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Technical Paper

Understanding Fuel Stratification Effects on Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) Combustion and Emissions Behaviors

Fuel stratification effects on the combustion and emissions behaviors for partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) combustion of a high reactivity gasoline (research octane number of 80) was investigated using the third generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (Gen3 GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The PPCI combustion mode was achieved through a double injection strategy. The extent of in-cylinder fuel stratification was tailored by varying the start of second fuel injection timing (SOIsecond) while the first fuel injection event was held constant and occurred during the intake stroke. Based on the experimental results, three combustion characteristic zones were identified in terms of the SOIsecond - CA50 (crank angle at 50% cumulative heat release) relationship: (I) no response zone (HCCI-like combustion); (II) negative CA50 slope zone: (early PPCI mode); and (III) positive CA50 slope zone (late PPCI mode).
Technical Paper

Pathway to 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency Using Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition

Continued improvement in the combustion process of internal combustion engines is necessary to reduce fuel consumption, CO2 emissions, and criteria emissions for automotive transportation around the world. In this paper, test results for the Gen3X Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) engine are presented. The engine is a 2.2L, four-cylinder, double overhead cam engine with compression ratio ~17. It features a “wetless” combustion system with a high-pressure direct injection fuel system. At low load, exhaust rebreathing and increased intake air temperature were used to promote autoignition and elevate exhaust temperatures to maintain high catalyst conversion efficiency. For medium-to-high loads, a new GDCI-diffusion combustion strategy was combined with advanced single-stage turbocharging to produce excellent low-end torque and power. Time-to-torque (TT) simulations indicated 90% load response in less than 1.5 seconds without a supercharger.
Technical Paper

Advancement of GDCI Engine Technology for US 2025 CAFE and Tier 3 Emissions

The automotive industry is facing tremendous challenges to improve fuel economy and emissions of the internal combustion engine. In the US, 2025 standards for fuel economy and CO2 emissions are extremely stringent. Simultaneously, vehicles must comply with new US Tier 3 emissions standards. In all market segments, there is a need for very clean and efficient engines operating on gasoline fuels. Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) has been under development for several years and significant progress has been realized. As part of two US DOE programs, Delphi has developed a third generation GDCI engine that utilizes partially premixed compression ignition. The engine features an innovative “wetless”, low-temperature, combustion system with the latest high-pressure GDi injection system. The system was developed using extensive simulation and engine testing.
Technical Paper

Transient Control of Thermal and EGR Systems for Third Generation GDCI Multi-Cylinder Engine

A third generation Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) engine has been designed and built. The engine is intended to meet stringent US Tier 3 emissions standards with diesel-like fuel efficiency. While nearly every aspect of the engine design has been improved over the previous second generation engine, this paper is primarily concerned with two of the most critical subsystems - the thermal management and EGR systems. These are especially important because gasoline compression ignition combustion is sensitive to intake gas temperature and exhaust gas dilution. Both parameters may deviate from steady state targets during transients. The quality of combustion control during transient vehicle operation is limited by significant response delay in both the thermal management and EGR systems. The intake air coolers must be sized for sufficient heat transfer capacity under peak load operating conditions, which results in coolers having significant thermal inertia.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuels Assessment for Delphi’s Second Generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) Multi-Cylinder Engine

Fuel efficiency and emission performance sensitivity to fuel reactivity was examined using Delphi’s second-generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (Gen 2.0 GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The study was designed to compare a US market gasoline (RON 92 E10) to a higher reactivity gasoline (RON 80) at four operating conditions ranging from light load of 800 rpm / 2.0 bar gross indicated-mean-effective pressure (IMEPg) to medium load of 2000 rpm / 10.0 bar IMEPg. The experimental assessment indicated that both gasolines could achieve good performance and Tier 3 emission targets at each of the four operating conditions. Relative to the RON 92 E10 gasoline, better fuel consumption and engine-out emissions performance was achieved when using RON 80 gasoline; consistent with our previously reported single-cylinder engine research [1].
Journal Article

Second Generation GDCI Multi-Cylinder Engine for High Fuel Efficiency and US Tier 3 Emissions

The second generation 1.8L Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) engine was built and tested using RON91 gasoline. The engine is intended to meet stringent US Tier 3 emissions standards with diesel-like fuel efficiency. The engine utilizes a fulltime, partially premixed combustion process without combustion mode switching. The second generation engine features a pentroof combustion chamber, 400 bar central-mounted injector, 15:1 compression ratio, and low swirl and squish. Improvements were made to all engine subsystems including fuel injection, valve train, thermal management, piston and ring pack, lubrication, EGR, boost, and aftertreatment. Low firing friction was a major engine design objective. Preliminary test results indicated good improvement in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) over the first generation GDCI engines, while meeting targets for engine out emissions, combustion noise and stability.
Journal Article

Operation of a Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine on Naphtha and E10 Gasoline Fuels

Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) is a partially premixed low temperature combustion process that has demonstrated high fuel efficiency with full engine load range capabilities, while emitting very low levels of particulate matter (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). In the current work, a comparison of engine combustion, performance, and emissions has been made among E10 gasoline and several full-boiling range naphtha fuels on a Gen 2 single-cylinder GDCI engine with compression ratio of 15:1. Initial results with naphtha demonstrated improved combustion and efficiency at low loads. With naphtha fuel, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were generally reduced at low loads but tended to be higher at mid-loads despite the increased fuel reactivity. At higher loads, naphtha required less boost pressure compared to gasoline, however, up to 20% additional EGR was required to maintain combustion phasing.
Journal Article

