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Technical Paper

Experimental Verification of Residual Compression in Tempered Automotive Glass with Holes

2003-01-18
2003-26-0012
Tempered float glass is commonly used for both side windows and backlites in the automotive industry. The success of such products is primarily attributed to high level of residual compression, following tempering, which provides abrasion resistance as well as 3X higher functional strength to sustain mechanical, vibrational and thermal stresses during the vehicle's lifetime. Certain applications of tempered glass, however, require mounting holes whose surface-finish must be controlled carefully to withstand transient tensile stresses during tempering. Simultaneously, the nature and magnitude of residual compression at the hole must provide sufficient robustness to bear mounting, vibrational and thermal stresses throughout the life of the vehicle. This paper presents (i) analysis of residual compression at the hole, (ii) measurement of biaxial strength of annealed glass with hole at center, and (iii) measurement of biaxial strength of tempered glass with hole at center.
Technical Paper

New Developments in Diesel Oxidation Catalysts and Diesel Particulate Filters

2003-01-18
2003-26-0017
Stringent emissions legislation for diesel-powered vehicles, soon to go into effect, has led to new advances in both Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) and Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). This paper reviews some of the new developments in DOC support design which lead to improved light-off behavior and higher overall emissions performance through lower thermal mass, higher Geometric Surface Area (GSA) and larger Open Frontal Area (OFA) than those afforded by the standard cordierite 400/6.5 cell configuration. The four different DOC supports examined in this paper include 400/4, 200/8, 300/8 and 400/6.5 - the last one serving as baseline.
Technical Paper

Performance and Durability of Advanced Ceramic Catalyst Supports

2003-01-18
2003-26-0015
As emissions regulations become more stringent, catalyst supports with higher cell density, smaller wall thickness, higher surface area and lower thermal mass become more desirable for faster light off and higher conversion efficiency. Simultaneously, however, washcoat formulation and loadings have to be adjusted to yield higher and more stable B.E.T. area at operating temperatures representative of close-coupled application. The thermal mass contribution of advanced washcoat system to catalyst supports with 600/4 and 900/2 cell structures may approach or even exceed that of uncoated substrates. Under such high washcoat loadings, the composite properties of advanced catalysts may be affected adversely in terms of their physical durability, notably in close-coupled application. This paper focuses on potential solutions to light-off performance and FTP efficiency, via optimization of substrate/washcoat interaction, geometric design and the mounting system.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Advanced Ceramic Catalyst Supports

2000-03-06
2000-01-0493
Stringent emissions standards with 95+% conversion efficiency requirements call for advanced ceramic catalyst supports with thinner walls, higher cell density and optimum cell shape. The extrusion technology for cellular ceramics has also made significant progress which permits the manufacture of advanced catalyst supports. Similarly, modifications in cordierite chemistry and the manufacturing process have led to improved microstructure from coatability and thermal shock points of view. The design of these supports, however, requires a systems approach to balance both the performance and durability requirements. Indeed as the wall gets thinner, the contribution of washcoat becomes more significant in terms of thermal mass, heat transfer, thermal expansion, hydraulic diameter and structural stiffness - all of which have an impact on performance and durability. For example, the thinner the wall is, the better the light-off performance will be.
Technical Paper

Performance Parameters for Advanced Ceramic Catalyst Supports

1999-10-25
1999-01-3631
The stringent emissions legislation has necessitated advances in the catalytic converter system comprising the substrate, washcoat technology, catalyst formulation and packaging design. These advances are focused on reducing light-off emissions at lower temperature or shorter time, increasing FTP efficiency, reducing back pressure and meeting the mechanical and thermal durability requirements over 100,000 vehicle miles. This paper reviews the role of cordierite ceramic substrate and how its design can help meet the stringent emissions legislation. In particular, it compares the effect of cell geometry and size on performance parameters like geometric surface area, open frontal area, hydraulic diameter, thermal mass, heat transfer factor, mechanical integrity factor and thermal integrity factor - all of which have a bearing on emissions, back pressure and durability. The properties of advanced cell configurations like hexagon are compared with those of standard square cell.
Technical Paper

