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Technical Paper

Analytical Estimation of Clutch Life for Manual Transmission

2019-04-02
2019-01-0335
The clutch is the connecting link between engine and the power train. It connects and disconnects the engine to the gearbox as per the wish of the driver. Clutch has a friction disc which acts like a fuse wire which wears in the process of the connection. This paper tries to calculate the clutch life analytically (In terms of Kms. run by vehicle), of automotive vehicles having manual transmission. As the clutch engages and disengages the engine to the gearbox, during this time due to slippage, energy is dissipated which results in the wear of the clutch disc. It calculates life based on the volumetric wear of the clutch disc and wear allowance available. The work done by other people in this domain include the empirical estimation of clutch life based on the past data, effect of the surface topography on the friction characteristics of the wet clutches, modeling of clutch housing and facing temperature for the estimation of the clutch life of a manual transmission etc.
Technical Paper

A Method to Evaluate Impact of Power Steering on Fuel Economy and Optimization

2019-01-09
2019-26-0309
Vehicle manufacturers strive hard to achieve best in class fuel economy. Apart from light weighting of the structures, driveline optimization and reduction of tire rolling resistance, tapping of parasitic losses is also important and helps to optimize the design of auxiliary power consuming systems. One of such system studied in this work is power steering system. The effect of parasitic losses on fuel economy is predominant for small commercial vehicle compare to heavy vehicles. The evaluation of deterioration in the fuel economy due to implementation of power steering system on one of the small commercial vehicle is carried out using multiple virtual simulation tools. Virtual route profile is modelled using longitude, latitude and altitude data captured through GPS and steering duty cycle is mapped in terms of steering rotation angle. A system level model of hydraulic power steering system is developed.
Technical Paper

Fiber Reinforced Plastic Durability: Nonlinear Multi-Scale Modeling for Structural Part Life Predictions

2019-01-09
2019-26-0278
OEMs are seeking to develop vehicle light weighting strategies that will allow them to meet weight and fuel economy targets hence increasingly shifting their focus towards incorporating lighter material solutions at mass produced scales. Composites are seen by automotive manufacturers as the solution to lightweight vehicles without affecting their performance. More and more parts are made of short fiber reinforced plastics (SFRP) as well as continuous fiber composites. However, replacing metals by composites requires a new design approach and a clear understanding of the composite behavior. This paradigm however requires a dedicated tool for composite design in order to take into account the specific composite behavior. Traditional design tools are not able to state accurately the composite material behavior and sometime leading to use high safety of factors and lack of confidence in the design.
Technical Paper

Development and Prediction of Vehicle Drag Coefficient Using OpenFoam CFD Tool

2019-01-09
2019-26-0235
Vehicle aerodynamic design has a critical impact on fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Reducing aerodynamic wind resistance of the vehicle's exterior shape and reducing losses associated with requirements for engine compartment cooling through vehicle front openings plays key role in achieving desired aerodynamic efficiency. Today fairly large number of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are being performed during the vehicle aerodynamic design and development process and it is rapidly increasing day by day. Vehicle aerodynamic design and development process involves mainly aerodynamic shape development, aerodynamic optimizations of vehicle external components (side view mirror, spoilers, underbody shield etc.) and number of” what if studies during preliminary design process. Licensing costs of the available commercial CFD simulation solver has significant impact on product development cost when numbers of aerodynamic simulations expand.
Technical Paper

External Aerodynamic Drag Coefficient Prediction of Full Scale Passenger Car Based on Scale Model Assessment

2019-01-09
2019-26-0224
Aerodynamics performance evaluation of passenger cars is important during early vehicle development phase as it influences fuel economy, vehicle stability and drivability. Usually during initial styling phase, scale model is prepared and tested in wind tunnel to check aerodynamic performance like drag coefficient and these are used to predict aerodynamic performance of full scale model as testing on full scale model is costly and time consuming. To ensure its correctness, it is important to understand difference in physics from scale model to full scale model. In predicting full vehicle aerodynamics performance from scale model assessment; importance of Reynolds number, effect of geometric scaling on flow i.e. flow separation and wake zone change needs to be understood and addressed. This paper discusses about effect of scaling on aerodynamic flow behavior and drag.
Journal Article

