be predicted and designed more accurately. In the case of hybrid electric vehicles, for example, battery power must be reliably assured. Improving battery power requires quantitative analytical methods as fundamental techniques for understanding the basic processes that take place in a battery. From this perspective, we began constructing a battery simulation model from scratch in the middle of the 1990s concurrently with our battery R&D activities. The model simulates electrode reactions and charge transport and has been used in investigating the influence of these factors on battery performance.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Tooth Surface Fatigue Strength of Automotive Transmission Gears

2007-04-16
2007-01-0117
The life of automotive transmission gears today is often governed by pitting fatigue life. Being able to predict pitting fatigue life accurately is a crucial issue. Pitting fatigue life is substantially influenced by surface hardness and tooth surface geometry. For that reason, this study examined a new method of predicting pitting fatigue life that takes into account changes in these factors over time. This method makes it possible to predict the pitting fatigue life of automotive transmission gears under a wide range of evaluation conditions with markedly better accuracy than conventional methods used previously.
Technical Paper

Evaluations of Physical Fatigue during Long-term Driving with a New Driving Posture

2007-04-16
2007-01-0348
In a previous study, we developed and validated a new driving posture focused on biomechanical loads for physical fatigue reduction in static long-term sitting. In this study, the posture was evaluated in dynamic long-term driving condition by qualitative and quantitative measurements. The results showed physical fatigue of the new posture was halved in comparison with the one of the conventional posture in same car by subjective evaluations. Physiological indices had same tendency with subjective evaluations. From the results, we extracted seven physiological indices as good measures of physical fatigue while driving. Therefore, fatigue reduction of the new posture was qualitatively validated by physiological measurements.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Driving Posture Focused on Biomechanical Loads

2006-04-03
2006-01-1302
Fatigue resulting from long-term driving can be classified into physical and mental fatigue. Physical fatigue seems to be mainly caused by driving posture. The purpose of this study is to develop a new driving posture for reduction of causal factors of physical fatigue, that is, biomechanical loads caused by the posture. In this paper, driving posture was optimized by subjective optimizations of seat contours and biomechanical analysis considering necessary conditions for driving operations and forward view. The new driving posture was tested by subjective evaluations and pelvic movement measurements. It was found that the new posture reduced physical fatigue dramatically.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Cyclic Plastic Zone Size Method, ω*, for Digital Fatigue Life Prediction of Arc-Welded Joints

2003-10-27
2003-01-2835
Various prediction methods have been proposed for evaluating the fatigue life of welded joints by combining finite element analysis (FEA) with an experimental database. However, to obtain more universal and accurate fatigue life predictions, it is necessary to have criteria for making integrated evaluations of the fatigue strength of welded joints. This paper presents a study that focuses on the local cyclic plastic zone size (ω*) as the criterion of fatigue strength and investigates its validity. The definition of ω* was given by the relationship between the stress state at the notch tip and the elastic strain which was defined along the strain-life fatigue curve (ε - N diagram) of a base metal. As a result of using ω*, it was found that an integrated fatigue life prediction was possible to a certain extent for notch and arc-welded joint specimens.
Technical Paper

Work Hardening and Strength Analysis of Steel Structure with Special Cross Section

2002-07-09
2002-01-2114
This paper presents the results of a strength analysis of a newly developed steel structure featuring a special cross section achieved with the hydroforming process that minimizes the influence of springback. This structure has been developed in pursuit of further weight reductions for the steel body in white. A steel tube with tensile strength of 590 MPa was fabricated in a low-pressure hydroforming operation, resulting in thicker side walls. The results of a three-point bending test showed that the bending strength of the new steel structure with thicker side walls was substantially increased. A finite element crush analysis based on the results of a forming analysis was shown to be effective in predicting the strength of the structure, including the effect of work hardening.
Technical Paper

Thermal Fatigue Life of Exhaust Manifolds Predicted by Simulation

2002-03-04
2002-01-0854
A combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element (FE) analysis approach has been developed to simulate in the early stages of design the temperature distribution and estimate the thermal fatigue life of an engine exhaust manifold. To simulate the temperature distribution under actual operating conditions, we considered the external and internal flow fields. Digital mock-ups of the vehicle and engine were used to define the geometry of the engine compartment. External-air-flow simulation using in-house CFD code was used to predict the flow fields in the engine compartment and the heat transfer coefficients between the air and the exhaust manifold wall at various vehicle speeds. Unsteady-gas-flow calculation using the STAR-CD thermal- fluids analysis code was to predict the heat transfer coefficients between the exhaust gas and the manifold wall under various operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Engine Application of a Battery Voltage-Driven DI Fuel Injection System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0986
Every fuel injection system for DI gasoline engines has a DC-DC converter to provide high, stabile voltage for opening the injector valve more quickly. A current control circuit for holding the valve open is also needed, as well as a large-capacity capacitor for pilot injection. Since these components occupy considerable space, an injector drive unit separate from the ECU must be used. Thus, there has been a need for a fuel injection system that can inject a small volume of fuel without requiring high voltage. To meet that need, we have developed a dual coil injector and an opening coil current control system. An investigation was also made of all the factors related to the dynamic range of the injector, including static flow rate, fuel pressure, battery voltage and harness resistance. Both efforts have led to the adoption of a battery voltage-driven fuel injector.
Technical Paper

Development of Pitting Resistant Steel for Transmission Gears

2001-03-05
2001-01-0827
It was found that pitting resistance of gears is strongly influenced by resistance to temper softening of carburized steel. The investigation about the influence of chemical compositions on hardness after tempering revealed that silicon, chromium and molybdenum are effective elements to improve resistance to temper softening and pitting resistance. Considering the production of gears, molybdenum is unfavorable because it increases hardness of normalized or annealed condition. Developed new steel contains about 0.5 mass% of silicon and 2.7 mass% chromium. The new steel has excellent pitting resistance and wear resistance. Fatigue and impact strength are equivalent to conventional carburized steels. Cold-formability and machinability of the new steel are adequate for manufacturing gears because of its ordinary hardness before carburizing. The new steel has already been put to practical use in automatic transmission gears. Application test results are also reported.
Technical Paper

Development of the Sequence IVA Valve Train Wear Lubricant Test: Part 1

2000-06-19
2000-01-1820
The ASTM Sequence VE test evaluates lubricant performance for controlling sludge deposits and minimizing overhead camshaft lobe wear. ILSAC asked JAMA to develop a new valve train wear replacement test since the Sequence VE test engine hardware will become obsolete in the year 2000. JAMA submitted the JASO specification M 328-951) KA24E valve train wear test. This first report presents the results of technical studies conducted when JASO M 328-95 was reviewed and the ASTM standardized version of the KA24E test (the Sequence IVA) was proposed. The cam wear mechanism was studied with the goal of improving reproducibility and repeatability. Engine torque was specified to stabilize the NOx concentration in blow-by, which improved test precision. Additionally, the specifications for induction air humidity and temperature, oil temperature control, and test fuel composition were modified when the ASTM version of the KA24E test was proposed.
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