Substrate/Washcoat Interaction in Thin Wall Ceramic Substrates

1999-01-13
990013
Stringent emissions standards for HC, CO and NOx have necessitated the development of thin wall ceramic substrates which offer higher surface area, larger open frontal area and lower thermal mass. Such substrates offer the additional benefit of being compact which make them ideal for manifold mounting in the engine compartment. These attributes of ceramic substrates, following washcoat and catalyst application, translate directly into quick light-off, high conversion efficiency and low back pressure. To preserve these advantages at high operating temperature and still meet 100,000 mile vehicle durability, the thermomechanical interaction between the substrate and thin wall washcoat system must be managed carefully via formulation, % loading and the calcination process. This paper presents the physical properties data for thin wall ceramic substrates before and after the washcoat application.
Technical Paper

Durability and Performance of Thin Wall Ceramic Substrates

1999-01-13
990011
The stringent emissions standards in the late 1990's like NLEV, ULEV and SULEV have led to major modifications in the composition and design of ceramic substrates. These changes have been necessitated to reduce cold start emissions, meet OBD-II requirements, and to ensure 100,000 mile durability requirement in a cost-effective manner. This paper presents the key advances in ceramic substrates which include lower thermal expansion, lighter weight, higher surface area and improved manufacturing process all of which help meet performance requirements. In addition to above benefits, the compressive and tensile strengths of lightweight substrates, as well as their thermal shock resistance, are found to be adequate following the application of high surface area alumina washcoat. The strength properties are crucial for ensuring safe handling of the substrate during coating and canning and for its long term mechanical durability in service.
Technical Paper

Physical Durability of Thin Wall Ceramic Substrates

1998-10-19
982635
Significant advances in composition and the manufacturing process have led to thin wall cordierite ceramic substrates with low thermal mass, high surface area, and large open frontal area-properties that are critical for fast light-off, high conversion efficiency and low back pressure. Indeed, such substrates are ideal catalyst supports for meeting the ever-stringent emissions regulations, ala SULEV and ULEV, as demonstrated by recent performance data1. This paper focuses on the physical durability of 400/4 and 600/4 cordierite ceramic substrates. In particular, it presents strength, fatigue, and modulus data which influence the mechanical durability. In addition, it presents thermal expansion data which impact the thermal durability. Both of these durabilities are examined as a function of operating temperature.
Technical Paper

Advanced Three-Way Converter System for High Temperature Exhaust Aftertreatment

1997-02-24
970265
An advanced three-way converter system with significant improvements in light-off performance, conversion efficiency, thermal stability and physical durability at high operating temperature is described. The converter system is comprised of a light-weight ceramic substrate with high surface area triangular cell structure, a new catalyst formulation with enhanced thermal stability and good substrate compatibility, and a durable packaging design which together lead to consistent improvements in high temperature performance and durability. Experimental data including FTP performance, canning trials, and high temperature vibration and thermal shock tests for both the advanced and standard three-way converter systems are presented.
Technical Paper

Systems Design for Ceramic LFA Substrates for Diesel/Natural Gas Flow- Through Catalysts

1995-02-01
950150
The monolithic, large frontal area (LFA), extruded ceramic substrates for diesel flow-through catalysts offer unique advantages of design versatility, longterm durability, ease of packaging and low Cost [1, 2]*. This paper examines the effect of cell density and cell size on catalyst light-off performance, back pressure, mechanical and thermal durability, and the steady-state catalytic activity. The factors which affect these performance characteristics are discussed. Certain trade-offs in performance parameters, which are necessary for optimum systems design, are also discussed. Following a brief discussion of design methodology, substrate selection, substrate/washcoat interaction and packaging specifications, the durability data for ceramic flow-through catalysts are summarized. A total of over 18 million vehicle miles have been successfully demonstrated by ceramic LFA catalysts using the systems design approach.
Technical Paper

