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Technical Paper

Optimization of a Diesel Engine with Variable Exhaust Valve Phasing for Fast SCR System Warm-Up

2019-04-02
2019-01-0584
Early exhaust valve opening (eEVO) increases the exhaust gas temperature by faster termination of the power stroke and is considered as a potential warm up strategy for diesel engines aftertreatment thermal management. In this study, first, it is shown that when eEVO is applied, the engine main variables such as the boost pressure, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection (timing and quantity) must be re-calibrated to develop the required torque, avoid exceeding the exhaust temperature limits and keep the air fuel ratio sufficiently high. Then, a two-step procedure is presented to optimize the engine operation after the eEVO system is introduced, using a validated diesel engine model. In the first step, the engine variables are optimized at a constant eEVO shift. In the second step, optimal eEVO trajectories are calculated using Dynamic Programming (DP) for a transient test cycle.
Journal Article

An EGR Cooler Fouling Model: Experimental Correlation and Model Uses

2017-03-28
2017-01-0535
Thermal effectiveness of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) coolers used in diesel engines can progressively decrease and stabilize over time due to inner fouling layer of the cooler tubes. Thermophoretic force has been identified as the major cause of diesel exhaust soot fouling, and models are proposed in the literature but improvements in simulation are needed especially for the long-term trend of soot deposition. To describe the fouling stabilization behavior, a removal mechanism is required to account for stabilization of the soot layer. Observations from previous experiments on surrogate circular tubes suggest there are three primary factors to determine removal mechanisms: surface temperature, thickness, and shear velocity. Based on this hypothesis, we developed a 1D CFD fouling model for predicting the thermal effectiveness reduction of real EGR coolers. The model includes the two competing mechanisms mentioned that results in fouling balance.
Technical Paper

Emissions Modeling of a Light-Duty Diesel Engine for Model-Based Control Design Using Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Networks

2017-03-28
2017-01-0601
The development of advanced model-based engine control strategies, such as economic model predictive control (eMPC) for diesel engine fuel economy and emission optimization, requires accurate and low-complexity models for controller design validation. This paper presents the NOx and smoke emissions modeling of a light duty diesel engine equipped with a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and a high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. Such emission models can be integrated with an existing air path model into a complete engine mean value model (MVM), which can predict engine behavior at different operating conditions for controller design and validation before physical engine tests. The NOx and smoke emission models adopt an artificial neural network (ANN) approach with Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) architectures. The networks are trained and validated using experimental data collected from engine bench tests.
Technical Paper

Design Environment for Nonlinear Model Predictive Control

2016-04-05
2016-01-0627
Model Predictive Control (MPC) design methods are becoming popular among automotive control researchers because they explicitly address an important challenge faced by today’s control designers: How does one realize the full performance potential of complex multi-input, multi-output automotive systems while satisfying critical output, state and actuator constraints? Nonlinear MPC (NMPC) offers the potential to further improve performance and streamline the development for those systems in which the dynamics are strongly nonlinear. These benefits are achieved in the MPC framework by using an on-line model of the controlled system to generate the control sequence that is the solution of a constrained optimization problem over a receding horizon.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Post Injection Scheduling for Soot Reduction in a Light-Duty Turbodiesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0726
This experimental study involves optimization of the scheduling of diesel post injections to reduce soot emissions from a light-duty diesel engine. Previous work has shown that certain post injection schedules can reduce engine-out soot emissions when compared to conventional injection schedules for the same engine load. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of post injection scheduling for a range of engine conditions on a light duty multicylinder turbodiesel engine (1.9L GM ZDTH). For each engine operating condition, a test grid was developed so that only two variables (post injection duration and the commanded dwell time between main injection and post injection) were varied, with all other conditions held constant, in order to isolate the effects of the post injection schedule. Results have identified two distinct regimes of post injection schedules that reduce soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Comparison of High- and Low-Pressure Electric Supercharging of a HDD Engine: Steady State and Dynamic Air-Path Considerations

