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Journal Article

Achieving Bharat Stage VI Emissions Regulations While Improving Fuel Economy with the Opposed-Piston Engine

The government of India has decided to implement Bharat Stage VI (BS-VI) emissions standards from April 2020. This requires OEMs to equip their diesel engines with costly after-treatment, EGR systems and higher rail pressure fuel systems. By one estimate, BS-VI engines are expected to be 15 to 20% more expensive than BS-IV engines, while also suffering with 2 to 3 % lower fuel economy. OEMs are looking for solutions to meet the BS-VI emissions standards while still keeping the upfront and operating costs low enough for their products to attract customers; however traditional engine technologies seem to have exhausted the possibilities. Fuel economy improvement technologies applied to traditional 4-stroke engines bring small benefits with large cost penalties. One promising solution to meet both current, and future, emissions standards with much improved fuel economy at lower cost is the Opposed Piston (OP) engine.
Technical Paper

Multi-Cylinder Opposed-Piston Engine Results on Transient Test Cycle

After having tested basic transient maneuvers such as load-step changes on the 4.9L three-cylinder opposed-piston diesel engine [1], a similar test-engine was subjected to a more aggressive test-routine - a hot-start heavy-duty FTP (Federal Test Procedure) transient cycle for the on-road engines. The three main objectives of this exercise were: 1 To assess the ability of the engine to meet the transient cycle requirements while maintaining close to the cycle-average BSFC for the FTP cycle derived from steady-state torque-to-fuel map. 2 To attain engine-out brake-specific emission levels that are compatible with US2010 EPA requirements with a conventional after-treatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalyst reduction (SCR) system. 3 To compare hot-start FTP transient cycle fuel economy with a publicly available benchmark.
Technical Paper

Multi-Cylinder Opposed Piston Transient and Exhaust Temperature Management Test Results

In a recent paper, Opposed-Piston 2-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Engine Dynamometer Demonstration [1] published at the SAE SIAT in India in January 2015, Achates Power presented work related to the first ever opposed piston multi-cylinder engine fuel economy demonstration while meeting US 2010 emissions. The results showed that the research 4.9L three cylinder engine was able to achieve 43% brake thermal efficiency at the best point and almost 42% on average over the 12 modes of the SET cycle. The results from this test confirmed the modelling predictions and carved a very robust path to a 48% best BTE and 46.6% average over the cycle for a production design of this engine. With the steady state performance and emissions results achieved, it was time to explore other attributes.
Technical Paper

Opposed-Piston 2-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Engine Dynamometer Demonstration

With mounting pressure on Indian manufacturers to meet future fuel economy and emissions mandates-including the recently passed Corporate Average Fuel Consumption (CAFC) standards for light-duty vehicles-many are evaluating new technologies. However, to provide an economically sustainable solution, these technologies must increase efficiency without increasing cost. One promising solution to meet both current, and future, standards is the opposed-piston engine. Widely used in the early 20th century for on-road applications, use of the opposed-piston engine waseventually discontinued due to challenges with emissions and oil control. But advancements in computer-aided engineering tools, combined with state-of-the-art engineering practices, has enabled Achates Power to develop a modern opposed-piston diesel engine architecture that is clean, significantly more fuel efficient and less expensive to manufacture than today's four-stroke engines.
Technical Paper

Meeting Stringent 2025 Emissions and Fuel Efficiency Regulations with an Opposed-Piston, Light-Duty Diesel Engine

With current and pending regulations-including Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) 2025 and Tier 3 or LEV III-automakers are under tremendous pressure to reduce fuel consumption while meeting more stringent NOx, PM, HC and CO standards. To meet these standards, many are investing in expensive technologies-to enhance conventional, four-stroke powertrains-and in significant vehicle improvements. However, others are evaluating alternative concepts like the opposed-piston, two-stroke engine. First manufactured in the 1890s-and once widely used for ground, marine and aviation applications-the historic opposed-piston, two-stroke (OP2S) engine suffered from poor emissions and oil control. This meant that its use in on-highway applications ceased with the passage of modern emissions standards.
Technical Paper

Practical Applications of Opposed-Piston Engine Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Emissions

Opposed-piston (OP) engines have attracted the interest of the automotive industry in recent years because of their potential for significantly improved fuel economy. Opposed-piston, two-stroke (OP2S) engine technology amplifies this fuel efficiency advantage and offers lower cost and weight due to fewer parts. While OP engines can help automotive manufacturers comply with current, and future, efficiency standards, there is still work required to prepare the engines for production. This work is mainly related to packaging and durability. At Achates Power, the OP2S technology is being developed for various applications such as commercial vehicles (heavy-and medium-duty), SUVs, pick-up trucks and passenger cars (i.e. light-duty), military vehicles, large ships and stationary power (generator sets). Included in this paper is a review of the previously published OP engine efficiency advantages (thermodynamics, combustion and air system) as well as the architecture's historical challenges.
Technical Paper

Modernizing the Opposed Piston, Two Stroke Engine for Clean, Efficient Transportation

Opposed-piston (OP) engines were once widely used in ground and aviation applications and continue to be used today on ships. Offering both fuel efficiency and cost benefits over conventional, four-stroke engines, the OP architecture also features size and weight advantages. Despite these advantages, however, historical OP engines have struggled with emissions and oil consumption. Using modern technology, science and engineering, Achates Power has overcome these challenges. The result: an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine design that provides a step-function improvement in brake thermal efficiency compared to conventional engines while meeting the most stringent, mandated emissions requirements.
Journal Article

The Achates Power Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine: Performance and Emissions Results in a Medium-Duty Application

Historically, the opposed-piston two-stroke diesel engine set combined records for fuel efficiency and power density that have yet to be met by any other engine type. In the latter half of the twentieth century, the advent of modern emissions regulations stopped the wide-spread development of two-stroke engine for on-highway use. At Achates Power, modern analytical tools, materials, and engineering methods have been applied to the development process of an opposed-piston two-stroke engine, resulting in an engine design that has demonstrated a 15.5% fuel consumption improvement compared to a state-of-the-art 2010 medium-duty diesel engine at similar engine-out emissions levels. Furthermore, oil consumption has been measured to be less than 0.1% of fuel over the majority of the operating range. Additional benefits of the opposed-piston two-stroke diesel engine over a conventional four-stroke design are a reduced parts count and lower cost.