Gearshift Quality Sensitivity Analysis

2019-01-09
2019-26-0328
Gearshift quality is a perceived quality parameter. Hence, is getting much importance because of the increased awareness about comfortable and refined driving experience, especially in the case of passenger cars. When the topic of gearshift feeling is broached in manual transmission vehicles, synchronizer pack (shifter sleeve, engaging gear, strut, synchronizer and gear synchro ring assembly) have been the focus point for optimization. Synchronizer type (single, double or triple cone), lining material, datch chamfer angle of shifter sleeve/synchro ring of gear/synchronizer, all of these have been extensively studied in the past to improve the gearshift quality. With stringent timelines for vehicle development, OEMs prefer to use off-the-shelf powertrain systems developed by powertrain manufacturers. Due to this, avenues to refine gearshift feel gets reduced to a large extent and hence refinement becomes difficult.
Technical Paper

Study of Clutch Judder Phenomenon in Manual Transmission Vehicle and Its Analysis Approach

2019-01-09
2019-26-0215
Clutch engagement judder is a phenomenon wherein the driver experiences vibrations on seat during the clutch engagement process for the vehicle launch. Clutch engagement judder is one of the critical vehicle attributes as a part of overall vehicle NHV. Torsional oscillations, specifically originating from clutch in the driveline during clutch engagement, are referred as clutch engagement judder. Judder is a phenomenon wherein friction induced torsional vibrations are generated in the driveline because of sliding contact between clutch and flywheel, during engagement. These resulting oscillations inherit the first resonance frequency of the driveline. The engagement judder not only affects the dynamics of transmission system but also the vehicle, because of excitations being transferred to body via suspensions and mounts. Passengers experience these oscillations as vibrations during vehicle launch. If excitation level is high then it may cause discomfort to passengers.
Technical Paper

Torsional Fluctuations Consideration while Design of Synchro Rings

2018-09-10
2018-01-1823
In today’s manual transmissions of car, gearshift system requires high performance with particular emphasis on low effort, minimal travel and positive feel. To meet these targets, a high capacity multi cone synchronizers along with higher co-efficient of friction material used for lower gears. The design of synchronizer with these specifications is influenced by torsional fluctuations from engine. Excessive torsional vibrations leads to wobbling of synchro rings within the peripheral clearances with surrounding parts. Wobbling leads to abrasion wear of frictional area of synchro ring causing grating or crashing noise of gears during shifting. This paper presents the optimization of the multiple cone synchronizer design exposed to excessive torsional vibrations and validation of the same on test bench during development stage instead vehicle level validation.
Technical Paper

Grit Blasting on Synchronizer - To Resolve Early Crashing Complaint

2017-06-05
2017-01-1769
In today’s automobile market, most OEMs use manual transmission for cars. Gear Shifting is a crucial customer touch point. Any issue or inconvenience caused while shifting gears can result into customer dissatisfaction and will affect the brand image. Synchronizer is a vital subsystem for precise gear shifting mechanism. Based on vehicle application selection of synchronizer for given inertia and speed difference is a key factor which decides overall shift quality of gearbox. For more demanding driver abuse conditions like skip shifting, conventional brass synchronizers have proved inadequate for required speed difference and gear inertia, which eventually results into synchronizer crashing and affects driving performance. To increase synchronizer performance of multi-cone compact brass synchronizer, a ‘Grit blasting process’ has been added. These components tested with an accelerated test plan successfully.
Technical Paper

Weight Optimisation of Dumper Body Structure Conserving Stiffness, Buckling and Dent Performance

2017-01-10
2017-26-0304
The entire commercial vehicle industry is moving towards weight reduction to leverage on the latest materials available to benefit in payload & fuel efficiency. General practice of weight reduction using high strength steel with reduced thickness in reference to Roark’s formula does not consider the stiffness & dent performance. While this helps to meet the targeted weight reduction keeping the stress levels within the acceptable limit, but with a penalty on stiffness & dent performance. The parameters of stiffener like thickness, section & pitching are very important while considering the Stiffness, bucking & dent performance of a dumper body. The Finite Element Model of subject dumper body has been studied in general particularly on impact of dent performance and is correlated with road load data to provide unique solution to the product. The impact of payload during loading of dumper is the major load case.
Journal Article

