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Technical Paper

Route Selection Strategy for Hybrid Vehicles Based on Energy Management and Real Time Drive Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0995
Air pollution levels in an urban environment is a major concern for developed and developing countries alike. Governments around the world are constantly trying to control and reduce air pollution levels through regulations. Low emission zones are being designated in cities worldwide in order to reduce the level of pollutants in big cities. The automotive industry is affected by those regulations and they are becoming more demanding over the years. Present work is aimed at developing a control strategy for a hybrid vehicle in order to optimize the fuel economy and emission levels based on GPS information, driver specific driving characteristics and weather forecast data for a given route. It uses powertrain model of a hybrid vehicle for developing route and driver specific control strategy. The full vehicle model has two sub-models: a route selector and a powertrain optimization model.
Technical Paper

Cepstrum Analysis of a Rate Tube Injection Measurement Device

2016-10-17
2016-01-2196
With a push to continuously develop traditional engine technology efficiencies and meet stringent emissions requirements, there is a need to improve the precision of injection rate measurement used to characterise the performance of the fuel injectors. New challenges in precisely characterising injection rate present themselves to the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), with the additional requirements to measure multiple injection strategies, increased injection pressure and rate features. One commonly used method of measurement is the rate tube injection analyser; it measures the pressure wave caused by the injection within a column of stationary fluid. In a rate tube, one of the significant sources of signal distortion is a result of the injected fluid pressure waves reflected back from the tube termination.
Technical Paper

Technology Choices for Optimizing the Performance of Racing Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1173
In the continuous search for technology to improve the fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas emission levels from the automotive vehicle, the automotive industry has been evaluating various technological options. Since the introduction of stringent legislative targets in Europe as well as in the United States of America in late 20th Century, one of the viable options identified by the industry was the application of alternative powertrain. On the motorsport arena, changes introduced by the Formula 1 governing body (FIA) for the high-performance racing engines also focuses on fuel economy. FIA regulation for 2014 restricts the fuel-flow rate to a maximum of 100kg/hr beyond 10,500 rev/min and prescribe fuel flow rate below 10,500 rev/min operating conditions for the F1 Engines. In addition, Formula1 and Le Mans racing regulations actively promote the integration of the hybrid powertrain in order to achieve optimum fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Nanofluids and Thermal Management Strategy for Automotive Application

2015-04-14
2015-01-1753
Stringent emission norms introduced by the legislators over the decades has forced automotive manufacturers to improve the fuel economy and emission levels of their engines continuously. Therefore, the emission levels of modern engines are significantly lower than pre-1990 engines. However, the improvement in fuel economy is marginal when compared to that of emission levels. For example, approximately 30% of total energy in the fuel is being wasted through the cooling systems in the modern engines. Therefore, thermal management systems are being developed to reduce these losses and offer new opportunities for improving the fuel economy of the vehicles. One of the new emerging technologies for thermal management is the use of nanofluids as coolant. Nanofluids are a mixture of nano-sized particles added to a base fluid to improve its thermal characteristics.
Technical Paper

Performance of Ancillary Systems of 2014+ Le Mans LMP1-H Vehicles and Optimization

2015-04-14
2015-01-1163
This study details the investigation into the hybridization of engine ancillary systems for 2014+ Le Mans LMP1-H vehicles. This was conducted in order to counteract the new strict fuel-limiting requirements governing the powertrain system employed in this type of vehicle. Dymola 1D vehicle simulation software was used to construct a rectilinear vehicle model with a map based 3.8L V8 engine and its associated ancillary systems, including oil pumps, water pump and fuel pump as well as a full kinetic energy recovery system (ERS). Appropriate validation strategy was implemented to validate the model. A validated model was used to study the difference in fuel consumption for the conventional ancillary drive off of the internal combustion engine in various situational tests and a hybrid-electric drive for driving engine ancillaries.
Journal Article

The Effect of a Three-Way Catalytic Converter on Particulate Matter from a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine During Cold-Start

