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Journal Article

Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water Returned from ISS Expeditions 14 and 15

2008-06-29
2008-01-2197
The Johnson Space Center Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) performed detailed ground-based analyses of archival water samples for verification of the chemical quality of the International Space Station (ISS) potable water supplies for Expeditions 14 and 15. During the 12-month duration of both expeditions, the Space Shuttle docked with the ISS on four occasions to continue construction and deliver additional crew and supplies; however, no Shuttle potable water was transferred to the station during Expedition 14. Russian ground-supplied potable water and potable water from regeneration of humidity condensate were both available onboard the ISS for consumption by the Expeditions 14 and 15 crews. A total of 16 chemical archival water samples were collected with U.S. hardware during Expeditions 14 and 15 and returned on Shuttle flights STS-116 (12A.1), STS-117 (13A), STS-118 (13A.1), and STS-120 (10A) in December 2006, and June, August, and November of 2007, respectively.
Technical Paper

Sampling and Chemical Analysis of Potable Water for ISS Expeditions 12 and 13

2007-07-09
2007-01-3214
The crews of Expeditions 12 and 13 aboard the International Space Station (ISS) continued to rely on potable water from two different sources, regenerated humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water. The Space Shuttle launched twice during the 12-months spanning both expeditions and docked with the ISS for delivery of hardware and supplies. However, no Shuttle potable water was transferred to the station during either of these missions. The chemical quality of the ISS onboard potable water supplies was verified by performing ground analyses of archival water samples at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL). Since no Shuttle flights launched during Expedition 12 and there was restricted return volume on the Russian Soyuz vehicle, only one chemical archive potable water sample was collected with U.S. hardware and returned during Expedition 12. This sample was collected in March 2006 and returned on Soyuz 11.
Technical Paper

Chemical Characterization of U.S. Lab Condensate

2006-07-17
2006-01-2016
Approximately 50% of the water consumed by International Space Station crewmembers is water recovered from cabin humidity condensate. Condensing heat exchangers in the Russian Service Module (SM) and the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) are used to control cabin humidity levels. In the SM, humidity condensate flows directly from the heat exchanger to a water recovery system. In the USOS, a metal bellows tank located in the US Laboratory Module (LAB) collects and stores condensate, which is periodically off-loaded in about 20-liter batches to Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). The CWCs can then be transferred to the SM and connected to a Condensate Feed Unit that pumps the condensate from the CWCs into the water recovery system for processing. Samples of the condensate in the tank are collected during the off-loads and returned to Earth for analyses.
Technical Paper

ISS Expeditions 10 & 11 Potable Water Sampling and Chemical Analysis Results

2006-07-17
2006-01-2015
During the twelve month period comprising Expeditions 10 and 11, the chemical quality of the potable water onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was verified through the return and ground analysis of water samples. The two-man Expedition 10 crew relied solely on Russian-provided ground water and reclaimed cabin humidity condensate as their sources of potable water. Collection of archival water samples with U.S. hardware has remained extremely restricted since the Columbia tragedy because of very limited return volume on Russian Soyuz vehicles. As a result only two such samples were collected during Expedition 10 and returned on Soyuz 9. The average return sample volume was only 250 milliliters, which limited the breadth of chemical analysis that could be performed. Despite the Space Shuttle vehicle returning to flight in July 2005, only two potable water samples were collected with U.S. hardware during Expedition 11 and returned on Shuttle flight STS-114 (LF1).
Technical Paper

Chemical Analysis of ISS Potable Water From Expeditions 8 and 9

2005-07-11
2005-01-2885
With the Shuttle fleet grounded, limited capability exists to resupply in-flight water quality monitoring hardware onboard the International Space Station (ISS). As such, verification of the chemical quality of the potable water supplies on ISS has depended entirely upon the collection, return, and ground-analysis of archival water samples. Despite the loss of Shuttle-transferred water as a water source, the two-man crews during Expedition 8 and Expedition 9 maintained station operations for nearly a year relying solely on the two remaining sources of potable water; reclaimed humidity condensate and Russian-launched ground water. Archival potable water samples were only collected every 3 to 4 months from the systems that regenerate water from condensate (SRV-K) and distribute stored potable water (SVO-ZV).
Technical Paper