GDCI Multi-Cylinder Engine for High Fuel Efficiency and Low Emissions

A 1.8L Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) engine was tested over a wide range of engine speeds and loads using RON91 gasoline. The engine was operated with a new partially premixed combustion process without combustion mode switching. Injection parameters were used to control mixture stratification and combustion phasing using a multiple-late injection strategy with GDi-like injection pressures. At idle and low loads, rebreathing of hot exhaust gases provided stable compression ignition with very low engine-out NOx and PM emissions. Rebreathing enabled reduced boost pressure, while increasing exhaust temperatures greatly. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions after the oxidation catalyst were very low. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 267 g/kWh was measured at the 2000 rpm-2bar BMEP global test point.
Journal Article

Development of a Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) Engine

In previous work, Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) has demonstrated good potential for high fuel efficiency, low NOx, and low PM over the speed-load range using RON91 gasoline. In the current work, a four-cylinder, 1.8L engine was designed and built based on extensive simulations and single-cylinder engine tests. The engine features a pent roof combustion chamber, central-mounted injector, 15:1 compression ratio, and zero swirl and squish. A new piston was developed and matched with the injection system. The fuel injection, valvetrain, and boost systems were key technology enablers. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted at idle, part-load, and full-load operating conditions. For all operating conditions, the engine was operated with partially premixed compression ignition without mode switching or diffusion controlled combustion.
Journal Article

Boost System Development for Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition (GDCI)

Intake boosting is an important method to improve fuel economy of internal combustion engines. Engines can be down-sized, down-speeded, and up-loaded to reduce friction losses, parasitic losses, and pumping losses, and operate at speed-load conditions that are thermodynamically more efficient. Low-temperature combustion engines (LTE) also benefit from down-sizing, down-speeding, and up-loading, but these engines exhibit very low exhaust enthalpy to drive conventional turbochargers. This paper describes modeling, evaluation, and selection of an efficient boost system for a 1.8L four-cylinder Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition (GDCI) engine. After a preliminary concept selection phase the model was used to develop the boost system parameters to achieve full-load and part-load engine operation objectives.
Journal Article

Development and Optimization of Intermediate Lock Position Camshaft Phaser System

Intake camshaft retard beyond that necessary for reliable cold start-ability is shown to improve part-load fuel economy. By retarding the intake camshaft timing, engine pumping losses can be reduced and fuel economy significantly improved. At high engine speeds, additional intake cam retard may also improve full-load torque and power. To achieve these benefits, an intake camshaft phaser with intermediate lock pin position (ILP) and increased phaser authority was developed. ILP is necessary to reliably start at the intermediate phase position for cold temperatures, while providing increased phaser retard under warm conditions. The phaser also provides sufficient intake advance to maximize low-speed torque and provides good scavenging for boosted engine applications. Design and development of the intermediate locking phaser system is described. The pros and cons of various methods of accomplishing locking and unlocking a phaser are illustrated.
Technical Paper

Development of Premixed Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion in a HSDI Diesel Engine

The pursuit of new combustion concepts or modes is ongoing to meet future emissions regulations and to eliminate or at least to minimize the burden of aftertreatment systems. In this research, Premixed Low Temperature Diesel Combustion (PLTDC) was developed using a single-cylinder engine to achieve low NOx and soot emissions while maintaining fuel efficiency. Operating conditions considered were 1500 rpm, 3 bar and 6 bar IMEP. The effects of injection timing, injection pressure, swirl ratio, EGR rate, and multiple injection strategies on the combustion process have been investigated. The results show that low NOx and soot emissions can be obtained at both operating conditions without sacrificing the fuel efficiency. Low NOx and soot emissions are achieved through minimization of peak temperatures during the combustion process and homogenization of in-cylinder air-fuel mixture.
Technical Paper

Simulation-Based Engine Calibration: Tools, Techniques, and Applications

Calibration of engine management systems requires considerable engineering resources during the development of modern engines. Traditional calibration methods use a combination of engine dynamometer and vehicle testing, but pressure to reduce powertrain development cost and time is driving development of more advanced calibration techniques. In addition, future engines will feature new technology, such as variable valve actuation, that is necessary to improve fuel economy, performance, and emissions. This introduces a greater level of system complexity and greatly increases test requirements to achieve successful calibrations. To address these problems, new simulation tools and procedures have been developed within Delphi to rapidly generate optimized calibration maps. The objective of the work is to reduce calibration effort while fully realizing the potential benefit from advanced engine technology.
Technical Paper

Two-Step Variable Valve Actuation for Fuel Economy, Emissions, and Performance

Variable-Valve Actuation (VVA) provides improvements in engine efficiency, emissions, and performance by changing the valve lift and timing as a function of engine operating conditions. Two-Step VVA systems utilize two discrete valve-lift profiles and may be combined with continuously variable cam phasing. Two-Step VVA systems are relatively simple, low cost and easy to package on new and existing engines, and therefore, are attractive to engine manufacturers. The objective of this work was to optimize Two-Step system design and operation for maximum system benefits. An Early-Intake-Valve-Closing (EIVC) strategy was selected for warmed-up operating conditions, and a Late-Intake-Valve-Opening (LIVO) strategy was selected for the cold start. Engine modeling tools were used to fundamentally understand the thermodynamic and fluid mechanical processes involved.
Technical Paper

Economic Analysis of Powertrain Control Technologies

Regulatory and market pressures continue to challenge the automotive industry to develop technologies focused on reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy. This paper introduces a practical model, which evaluates the economic value of various technologies based on their ability to reduce fuel consumption, improve emissions or provide consumer benefits such as improved performance. By evaluating the individual elements of economic value as viewed by the OEM manufacturer, while keeping the end consumer in mind, technology selection decisions can be made. These elements include annual fuel usage, vehicle performance, mass reduction and emissions, among others. The following technologies are discussed and evaluated: gasoline direct injection, variable valvetrain technologies, common-rail diesel and hybrid vehicles.