2013-04-08
2013-01-1305
This work investigates the effect of a three-way catalytic converter and sampling dilution ratio on nano-scale exhaust particulate matter emissions from a gasoline direct-injection engine during cold-start and warm-up transients. Experimental results are presented from a four cylinder in-line, four stroke, wall-guided direct-injection, turbo-charged and inter-cooled 1.6 litre gasoline engine. A fast-response particulate spectrometer for exhaust nano-particle measurement up to 1000 nm was utilised. It was observed that the three-way catalytic converter had a significant effect on particle number density, reducing the total particle number by up to 65 % over the duration of the cold-start test. The greatest change in particle number density occurred for particles less than 23 nm diameter, with reductions of up to 95 % being observed, whilst the number density for particles above 50 nm diameter exhibited a significant increase.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Warm-Up Characteristics and Thermal Management of a GDI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0870
Improving the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines over the engine operating range is essential for achieving optimum fuel economy. The thermal efficiency of the engine during cold start is one of the areas where significant improvement can be made if a suitable thermal management strategy is identified and implemented. Thermal management strategy in an engine can allow the engine to work at different operating temperatures in order to reduce the heat transfer loss by ensuring optimum volumetric efficiency, efficient combustion and adequate safety margin for the durability of mechanical components. The aim of the present work was to numerically model the warm-up characteristics of a 4 cylinder, 1.6 litre, turbocharged and intercooled, Euro IV, gasoline direct injected engine. It used a fully validated engine model which works based on the predictive combustion model.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Engine Operating Conditions on Engine-out Particulate Matter from a Gasoline Direct-injection Engine during Cold-start.

2012-09-10
2012-01-1711
This work investigates the effect of engine operating conditions and exhaust sampling conditions (i.e. dilution ratio) on engine-out, nano-scale, particulate matter emissions from a gasoline direct-injection engine during cold-start and warm-up transients. The engine used for this research was an in-line four cylinder, four stroke, wall-guided direct-injection, turbo-charged and inter-cooled 1.6 l gasoline engine. A fast-response particulate spectrometer for exhaust nano-particle measurement up to 1000 nm was utilized, along with a spark-plug mounted pressure transducer for combustion analysis. It was observed that the total particle count decreases during the cold-start transient, and has a distinct relationship with the engine body temperature. Tests have shown that the engine body temperature may be used as a control strategy for engine-out particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Soot Formation Model Applied to Spark Ignition Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0128
A semi phenomenological and global chemical kinetic model is adopted and applied to predict soot formation in gasoline-fueled spark ignition engines. The adopted model considers acetylene produced from gasoline pyrolysis process as the main precursor for soot inception. The adopted soot model was initially proposed for diffusion flames and this work tries to apply and modify it to gasoline fueled (premixed flame) spark ignition engines. The burned mass fraction and burn rate are used to estimate the instantaneous acetylene, oxygen and Hydroxyl (OH) radical mass fractions at each crank angle of the engine. Experimental data from a single point throttle body injected spark ignition engine is used for validating total particle numbers at different engine operating conditions. The simulation results agree reasonably with the experimental results. Both experimental and predicted results showed that the inception rate increases with the engine load in an exponential form.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Adaptive Combustion Control for Fuel-Neutral ‘Smart’ Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0848
The search for next generation transportation fuels in order to fully or partially replace petrol based fuels has resulted in use of varieties of fuels and fuel blends in internal combustion engines. However, the engine management systems are fuel specific and therefore, every major change in fuel composition requires significant amount of calibration work to optimize the operating variables in order to meet legislative emission targets and reduce the real-world emission and improve fuel economy levels. The current work has successfully devised a numerical simulation for the operation of a modern 4-cylinder turbocharged engine using an adaptive combustion modelling methodology that identifies a fuel type during engine start itself, and adapts engine operating parameters for optimum performance. A strategy was devised to use commercially available sensors to obtain and correlate measurable cylinder pressure based information for fuel identification.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Nano-Scale Particulates from Gasoline Turbo-Intercooled Direct-Injection Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2197
This study aims to identify the factors that control particulate matter (PM) formation and size distribution in direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines. The test engine used for this research was a 1.6 litre, wall-guided DISI, turbocharged, intercooled, in-line 4 cylinder, Euro IV engine. The exhaust sampling point was before the catalytic converter, i.e. engine-out emissions were measured. The first part of this paper investigates the characteristics of PM number and size distribution of DISI and throttle body injected (TBI) engines. The second part investigates the effect of combustion characteristics of DISI engines on the number of 5nm and 10nm (nucleation) and 200nm (accumulation) PM. A statistical analysis of the coefficient of variance (COV) of the maximum rate of pressure rise (RPmax) over 100 cycles was performed against the COV of 5nm, 10nm and 200nm total particle number.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Enriched Diesel Combustion