2016-04-05
2016-01-1035
This paper numerically investigates the performance implications of the use of an electric supercharger in a heavy-duty DD13 diesel engine. Two electric supercharger configurations are examined. The first is a high-pressure (HP) configuration where the supercharger is placed after the turbocharger compressor, while the second is a low-pressure (LP) one, where the supercharger is placed before the turbocharger compressor. At steady state, high engine speed operation, the airflows of the HP and LP implementations can vary by as much as 20%. For transient operation under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) heavy duty diesel (HDD) engine transient drive cycle, supercharging is required only at very low engine speeds to improve airflow and torque. Under the low speed transient conditions, both the LP and HP configurations show similar increases in torque response so that there are 44 fewer engine cycles at the smoke-limit relative to the baseline turbocharged engine.
Journal Article

The Effects of Temperature, Shear Stress, and Deposit Thickness on EGR Cooler Fouling Removal Mechanism - Part 2

2016-04-05
2016-01-0186
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are used on diesel engines to reduce peak in-cylinder flame temperatures, leading to less NOx formation during the combustion process. There is an ongoing concern with soot and hydrocarbon fouling inside the cold surface of the cooler. The fouling layer reduces the heat transfer efficiency and causes pressure drop to increase across the cooler. A number of experimental studies have demonstrated that the fouling layer tends to asymptotically approach a critical height, after which the layer growth ceases. One potential explanation for this behavior is the removal mechanism derived by the shear force applied on the soot and hydrocarbon deposit surface. As the deposit layer thickens, shear force applied on the fouling surface increases due to the flow velocity growth. When a critical shear force is applied, deposit particles start to get removed.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Comparison of Autoignition of Homogeneous Fuel/Air Mixtures and Sprays in Diesel Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0311
All previous correlations of the ignition delay (ID) period in diesel combustion show a positive activation energy, which means that shorter ID periods are achieved at higher charge temperatures. This is not the case in the autoignition of most homogeneous hydrocarbons-air mixtures where they experience the NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient ) regime in the intermediate temperature range, from about 800 K to 1000 K). Here, the autoignition reactions slow down and longer ID periods are experienced at higher temperatures. Accordingly the global activation energy for the autoignition reactions of homogeneous mixtures should vary from positive to negative values.
Journal Article

Influence of Injection Duration and Ambient Temperature on the Ignition Delay in a 2.34L Optical Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1830
Non-conventional operating conditions and fuels in diesel engines can produce longer ignition delays compared to conventional diesel combustion. If those extended delays are longer than the injection duration, the ignition and combustion progress can be significantly influenced by the transient following the end of injection (EOI), and especially by the modification of the mixture field. The objective of this paper is to assess how those long ignition delays, obtained by injecting at low in-cylinder temperatures (e.g., 760-800K), are affected by EOI. Two multi-hole diesel fuel injectors with either six 0.20mm orifices or seven 0.14mm orifices have been used in a 2.34L single-cylinder optical diesel engine. We consider a range of ambient top dead center (TDC) temperatures at the start of injection from 760-1000K as well as a range of injection durations from 0.5ms to 3.1ms. Ignition delays are computed through the analysis of both cylinder pressure and chemiluminescence imaging.
Technical Paper

Impact of Supplemental Natural Gas on Engine Efficiency, Performance, and Emissions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0847
In this study, the performance and emissions of a 4 cylinder 2.5L light-duty diesel engine with methane fumigation in the intake air manifold is studied to simulate a dual fuel conversion kit. Because the engine control unit is optimized to work with only the diesel injection into the cylinder, the addition of methane to the intake disrupts this optimization. The energy from the diesel fuel is replaced with that from the methane by holding the engine load and speed constant as methane is added to the intake air. The pilot injection is fixed and the main injection is varied in increments over 12 crank angle degrees at these conditions to determine the timing that reduces each of the emissions while maintaining combustion performance as measured by the brake thermal efficiency. It is shown that with higher substitution the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions can increase by up to twenty times. The NOx emissions decrease for all engine conditions, up to 53%.
Journal Article