ISS Potable Water Sampling and Chemical Analysis: Expeditions 6 & 7

2004-07-19
2004-01-2537
Ever since the first crew arrived at the International Space Station (ISS), archival potable water samples have been collected and returned to the ground for detailed chemical analysis in order to verify that the water supplies onboard are suitable for crew consumption. The Columbia tragedy, unfortunately, has had a dramatic impact on continued ISS operations. A major portion of the ISS water supply had previously consisted of Shuttle-transferred water. The other two remaining sources of potable water, i.e., reclaimed humidity condensate and Russian-launched ground water, are together insufficient to maintain 3-person crews. The Expedition 7 crew launched in April of 2003 was, therefore, reduced from three to two persons. Without the Shuttle, resupply of ISS crews and supplies is dependent entirely on Russian launch vehicles (Soyuz and Progress) with severely limited up and down mass.
Technical Paper

ISS Total Organic Carbon Analyzer Status Update - 2003

2003-07-07
2003-01-2403
The Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) is responsible for providing environmental monitoring to protect crew health, including in-flight chemical water quality analysis. To meet this objective, Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) Serial Number (SN) 1002 was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in April of 2001 as part of the CHeCS hardware. Since that time it has been used to evaluate the quality of the potable water supplies consisting of reprocessed atmospheric condensate water, Shuttle-transferred water, and ground-supplied water. Potable water is available for crew use from the Service Module System for Regeneration of Water from Condensate (SRV-K) galley hot and warm ports and the Stored Potable Water System (SVO-ZV) port. Potable water samples are periodically collected from each of these ports for in-flight analysis with the TOCA.
Technical Paper

ISS Total Organic Carbon Analyzer - 2002 Status

2002-07-15
2002-01-2533
Potable water supplies onboard the International Space Station (ISS) include both reclaimed water from treatment of atmospheric humidity condensate and stored water that is either Shuttle-transferred or ground-supplied. Space station medical operations requirements call for real-time monitoring of key water quality parameters, such as total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total carbon, pH, and conductivity, to ensure that crew health is protected from unsafe drinking water. A Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) designed to meet these requirements was developed as part of the Crew Health Care System and launched to the ISS in April of 2001. The initial design of the ISS TOCA was previously presented at this conference in 1998. The current design of the instrument includes an improved reagent system and upgraded software to enhance accuracy through the capability to measure organic contamination of the reagents and correct analytical results.
Technical Paper

Chemical Sampling and Analysis of ISS Potable Water: Expeditions 1-3

2002-07-15
2002-01-2537
The early International Space Station (ISS) drinking water supply primarily consists of water recovered from humidity condensate and water transferred from Shuttle. The water is dispensed both from the stored water dispensing system (SVO-ZV) and the galley, which is an integral part of the condensate recovery system. The galley provides both hot and tepid water. An assessment of the quality of each potable water source is underway and consists of periodic collection of samples into Teflon® bags for return to Earth via Shuttle. Water sampling hardware and procedures developed and used during the Shuttle-Mir program are employed on ISS without significant changes. This report provides results from detailed chemical analyses of recovered potable water and supplied (stored) water samples returned from ISS Expeditions 1 through 3. These results have been used to monitor the potability of the product and stored drinking water by comparing the results against water quality standards.
Technical Paper

Quality of Water Supplied by Shuttle to ISS

2002-07-15
2002-01-2532
The water supply for the International Space Station (ISS) consists partially of excess fuel-cell water that is treated on the Shuttle and stored on ISS in 44 L collapsible Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). Iodine is removed from the source water, and silver biocide and mineral concentrates are added by the crewmember while the CWCs are filled. Potable (mineralized) CWCs are earmarked for drinking and food hydration, and technical (non-mineralized) CWCs are reserved for waste system flushing and electrolytic oxygen generation. Representative samples are collected in Teflon® bags and returned to Earth for chemical analysis. The parameters typically measured include pH, conductivity, total organic carbon, iodine, silver, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, trace metals, formate and alcohols. The Nylon monomer caprolactam is also measured and tracked since it is known to leach slowly out of the plastic CWC bladder material.
Technical Paper