Development of 1.2L Gasoline Turbocharged MPFI Engine for Passenger Car Application

2017-01-10
2017-26-0026
In the emerging technology trend, there is continuous demand for increase in engine performance in terms of power & torque while providing competitive fuel efficiency. Understanding and fulfillment of complex customer requirements with affordable technology is extremely challenging. In order to meet potential conflicting needs and offer ‘fun to drive’ experience to customers, Tata Motors has developed first in segment turbocharged gasoline MPFI engine. Further in order to create market differentiator, multi drive modes were introduced as segment first feature. The boosted compact 1200 cc engine while developing 90 Ps power, delivers 140 N-m torque over a wide range of 1500-4000 rpm, best suited for Indian drive conditions. This performance boost is nearly 40% over and above performance of comparable NA engine without any compromise on vehicle level fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Development, Component Optimization and Integration for a Metropolitan Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2017-01-10
2017-26-0084
The authors of this technical paper conceptualize and illustrate a powertrain architecture for a hybrid electric vehicle coupled with a unique strategy to reduce a real life problem of driving in snail paced traffic. This architecture utilizes a relatively low powered hybrid electric prime mover that is generally used in mild hybrid vehicles, in an arrangement similar to a parallel hybrid system. Here, the electric machine is mounted on the input shaft of the gearbox and the clutch is actuated automatically through an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) system. Therefore, it is possible to completely disengage the engine from the driveline and drive the vehicle independently through an appropriately sized electric prime mover. The high gear ratio between the drivetrain and the electric prime mover at lower gears can be leveraged to provide low velocity electric creep mode during which the vehicle can function as a pure Electric Vehicle (EV) while engine remains off.
Technical Paper

Optimization of AC Control in Hybrid Electric Vehicles during Urban Drive Conditions

2017-01-10
2017-26-0087
Hybridization of vehicle drive train is an important step to increase energy security, reduce crude oil import, improvement of air quality and GHG reduction. Heavy traffic congestion poses a great challenge in improvement of fuel economy. Nowadays urban climatic condition forces the passenger to keep air-conditioning (AC) on; thus further decreasing the fuel economy. In a typical urban drive; the vehicle commutes with low speed forcing IC Engine to run in its low efficiency operational points. Further it is characterized by frequent start-stop and crawling. It has been observed that the power consumption for AC is comparable to that required for the vehicle propulsion. Hence the AC on condition with propelling vehicle demands higher power from engine creating a challenge for fuel economy improvement.
Technical Paper

NVH Refinement of Small Gasoline Engine through Digital and Experimental Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0211
Today’s competitive market demands for low cost passenger cars with lighter, smaller size, peppy response and fuel efficient engines and having world class NVH refinement levels. For such requirements, it is essential to optimize the product starting from the design conceptual stage, considering all performance aspects. Generally, three cylinder engines, due to less reciprocating masses, compared to four-cylinder engine, are said to be fuel efficient for the same capacity. Nevertheless, NVH problems caused by inherent imbalance forces and couples remain as drawback of the three-cylinder engine. However, through optimal design of the crank train, control of cylinder to cylinder pressure variation, stiffening of the engine structure, optimizing the integration with a vehicle through proper design of mounts, NVH refinement levels can be improved.
Technical Paper

Tackle Low Frequency Structural Vibration in AMT Car using Gear Shift Schedule Optimization

2017-01-10
2017-26-0198
The present work focuses on optimization of gear shift pattern of an AMT vehicle to improve its NVH performance without causing any adverse effect on any other vehicle performance attribute. The vehicle which was identified with the structural body resonance at low frequency had discomforting boom noise in a particular engine rpm zone and at corresponding vehicle speed. With the initial shift pattern (will be referred as V1 gear shift schedule), the gear shifts were calibrated such that when vehicle is driven in the city with 20 to 60 kmph speed, the vehicle operated mostly in the best fuel economy zone but it used to pass through structural resonance frequency. This resulted in the presence of continuous boom leading to an unpleasant driving experience. In order to avoid the presence of boom noise during city driving, the gear shift points were optimized (will be referred as V2 gear shift schedule) such that the vehicle did not operate in affected engine speed range.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Heavy Commercial Vehicle Response to Rear Super Single Tire Blow Out

