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Technical Paper

A Triangulated Lagrangian Ignition Kernel Model with Detailed Kinetics for Modeling Spark Ignition with the G-Equation-Part I: Geometric Aspects

2018-04-03
2018-01-0195
Modeling ignition kernel development in spark ignition engines is crucial to capturing the sources of cyclic variability, both with RANS and LES simulations. Appropriate kernel modeling must ensure that energy transfer from the electrodes to the gas phase has the correct timing, rate and locations, until the flame surface is large enough to be represented on the mesh by the G-Equation level-set method. However, in most kernel models, geometric details driving kernel growth are missing: either because it is described as Lagrangian particles, or because its development is simplified, i.e., down to multiple spherical flames. This paper covers the geometric aspects of kernel development, which makes up the core of a Triangulated Lagrangian Ignition Kernel model. One (or multiple, if it restrikes) spark channel is initialized as a one-dimensional Lagrangian particle thread.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Chemistry and Spray Properties on Particulate Size Distributions from Dual-Fuel Combustion Strategies

2017-03-28
2017-01-1005
The effect of direct-injected fuel on particle size distributions (PSDs) of particulate matter emitted from dual-fuel combustion strategies was investigated. The PSD data were acquired from a light-duty single-cylinder diesel engine operated using conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and two diesel/natural gas dual-fuel combustion strategies. Three different direct-injection (DI) fuels (diesel, 2,6,10-trimethyldodecane, and a primary reference fuel blend) and two different injector nozzles were studied. The DI fuels were chosen to have similar energy and ignition characteristics (heat of combustion and cetane number) but different physical and chemical properties (volatility, aromatics %, viscosity, density). The two nozzles (with different orifice diameter and spray angle) allowed a wide range in DI fuel quantity for the dual-fuel combustion strategies.
Technical Paper

Pressure-Based Knock Measurement Issues

2017-03-28
2017-01-0668
Highly time resolved measurements of cylinder pressure acquired simultaneously from three transducers were used to investigate the nature of knocking combustion and to identify biases that the pressure measurements induce. It was shown by investigating the magnitude squared coherence (MSC) between the transducer signals that frequency content above approximately 40 kHz does not originate from a common source, i.e., it originates from noise sources. The major source of noise at higher frequency is the natural frequency of the transducer that is excited by the impulsive knock event; even if the natural frequency is above the sampling frequency it can affect the measurements by aliasing. The MSC analysis suggests that 40 kHz is the appropriate cutoff frequency for low-pass filtering the pressure signal. Knowing this, one can isolate the knock event from noise more accurately.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Description of Knock Intensity and Its Prediction

2017-03-28
2017-01-0659
Cycle-to-cycle variation in combustion phasing and combustion rate cause knock to occur differently in every cycle. This is found to be true even if the end gas thermo-chemical time history is the same. Three cycles are shown that have matched combustion phasing, combustion rate, and time of knock onset, but have knock intensity that differs by a factor of six. Thus, the prediction of knock intensity must include a stochastic component. It is shown that there is a relationship between the maximum possible knock intensity and the unburned fuel energy at the time of knock onset. Further, for a small window of unburned energy at knock onset, the probability density function of knock intensity is self similar when scaled by the 95th percentile of the cumulative distribution, and log-normal in shape.
Technical Paper

Comparative Small Engine Testing Using Hybrid Composite Cylinder Liners

2016-11-08
2016-32-0022
Cylinder liners exert a major influence on engine performance, reliability, durability and maintenance. Various combinations of nonmetallic reinforcements and coatings have been used to improve the tribological performance of sleeves or surfaces used in compressors and internal combustion engines in four stroke, two stroke and rotary configurations. In this paper we report the use of a hybrid composite containing silicon carbide and graphite in an aluminum alloy matrix to improve the performance of various small engines and compressors. Material properties of the base material, as well as comparative dynamometer testing, are presented.
Journal Article

Exploring the Role of Reactivity Gradients in Direct Dual Fuel Stratification

2016-04-05
2016-01-0774
Low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies have been an active area of research due to their ability to achieve high thermal efficiency while avoiding the formation of NOx and particulate matter. One of the largest challenges with LTC is the relative lack of authority over the heat release rate profile, which, depending on the particular injection strategy, either limits the maximum attainable load, or creates a tradeoff between noise and efficiency at high load conditions. We have shown previously that control over heat release can be dramatically improved through a combination of reactivity stratification in the premixed charge and a diffusion-limited injection that occurs after the conclusion of the low-temperature heat release, in a strategy called direct dual fuel stratification (DDFS).
Technical Paper