Advances in Durability and Performance of Ceramic Preconverter Systems

1995-02-01
950407
Ceramic preconverters have become a viable strategy to meet the California LEV and ULEV standards. To minimize cold start emissions the preconverter must light-off quickly and be catalytically efficient. In addition, it must also survive the more severe thermomechanical requirements posed by its close proximity to the engine. The viability of the ceramic preconverter system to meet both emissions and durability requirements has also been reported recently(1,2). This paper further investigates the impact preconverter design parameters such as cell density, composition, volume, and catalyst technology have on emissions and pressure drop. In addition, different preconverter/main converter configurations in conjunction with electrically heated catalyst systems are evaluated. The results demonstrate that ceramic preconverters substantially reduce cold start emissions. Their effectiveness depends on preconverter design and volume, catalyst technology, and the system configuration.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Compressive Strength of Extruded Cordierite Ceramic Substrates

1995-02-01
950787
High temperature modulus of rupture (MOR) data, published previously, show that the ceramic catalyst supports get stronger with temperature due to the absence of water vapor and closure of microcracks which would otherwise act as stress concentrators [1, 2 and 3]*. The increased MOR value is partially responsible for the excellent durability of ceramic catalyst supports at high temperature. In this paper, we will present the compressive strength data of ceramic substrates at high temperature, namely the crush strength along B-axis and biaxial compressive strength of the whole substrate. Since the honeycomb strength is directly related to that of the individual cell wall, the compressive strength should also increase with temperature similar to the modulus of rupture. Accordingly, the ceramic substrates are capable of supporting higher mounting pressures exerted by the intumescent mat at high temperature [4].
Technical Paper

Durable Packaging Design for Cordierite Ceramic Catalysts for Motorcycle Application

1993-03-01
930161
The motorcycle emissions regulations for both two-stroke and four-stroke engines, which are receiving worldwide attention, will go into effect in the very near future. To meet these regulations, the motorcycles will require a catalyst in conjunction with the muffler due to space limitations. The combination of high engine speeds, high vibrational acceleration, high HC and CO emissions, high oxidation exotherms, and stringent durability requirements, points to cordierite ceramic substrate as an ideal catalyst support. However, as an integral unit within the muffler, its packaging design must be capable of withstanding isothermal operating conditions which may exceed the upper intumescent temperature limit of the ceramic mat. This paper describes a durable packaging design for the ceramic catalyst which employs a hybrid ceramic mat, special end rings and gaskets, and high strength stainless steel can.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Biaxial Compressive Strength of Cordierite Ceramic Honeycombs

1993-03-01
930165
The stringent durability requirements approaching 100,000 vehicle miles for automotive substrates and 290,000 vehicle miles for large frontal area diesel substrates for 1994+ model year vehicles call for advanced packaging designs with thick ceramic mats and high mount densities. The latter result in high mounting pressure on the substrate and enhance its mechanical integrity against engine vibrations, road shocks and back pressure forces. A novel measurement technique which applies a uniform biaxial compressive load on the lateral surface of ceramic substrates, thereby simulating canning loads, is described. The biaxial compressive strength data obtained in this manner help determine the maximum mounting pressure and mat density for a durable packaging design. The biaxial compressive strength data for both round and non round substrates with small and large frontal area are presented.
Technical Paper

Size Effect on the Strength of Ceramic Catalyst Supports

1992-10-01
922333
The typical ceramic catalyst support for automotive application has a total volume of 1640 cm3. Approximately 10% of this volume is subjected to tensile thermal stresses due to a radial temperature gradient in service [1]*. These stresses are kept below 50% of the substrate strength to minimize fatigue degradation and to ensure long-term durability [2]. However, the tensile strength measurements are carried out in 4-point bending using 2.5 cm wide x 1.2 cm thick x 10 cm long modulus of rupture bars in which the specimen volume subjected to tensile stress is merely 3.2 cm3 or 0.2% of the total substrate volume [3]. Thus, a large specimen population is often necessary (50 specimens or more) to obtain the strength distribution representative of full substrate. This is particularly true for large frontal area substrates for diesel catalyst supports with an order of magnitude larger stressed volume. In this paper, the modulus of rupture data are obtained as function of specimen size.
Technical Paper