2010-10-25
2010-01-2190
Improving fuel economy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from vehicle sources have been major research themes in recent times. One of the ways to achieve this is to use alternative fuels that can fully or partly replace petroleum-derived fuels using existing internal combustion engine technology so that the benefit from the alternative fuels can be realized immediately without delay. The present work attempted to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine using conventional diesel fuel with mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen generated from water at the point of use. Small amounts of hydrogen and oxygen were introduced in the air stream at the time of induction so that no extra injection system or additional modifications to the existing engine were required.
Technical Paper

Particulate Matter Emissions and the Role of Catalytic Converter During Cold Start of GDI Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2122
This work aimed to study nano-scale particulate matter originating from gasoline direct injection engine during cold start and warm up operating conditions and to identify the role of the three-way catalytic converter on nano-scale particulate during cold-start and warm-up operating conditions. This work used a 4-stroke, 1.6 litre, wall guided gasoline direct injected, turbocharged and intercooled SI engine equipped with a three-way catalytic converter for this investigation. It used a fast particle spectrometer for the measurement of exhaust nano-scale particles upto 1000 nm diameter.
Technical Paper

Investigation into the Role of Catalytic Converters on Tailpipe-out Nano-Scale Particulate Matter from Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2010-05-05
2010-01-1572
This study investigated the role of catalytic converters on tailpipe-out, nano-scale particulates from a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) gasoline engine. The test engine used for this research was a 1.6 litre, wall-guided DISI, turbocharged, intercooled, in-line 4-cylinder, Euro- IV engine. Spectral density of the particles in the exhaust stream before and after the catalytic converter was measured and was split into four size ranges: 5-10nm, 10-50nm, 50-100nm and 100-1000nm diameter for the sake of analysis. These four size ranges represent both nucleation mode (5-50nm) and accumulation mode (50-1000nm) particulates. The study found that for lower engine operating speeds, i.e. 1600rpm, the catalytic converter had a significant effect on the total number of 5-10 and 10-50nm diameter particles. At certain loading conditions the catalytic converter removed up to 60% of the 5-10nm particles and up to 22% of the 10-50nm particles.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fuelled by Animal and Vegetable Derived Bio-diesel and Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel in Mexico City

2010-04-12
2010-01-0482
The present work attempted to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine using conventional diesel fuel with mixtures of animal and vegetable derived bio-diesel that are available in Mexico and ultra low sulphur diesel with varying proportions. This work aimed at studying the performance of the engine at representative ambient conditions of Mexico City which is at an altitude of 2240m above sea level. The work identified that the levels of CO in the exhaust has a strong correlation with the proportion of bio-diesel in the conventional diesel fuel used. However, the performance of the engine, torque and power, are not affected significantly by varying the proportion of animal and bio-derived fuels in diesel fuel. In addition it also identified the correlation between the proportions of bio-diesel in diesel with the engine out particulate matter and the performance of diesel oxidation catalyst.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics and Cycle-By-Cycle Variation in a Turbocharged-Intercooled Gasoline Direct-Injected Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0348
This work experimentally investigated the combustion characteristics and cycle-by-cycle variations of a turbocharged, intercooled, gasoline direct injected spark ignition (DISI) engine at a wide range of operating conditions. The cycle-by-cycle variations have been characterized by the coefficient of variance of (COV) cylinder pressure against crank angle, the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and 50% mass fraction burned. The combustion characteristics and cyclic variability of the DISI engine are compared with data from throttle body injected engines throughout the analysis to draw conclusions. The present work identified that the COV of pressure reaches a minimum value at the end of the compression stroke and this minimum value is independent of engine type and the loading conditions investigated. It also identified that the maximum COV value of the pressure against crank angle during combustion does not change significantly with load for the throttle body injected engine.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Level Reduction in Two-Stroke Engine using In-Cylinder Combustion Control

2007-04-16
2007-01-1085
The present work studied exhaust emission levels from small low-output two-stroke spark ignition engines and investigated the means to reduce exhaust emission levels. The work presented here investigated two different approaches for in-cylinder combustion control to reduce emission levels. The first approach employed piston crown treatment with copper-coating to identify any improvement in combustion performance; the second approach employed Keronite® coating, i.e, ceramic-coating to act as a thermal barrier to improve combustion or reduce thermal losses. The engine performance and emission levels obtained for similar loading conditions using these approaches were compared with that of baseline engine performance. The study found that significant reduction of emission levels especially un-burned hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide could be obtained by applying in-cylinder coating in two-stroke engines.
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