Load Identification of a Suspension Assembly Using True-Load Self Transducer Generation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0429
The performance of a structural design significantly depends upon the assumptions made on input load. In order to estimate the input load, during the design and development stage of the suspension assembly of a BAJA car, designers and analysts invest immense amount of time and effort to formulate the mathematical model of the design. These theoretical formulations may include idealization errors which can affect the performance of the car as a final product. Due to the errors associated with the assumption of design load, several components might have more weight or may have less strength than needed. This discrepancy between the assumed input load (lab or theoretical studies) and the actual load from the environment can be eliminated by performing a real life testing process using load recovery methodology. Commercial load cells exist in industry to give engineers insight to understanding the complex real world loading of their structures.
Journal Article

The Development of an Ignition Delay Correlation for PRF Fuel Blends from PRF0 (n-Heptane) to PRF100 (iso-Octane)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0551
A correlation was developed to predict the ignition delay of PRF blends at a wide range of engine-relevant operating conditions. Constant volume simulations were performed using Cantera coupled with a reduced reaction mechanism at a range of initial temperatures from 570-1860K, initial pressures from 10-100atm, oxygen mole percent from 12.6% to 21%, equivalence ratios from 0.30-1.5, and PRF blends from PRF0 to PRF100. In total, 6,480 independent ignition delay simulations were performed. The correlation utilizes the traditional Arrhenius formulation; with equivalence ratio (φ), pressure (p), and oxygen mole percentage (xo2) dependencies. The exponents α, β, and γ were fitted to a third order polynomial with respect to temperature with an exponential roll-off to a constant value at low temperatures to capture the behavior expressed by the reaction mechanism. The location and rate of the roll-off functions were modified by linear functions of PRF.
Journal Article

Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0855
The focus of the present study was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over a variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition.
Technical Paper

Variable Characteristic Permanent Magnet Motor for Automobile Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-1869
This paper describes a variable magnetomotive force interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine for use as a traction motor on automobiles in order to reduce total energy consumption during duty cycles and cut costs by using Dy-free magnets. First, the principle of a variable magnetomotive force flux-intensifying IPM (VFI-IPM) machine is explained. A theoretical operating point analysis of the magnets using a simplified model with nonlinear B-H characteristics is presented and the results are confirmed by nonlinear finite element analysis. Four types of magnet layouts were investigated for the magnetic circuit design. It was found that a radial magnetization direction with a single magnet is suitable for the VFI-IPM machine. Magnetization controllability was investigated with respect to the magnet thickness, width and coercive force for the prototype design. The estimated variable motor speed and torque characteristics are presented.
Journal Article

Improving the Understanding of Intake and Charge Effects for Increasing RCCI Engine Efficiency

2014-04-01
2014-01-1325
The present experimental engine efficiency study explores the effects of intake pressure and temperature, and premixed and global equivalence ratios on gross thermal efficiency (GTE) using the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at constant net load (IMEPn) of 8.45 bar, 1300 rev/min engine speed, with 0% EGR, and a 50% mass fraction burned combustion phasing (CA50) of 0.5°CA ATDC. The engine was port fueled with E85 for the low reactivity fuel and direct injected with 3.5% 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) doped into 91 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline for the high-reactivity fuel. The resulting reactivity of the enhanced fuel corresponds to an AKI of approximately 56 and a cetane number of approximately 28. The engine was operated with a wide range of intake pressures and temperatures, and the ratio of low- to high-reactivity fuel was adjusted to maintain a fixed speed-phasing-load condition.
Technical Paper

Modeling Investigation of Auto-ignition and Engine Knock by HO2

2014-04-01
2014-01-1221
Knock in a Rotax-914 engine was modeled and investigated using an improved version of the KIVA-3V code with a G-equation combustion model, together with a reduced chemical kinetics model. The ERC-PRF mechanism with 47 species and 132 reactions [1] was adopted to model the end gas auto-ignition in front of the flame front. The model was validated by a Caterpillar SI engine and a Rotax-914 engine in different operating conditions. The simulation results agree well with available experimental results. A new engineering quantified knock criterion based on chemical mechanism was then proposed. Hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) shows obvious accumulation before auto-ignition and a sudden decrease after auto-ignition. These properties are considered to be a good capability for HO2 to investigate engine knock problems.
Technical Paper