Identification of an Organic Impurity Leaching from a Prototype ISS Water Container

2001-07-09
2001-01-2125
Collapsible bladder tanks called Contingency Water Containers (CWCs) have been used to transfer water from the Shuttle to the Mir and the International Space Station (ISS). Because their use as potable water storage on the ISS is planned for years, efforts are underway to improve the containers, including the evaluation of new materials. Combitherm®, a multi-layer plastic film, is a material under evaluation for use as the CWC bag material. It consists of layers of linear low density polyethylene, ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer, nylon, and a solvent- free adhesive layer. Long term studies of the quality of water stored in Combitherm bladders indicate a gradual but steady increase in the total organic carbon value. This suggests a leaching or breakdown of an organic component of the Combitherm.
Technical Paper

Chemical Analysis and Water Recovery Testing of Shuttle-Mir Humidity Condensate

1999-07-12
1999-01-2029
Humidity condensate collected and processed in-flight is an important component of a space station drinking water supply. Water recovery systems in general are designed to handle finite concentrations of specific chemical components. Previous analyses of condensate derived from spacecraft and ground sources showed considerable variation in composition. Consequently, an investigation was conducted to collect condensate on the Shuttle while the vehicle was docked to Mir, and return the condensate to Earth for testing. This scenario emulates an early ISS configuration during a Shuttle docking, because the atmospheres intermix during docking and the condensate composition should reflect that. During the STS-89 and STS-91 flights, a total volume of 50 liters of condensate was collected and returned. Inorganic and organic chemical analyses were performed on aliquots of the fluid.
Technical Paper

A Spectrophotometric Analyzer for Aqueous Samples in Microgravity

1999-07-12
1999-01-2032
The development of a spectrophotometric analyzer for use on water samples in microgravity environments is discussed. The instrument is constructed around a commercial spectrophotometer, the Hewlett-Packard HP8453, with a separate turbidimetric analyzer, here a modified Hach 2100P ratio turbidimeter. Flow-through sample cells were constructed for each instrument to support microgravity use and sample deaeration. Spectrophotometric analyses on aqueous samples on orbit are sensitive to the presence of undissolved gases in the samples. In a micro-g environment, free gas in samples can and does remain suspended, clouding the mixture and interfering with spectral optical density measurements. This paper discusses the design of a spectrophotometric analyzer, with particular emphasis on the merits of two approaches to eliminating free gas interferences in on-orbit water analyses: hyperbaric gas redissolution and deaeration across a hydrophobic membrane.
Technical Paper

Solid Phase Extraction of Polar Compounds in Water

1997-07-01
972465
The Water and Food Analytical Laboratory, at the Johnson Space Center is developing an alternative to EPA Method 625 for analyzing semivolatile organic compounds in water. The current EPA method uses liquid-liquid extraction. The alternative method being developed differs in the sample preparation phase by replacing gravity-dependent liquid-liquid extraction with solid phase extraction (SPE). The ultimate goal is to incorporate the optimum SPE conditions into an automated sample preparation process. The method shows promise with regard to anticipated polar compounds. Fourteen SPE resins and nine elution solvents were compared. For typical analytes encountered by our laboratory, a styrene-divinylbenzene SPE resin and an elution solvent mixture of methylene chloride and ethyl ether were found to give the highest extraction recoveries. A study is in progress to remove water from the extracts before GC/MS analysis.
Technical Paper

Chemical Analysis of Potable Water and Humidity Condensate Collected During the MIR-21 Mission

1997-07-01
972462
The primary source of potable water planned for the International Space Station will be generated from the reclamation of humidity condensate, urine, and hygiene waters. It is vital to crew health and performance that this reclaimed water be safe for human consumption, and that health risks associated with recycled water consumption be identified and quantified. Only recently has data been available on the chemical constituents in reclaimed waters generated in microgravity. Results for samples collected during Mir-21 reveal that both the reclaimed water and stored water are of potable quality, although the samples did not meet U.S. standards for total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, and turbidity.
Technical Paper