2017-01-10
2017-26-0341
The fuel economy of heavy commercial vehicles can be significantly improved by reducing the rolling resistance of tires. To reduce the rolling resistance of 6×4 tractor, the super single tires instead of rear dual wheel tires are tried. Though the field trials showed a significant increase in fuel economy by using super single tires, it posed a concern of road safety when these tires blowout during operation. Physical testing of tire blowout on vehicle is very unsafe, time consuming and expensive. Hence, a full vehicle simulation of super single tire blowout is carried out. The mechanical properties of tires such as cornering stiffness, radial stiffness and rolling resistance changes during the tire blowout; this change is incorporated in simulation using series of events that apply different gains to these mechanical properties.
Technical Paper

Simulating Bowden Cable Routing on Virtual Vehicle and Design Guidelines to Achieve the Best Cable Performance

2016-09-27
2016-01-8060
There has been immense focus on Gear Shift Quality as it is seen as an important factor for subjective evaluation of driving comfort of a vehicle with manual transmission. Synchronizer and driveline stiffness optimization is often the only area of focus for gear shift quality during early design stage. Proven Simulation models are already available for predicting the effect of synchronizer and driveline stiffness. Though Gear shift cable also has a significant effect on gear shift quality, neither design guidelines nor simulation models are available for predicting gear shift cable performance. Designers have relied on physical approach to establish cable routing, since cable routing cannot be predicted on virtual vehicle. In design phase cable routing is imagined and modeled in CAD using constrained curve geometry and later on established by physical trials on vehicle with various cable lengths, routing paths and clamp positions.
Technical Paper

Performance Optimization of Electronically Controlled Hydraulic Fan Drive (HFD) Used in Commercial Application

2016-04-05
2016-01-0182
Ever tightening emission limits and constant pressure for increasing engine power are resulting in increased engine operating temperature. This coupled with continuous drive for fuel economy improvement because of the stiff competition are forcing OEMs to explore alternative cooling solutions resulting in less power take off and quick response as cooling requirement shoots up. Aim of this paper is to analyze the relative benefits of incorporating a new cooling fan drive system concept over conventional viscous fan driven cooling system with step-less variable speed control independent of engine speed variation. Hydraulic fan drive system control fan rpm based on the fluid temperature as compared to air temperature in viscous coupling fan drive system. HFD system provides quick response when increase in coolant temperature is observed. HFD system in this way provide more control on fan rpm.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology with Shock Loads and Fatigue Limit of Press Fitted Gears on Shaft

2013-11-27
2013-01-2794
In case of new generation of commercial vehicles, three shaft transmissions are designed with press fitted gears on counter shaft. It allows user to save the cost of transmission manufacturing by considerable amount. In case of heavy commercial vehicles, which are being used in abusive conditions such as mining and off-road applications, it becomes absolutely necessary to ensure that the gears press fit should withstand the continuous loads and impact loads. There are design guidelines available to ensure proper fit and torque carrying capacity between the mating parts. Still, there are gear slippage, shaft and gear breakage failures in the field. In this scenario, there is a need to develop bench test procedure which will capture such failures in the prototype stage. Looking at the failures in the field, it is necessary to capture all above hidden failures in design validation phase.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Clutch Inertial Effects on Gear Shifting, Synchronizer Capacity and Accelerated Testing of Synchronizers

2013-11-27
2013-01-2807
In today's scenario, most of the OEMs use manual transmissions with synchronizer gear shifting system for ease of gear shifting. It gives very high fuel efficiency. Gear shifting is a customer touch point, hence it is very important to select adequate synchronizer capacity so that it will perform in better and last longer. To test the synchronizers, there are many test methods which give the idea about life of synchronizer and its performance, in different conditions. Regular synchronizer rig tests consume lot of time in deriving the results. So it is very important to find out a way which will give same results within short time period. To carry out the short time test or accelerated test, we need to understand the effect of various factors like reflected inertia, drag torque, differential speed, synchronizing time, and gear shifting force on synchronizer capacity.
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