Efficiency and Emissions Mapping of RCCI in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0289
In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. Varying the premixed gasoline fraction changes the fuel reactivity stratification in the cylinder providing further control of combustion phasing and pressure rise rate than the use of EGR alone. This added control over the combustion process has been shown to allow rapid engine operating point exploration without direct modeling guidance.
Technical Paper

Surrogate Diesel Fuel Models for Low Temperature Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-1092
Diesel fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbons. Since modeling their combustion characteristics with the inclusion of all hydrocarbon species is not feasible, a hybrid surrogate model approach is used in the present work to represent the physical and chemical properties of three different diesel fuels by using up to 13 and 4 separate hydrocarbon species, respectively. The surrogates are arrived at by matching their distillation profiles and important properties with the real fuel, while the chemistry surrogates are arrived at by using a Group Chemistry Representation (GCR) method wherein the hydrocarbon species in the physical property surrogates are grouped based on their chemical classes, and the chemistry of each class is represented by using up to two hydrocarbon species.
Technical Paper

Effect of E85 on RCCI Performance and Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0376
This paper investigates the effect of E85 on load expansion and FTP modal point emissions indices under reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) operation on a light-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine. A General Motors (GM) 1.9L four-cylinder diesel engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline or E85. Controlling the fuel reactivity in-cylinder by the adjustment of the ratio of premixed low-reactivity fuel (gasoline or E85) to direct injected high reactivity fuel (diesel fuel) has been shown to extend the operating range of high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) compared to the use of a single fuel alone as in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) or premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI).
Technical Paper

Computer-Aided Design Methogology for Agricultural Implement Design

1992-09-01
921705
An overview of a design methodology based on finite element and fatigue analyses is described for the design of welded structures. Fatigue life is a primary design consideration for agricultural equipment structural members. The re-design of an agricultural implement frame and hitch assembly is used to illustrate the methodology for optimal design and improved fatigue life. A description of the finite element mode of the agricultural implement and the simulated loading history are described. Results from finite element analysis are used to optimize the frame member sizes and calculate the fatigue strength characteristics. This design analysis strategy provides improved fatigue life characteristics for the implement frame or welded structure.
Technical Paper

A Computer Program for Calculating Properties of Equilibrium Combustion Products with Some Applications to I.C. Engines

1975-02-01
750468
A computer program which rapidly calculates the equilibrium mole fractions and the partial derivatives of the mole fractions with respect to temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio for the products of combustion of any hydrocarbon fuel and air is described. A subroutine is also given which calculates the gas constant, enthalpy, internal energy and the partial derivatives of these with respect to temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio. Some examples of the uses of the programs are also given.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Crankcase Scavenged, Two-Stroke, SI Engine and Comparisons with Experimental Data

1969-02-01
690135
A detailed mathematical model of the thermodynamic events of a crankcase scavenged, two-stroke, SI engine is described. The engine is divided into three thermodynamic systems: the cylinder gases, the crankcase gases, and the inlet system gases. Energy balances, mass continuity equations, the ideal gas law, and thermodynamic property relationships are combined to give a set of coupled ordinary differential equations which describe the thermodynamic states encountered by the systems of the engine during one cycle of operation. A computer program is used to integrate the equations, starting with estimated initial thermodynamic conditions and estimated metal surface temperatures. The program iterates the cycle, adjusting the initial estimates, until the final conditions agree with the beginning conditions, that is, until a cycle results.
Technical Paper

UV Absorbance Histories and Knock in a Spark Ignited Engine

1969-02-01
690519
Monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) absorbance, temperature, and pressure histories of unburned gas in a single cylinder CFR engine under motored, fired, and autoignition conditions were recorded on a multichannel magnetic tape recorder. Isooctane, cyclohexane, ethane, n-hexane, n-heptane, 75 octane number (ON), 50 ON, and 25 ON blends of primary reference fuels (PRF) were studied. Under knocking or autoignition conditions a critical absorbance at 2600 A was found, whose magnitude was independent of engine operating variables and dependent only on the knock resistance of the fuel. This absorbance increased rapidly when a certain temperature level was exceeded during the exothermic preflame reactions.
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