Risk Mitigation Water Quality Monitor

1997-07-01
972463
On the International Space Station (ISS), atmospheric humidity condensate and other waste waters will be recycled and treated to produce potable water for use by the crews. Space station requirements include an on-orbit capability for real-time monitoring of key water quality parameters, such as total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total carbon, pH, and conductivity, to ensure that crew health is protected for consumption of reclaimed water. The Crew Health Care System for ISS includes a total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer that is currently being designed to meet this requirement. As part of the effort, a spacecraft TOC analyzer was developed to demonstrate the technology in microgravity and mitigate risks associated with its use on station. This analyzer was successfully tested on Shuttle during the STS-81 mission as a risk mitigation experiment. A total of six ground-prepared test samples and two Mir potable water samples were analyzed in flight during the 10-day mission.
Technical Paper

Potable Water Treatment and Transfer from Shuttle to Mir

1997-07-01
972461
To satisfy a requirement to supply water to Mir station, a process for treating iodinated water on the Shuttle was developed and implemented. The treatment system consists of packed columns for removing iodine and a syringe-based injection system for adding ionic silver, the biocide used in Mir water. Technical and potable grade water is produced and transferred in batches using collapsible 44-liter contingency water containers (CWCs). Silver is added to the water via injection of a solution from preloaded syringes. Minerals are also added to water destined for drinking. During the previous four Shuttle-Mir docking missions a total of 2781 liters (735 gallons) of water produced by the Shuttle fuel cells was processed using this method and transferred to Mir. To verify the quality of the processed water, samples were collected during flight and returned for chemical analysis.
Technical Paper

A Total Organic Carbon Analyzer for Space Potable Water Systems

1996-07-01
961570
A Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer has been developed for a Life Sciences Risk Mitigation Flight Experiment to be conducted on Spacehab and the Russian space station, Mir. Initial launch is scheduled for December 1996 (flight STS-81). The analyzer will be tested on the Orbiter in the Spacehab module, including when the Orbiter is docked at the Mir space station. The analyzer is scheduled to be launched again in May 1997 (STS-84) when it will be transferred to Mir. During both flights the analyzer will measure the quality of recycled and ground-supplied potable water on the space station. Samples will be archived for later return to the ground, where they will be analyzed for comparison to in-flight results. Water test samples of known composition, brought up with the analyzer, also will be used to test its performance in microgravity. Ground-based analyses of duplicates of those test samples will be conducted concurrently with the in-flight analyses.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Methods for Remediating Biofilms in Spacecraft Potable Water Systems

1994-06-01
941388
Controlling microbial growth and biofilm formation in spacecraft water-distribution systems is necessary to protect the health of the crew. Methods to decontaminate the water system in flight may be needed to support long-term missions. We evaluated the ability of iodine and ozone to kill attached bacteria and remove biofilms formed on stainless steel coupons. The biofilms were developed by placing the coupons in a manifold attached to the effluent line of a simulated spacecraft water-distribution system. After biofilms were established, the coupons were removed and placed in a treatment manifold in a separate water treatment system where they were exposed to the chemical treatments for various periods. Disinfection efficiency over time was measured by counting the bacteria that could be recovered from the coupons using a sonication and plate count technique. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to determine whether the treatments actually removed the biofilm.
Technical Paper

Depletion of Biocidal Iodine in a Stainless Steel Water System

1994-06-01
941391
Iodine depletion in a simulated water storage tank and distribution system was examined to support a larger research program aimed at developing disinfection methods for spacecraft potable water systems. The main objective of this study was to determine the rate of iodine depletion with respect to the surface area of the stainless steel components contacting iodinated water. Two model configurations were tested. The first, representing a storage and distribution system, consisted of a stainless steel bellows tank, a coil of stainless steel tubing and valves to isolate the components. The second represented segments of a water distribution system and consisted of eight individual lengths of 21-6-9 stainless tubing similar to that used in the Shuttle Orbiter. The tubing has a relatively high and constant surface area to volume ratio (S/V) and the bellows tank a lower and variable S/V.
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