New Developments in Packaging of Ceramic Honeycomb Catalysts

1992-10-01
922252
The emissions regulations for the decade of 1990s are not only more stringent but are also required of vehicles other than passenger cars, for example both diesel and gasoline trucks as well as motorcycles. These latter applications involve different operating conditions in terms of space velocities, temperature profiles, and vibrational loads than those typical of passenger cars [1]*. In addition, the performance and durability requirements for these applications call for lower back pressure and longer service life. Furthermore, the space availability and the operating temperature range differ vastly so as to require special packaging designs to meet the durability requirements. This paper provides new data for ceramic insulating mats, both intumescent and non-intumescent [2,3], and ceramic substrates with thin and thick walls and square and triangular cell geometries [4], which are under development for non-passenger car applications indicated above.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Diesel Flow-Through Converters

1992-02-01
920145
The large frontal area cordierite ceramic flow-through converter for diesel emissions must meet the 290K vehicle mile durability requirement, almost a six fold increase over that of automotive converters. This paper compares the size, the geometry and the operating conditions of automotive vs. diesel converters and suggests ways to design the converter system to meet the challenging durability requirements without compromising its performance with respect to back pressure and conversion efficiency. It is shown that the mechanical durability of the system, which is critical for meeting the 290K vehicle mile durability, can best be met by ensuring good compatibility between the substrate and washcoat and by designing a rugged packaging system with positive mounting pressure under all driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Thermal Durability of a Ceramic Wall-Flow Diesel Filter for Light Duty Vehicles

1992-02-01
920143
The thermal durability of a large frontal area cordierite ceramic wall-flow filter for light-duty diesel engine is examined under various regeneration conditions. The radial temperature distribution during burner regeneration, obtained by eight different thermocouples at six different axial sections of a 75″ diameter x 8″ long filter, is used together with physical properties of the filter to compute thermal stresses via finite element analysis. The stress-time history of the filter is then compared with the strength and fatigue characteristics of extruded cordierite ceramic monolith. The successful performance of the filter over as many as 1000 regenerations is attributed to three important design parameters, namely unique filter properties, controlled regeneration conditions, and optimum packaging design. The latter induces significant radial and axial compression in the filter thereby enhancing its strength and reducing the operating stresses.
Technical Paper

Impact of Washcoat Formulation on Properties and Performance of Cordierite Ceramic Converters

1991-10-01
912370
The dual requirement of high conversion efficiency and 50K mile durability for cordierite ceramic converters is achievable through optimization of washcoat and catalyst formulation. This paper presents new data for high temperature physical properties, light-off performance, conversion efficiency and pressure drop through an oval cordierite ceramic converter with triangular cell structure and two different washcoat formulations; namely standard vs high-tech. Both of the washcoat systems have a beneficial effect on strength properties with nominal impact on thermal shock resistance. Both the standard and high-tech catalysts provide identical light-off performance for CO, HC and NOx conversion. The high-tech washcoat and catalyst system, in particular, provides consistently superior conversion efficiency for CO, HC and NOx. The pressure drop across the catalyst depends on hydraulic diameter and is only 8% higher for high-tech washcoat than for standard washcoat.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Fatigue Data for Cordierite Ceramic Wall-Flow Diesel Filters

1991-02-01
910135
The dynamic fatigue data for two different cordierite ceramic wall-flow diesel filter compositions, EX-54 and EX-66, are obtained at 200° and 400°C using the 4-point bend test. These compositions offer larger mean pore size and experience lower pressure drop than the EX-47 composition, and hence are more desirable for certain applications. Their fatigue behavior in the operating temperature range is found to be equivalent or superior to that of EX-47 composition which helps promote filter durability. The fatigue data are used to arrive at a safe allowable stress, which would ensure the required 290K vehicle mile durability. The paper also discusses the impact of mean pore size on high temperature strength and fatigue properties and their effect on filter durability.
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