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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Heat Storage Technology for Quick Engine Warm-Up

The Schatz Heat Battery stores excess heat energy from the engine cooling system during vehicle operation. This excess energy may be returned to the coolant upon the ensuing cold start, shortening the engine warm-up period and decreasing cold start related emissions of unburned fuel and carbon monoxide (CO). A Heat Battery was evaluated on a test vehicle to determine its effect on unburned fuel emissions, CO emissions, and fuel economy over the cold start portion (Bag 1) of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) at 24°C and -7°C ambient conditions. The Heat Battery was mounted in a vehicle fueled alternately with indolene clear (unleaded gasoline) and M85 high methanol blend fuels. Several Heat Battery/coolant flow configurations were evaluated to determine which would result in lowest cold start emissions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Passenger Car Equipped with a Direct Injection Neat Methanol Engine

The cyclic and steady-state vehicle emissions, fuel economy, performance, and cold start behavior of an automobile equipped with a direct injection methanol engine are compared with those of three other comparable vehicles. One of the comparable vehicles was powered by a gasoline-fueled engine, and the other two were Diesels. One of the Diesel-powered vehicles was naturally aspirated and the other was turbocharged. All evaluations were made using the same road load horsepower and equivalent test weight. All the evaluations were conducted at low mileage. The emissions of the methanol vehicle are compared to California low emission vehicle standards, and to the emissions of another methanol vehicle.
Technical Paper

Recent Results from Prototype Vehicle and Emission Control Technology Evaluation Using Methanol Fuel

This paper details the results of testing certain M1OO neat methanol prototype vehicles and emissions control technology with methanol vehicle applications. Two M100-fueled prototype vehicles utilizing 4 valve per cylinder technology and lean operating strategies were evaluated for emissions and fuel economy profiles. Gasoline equivalent fuel economies for the methanol vehicles were calculated and compared with fuel economy profiles from comparable gasoline-fueled vehicles. Palladium: cerium and base metal catalysts on resistively heated metal monolith substrates were also evaluated for use as methanol-fueled light-duty vehicle catalysts.
Technical Paper

On the Stability of the EPA MPG Adjustment Factors

The offset (sometimes called “shortfall”) between EPA MPG and actual in-use MPG has been shown to be dependent upon vehicle technology and EPA MPG level. If these variables change significantly, there is the potential for the constant EPA MPG adjustment factors (0.90 city, 0.78 highway) to become obsolete. Trends in passenger car MPG have been used to formulate a model of vehicle technology mixes and MPG levels over the next 15 years, to investigate the degree to which MPG adjustments derived from such a scenario might differ from the promulgated constant adjustment factors. As a check on the reasonableness of the future technology scenario, a simple econometric model was constructed independently which relates car class market fractions and MPG levels to gasoline price, and to regulatory requirements: MPG Standards and the Gas Guzzler tax.
Technical Paper

Development of Adjustment Factors for the EPA City and Highway MPG Values

This paper describes the development of adjustment factors applicable to the EPA City and Highway MPG values. The paper discusses the data bases used, and the analytical methods employed to arrive at adjustment factors of 0.90 for the EPA City MPG value and 0.78 for the EPA Highway MPG value.
Technical Paper

Passenger Car Fuel Economy as Influenced by Trip Length

Data from the Nationwide Personal Transportation Study (NPTS) and other sources have been used to generate distributions of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), average speed, and fuel consumption as a function of trip length. Approximately one third of all automobile travel in the U.S. is seen to consist of trips no more than ten miles in length. Because short trips involve more frequent stops and a smaller percentage of operation during warmed-up conditions, nearly half of the fuel used by automobiles is consumed during the execution of these short trips. The typical trip of approximately ten miles in length has been shown to result in a fuel economy that is equal to the average fuel economy achieved for all trips combined.
Technical Paper

Passenger Car Fuel Economy During Non-Urban Driving

The use of fuel economy data from the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) has provided a substantial amount of data on the fuel economy of passenger cars in urban driving conditions. Since the FTP does not represent the type of driving done in rural areas, especially on highways, a driving cycle to assess highway fuel economy was a desirable supplement to the FTP. The new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “highway” cycle was constructed from actual speed-versus-time traces generated by an instrumented test car driven over a variety of nonurban roads and highways. This cycle reflects the correct proportion of operation on each of the four major types of nonurban roads and preserves the non-steady-state characteristics of real-world driving. The average speed of the cycle is 48.2 mph and the cycle length is 10.2 miles, close to the average nonurban trip length.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy of the 1975 Models

The fuel economy data obtained from the emission tests run by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been used to show passenger car fuel economy trends from model year 1957 to present. This paper adds the 1975 model year to the historical trend and concentrates on comparisons between the 1975 and 1974 models. Methodologies which allow different 1975 vs 1974 comparisons to be made have been developed. These calculation procedures allow the changes in fuel economy to be determined separately for emission control systems, new engine-vehicle combinations and model mix shifts. Comparisons have been calculated not only for the fleet as a whole but for each of the 13 manufacturers who were certified as of the time this paper was prepared. The net change in fuel economy for the fleet has been estimated at +13.8% comparing the 1975 models to the 1974 models assuming no model mix change occurs.
Technical Paper

Passenger Car Fuel Economy - Trends and Influencing Factors

This paper discusses some trends and influencing factors in passenger car fuel economy. Fuel economy and fuel consumption were calculated by a carbon balance method from HC, CO, and CO2 emissions measured by the 1972 Federal Test Procedure. The information presented was derived from nearly 4000 tests of passenger cars ranging from 1957 production models to 1975 prototypes. Data are presented for various model year and vehicle weight categories. Trends in fuel economy are discussed on an overall sales-weighted basis and for each individual weight class. Some of the factors that influence fuel economy are quantified through the use of a regression analysis. Particular emphasis is placed on the differences in fuel economy between those vehicles that were subject to federal emission regulations and those vehicles that were not. Three ways to characterize vehicle specific fuel consumption are presented and discussed.