The Ignition Behavior of a Coal to Liquid Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel in a Military Relevant Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1197
The U.S. Army currently uses JP-8 for global operations according to the "one fuel forward policy" that was enacted almost twenty years ago in order to help reduce the logistics burden of supplying a variety of fuels for given Department of Defense vehicle and base applications. One particular challenge with using global JP-8 is the lack of or too broad a range of specified combustion and fuel system affecting properties including ignition quality, high temperature viscosity, and lubricity. In addition to these challenges, the JP-8 fuel specification currently allows the use of blending with certain types of synthetic jet fuels up to 50% by volume. This blended fuel also doesn't include an ignition quality or high temperature viscosity specification, but does include a lubricity specification that is much less restrictive than DF-2.
Journal Article

On the Ignition Behavior of JP-8 in Military Relevant Diesel Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0119
U.S. Army ground vehicles predominately use JP-8 as the energy source for ground vehicles based on the ‘one fuel forward policy’. Though this policy was enacted almost twenty years ago, there exists little fundamental JP-8 combustion knowledge at diesel engine type boundary conditions. Nevertheless, current U.S. Army ground vehicles predominately use commercial off-the-shelf or modified commercial diesel engines as the prime mover. Unique military engines are typically utilized when commercial products do not meet the mobility and propulsion system packaging requirements of the particular ground vehicle in question.
Journal Article

On the Premixed Phase Combustion Behavior of JP-8 in a Military Relevant Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0123
Current U.S. Army ground vehicles predominately use commercial off-the-shelf or modified commercial diesel engines as the prime mover. Unique military engines are typically utilized when commercial products do not meet the mobility requirements of the particular ground vehicle in question. In either case, such engines traditionally have been calibrated using North American diesel fuel (DF-2) and Jet Propellant 8 (JP-8) compatibility wasn't given much consideration since any associated power loss due to the lower volumetric energy density was not an issue for most applications at then targeted climatic conditions. Furthermore, since the genesis of the ‘one fuel forward policy’ of using JP-8 as the single battlefield fuel there has been limited experience to truly assess fuel effects on diesel engine combustion systems until this decade.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1506
EGR coolers are mainly used on diesel engines to reduce intake charge temperature and thus reduce emissions of NOx and PM. Soot and hydrocarbon deposition in the EGR cooler reduces heat transfer efficiency of the cooler and increases emissions and pressure drop across the cooler. They may also be acidic and corrosive. Fouling has been always treated as an approximate factor in heat exchanger designs and it has not been modeled in detail. The aim of this paper is to look into fouling formation in an EGR cooler of a diesel engine. A 1-D model is developed to predict and calculate EGR cooler fouling amount and distribution across a concentric tube heat exchanger with a constant wall temperature. The model is compared to an experiment that is designed for correlation of the model. Effectiveness, mass deposition, and pressure drop are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
Journal Article

Premixed Low Temperature Combustion of Biodiesel and Blends in a High Speed Compression Ignition Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0133
The effects of combining premixed, low temperature combustion (LTC) with biodiesel are relatively unknown to this point. This mode allows simultaneously low soot and NOx emissions by using high rates of EGR and increasing ignition delay. This paper compares engine performance and emissions of neat, soy-based methyl ester biodiesel (B100), B20, B50, pure ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a Swedish, low aromatic diesel in a multi-cylinder diesel engine operating in a late-injection premixed LTC mode. Using heat release analysis, the progression of LTC combustion was explored by comparing fuel mass fraction burned. B100 had a comparatively long ignition delay compared with Swedish diesel when measured by start of ignition (SOI) to 10% fuel mass fraction burned (CA10). Differences were not as apparent when measured by SOI to start of combustion (SOC) even though their cetane numbers are comparable.
Journal Article

Hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter in EGR Cooler Deposits: Effects of Gas Flow Rate, Coolant Temperature, and Oxidation Catalyst

2008-10-06
2008-01-2467
Compact heat exchangers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases, resulting in decreased NOx emissions. These exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers experience fouling through deposition of particulate matter (PM) and hydrocarbons (HCs) that reduces the effectiveness of the cooler. Surrogate tubes have been used to investigate the impacts of gas flow rate and coolant temperature on the deposition of PM and HCs. The results indicate that mass deposition is lowest at high flow rates and high coolant temperatures. An oxidation catalyst was investigated and proved to effectively reduce deposition of HCs, but did not reduce overall mass deposition to near-zero levels. Speciation of the deposit HCs showed that a range of HCs from C15 - C25 were deposited and retained in the surrogate tubes.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Single and Two-Stage Ignition in a Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1071
This paper presents an experimental investigation conducted to determine the parameters that control the behavior of autoignition in a small-bore, single-cylinder, optically-accessible diesel engine. Depending on operating conditions, three types of autoignition are observed: a single ignition, a two-stage process where a low temperature heat release (LTHR) or cool flame precedes the main premixed combustion, and a two-stage process where the LTHR or cool flame is separated from the main heat release by an apparent negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region. Experiments were conducted using commercial grade low-sulfur diesel fuel with a common-rail injection system. An intensified CCD camera was used for ultraviolet imaging and spectroscopy of chemiluminescent autoignition reactions under various operating conditions including fuel injection pressures, engine temperatures and equivalence ratios.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Characterization Studies in an HSDI Diesel Engine under Conventional and LTC Regime

2008-04-14
2008-01-1086
Several mechanisms are discussed to understand the particulate matter (PM) characterization in a high speed, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine using low sulfur diesel fuel. This includes their formation, size distribution and number density. Experiments were conducted over a wide range of injection pressures, EGR rates, injection timings and swirl ratios, therefore covering both conventional and low temperature combustion regimes. A micro dilution tunnel was used to immediately dilute a small part of the exhaust gases by hot air. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was used to measure the particulate size distribution and number density. Particulate mass was measured with a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). Analysis was made of the root cause of PM characterization and their relationship with the combustion process under different operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of NOX and Soot in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine by Instantaneous Mixing of Fuel and Water

2007-04-16
2007-01-0125
Meeting diesel engine emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles can be achieved by simultaneous injection of fuel and water. An injection system for instantaneous mixing of fuel and water in the combustion chamber has been developed by injecting water in a mixing passage located in the periphery of the fuel spray. The fuel spray is then entrained by water and hot air before it burns. The experimental work was carried out on a Rapid Compression Machine and on a Komatsu direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. It was also supported by Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of the injection and combustion processes in order to evaluate the effect of water vapor distribution on cylinder temperature and NOX formation. It has been concluded that when the water injection is appropriately timed, the combustion speed is slower and the cylinder temperature lower than in conventional diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Comprehensive CFD Model of Diesel Spray Atomization Accounting for High Weber Numbers

2006-04-03
2006-01-1546
Modern diesel engines operate under injection pressures varying from 30 to 200 MPa and employ combinations of very early and conventional injection timings to achieve partially homogeneous mixtures. The variety of injection and cylinder pressures results in droplet atomization under a wide range of Weber numbers. The high injection velocities lead to fast jet disintegration and secondary droplet atomization under shear and catastrophic breakup mechanisms. The primary atomization of the liquid jet is modeled considering the effects of both infinitesimal wave growth on the jet surface and jet turbulence. Modeling of the secondary atomization is based on a combination of a drop fragmentation analysis and a boundary layer stripping mechanism of the resulting fragments for high Weber numbers. The drop fragmentation process is predicted from instability considerations on the surface of the liquid drop.
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