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Journal Article

Cylinder-to-Cylinder Variations in Power Production in a Dual Fuel Internal Combustion Engine Leveraging Late Intake Valve Closings

Advanced internal combustion engines, although generally more efficient than conventional combustion engines, often encounter limitations in multi-cylinder applications due to variations in the combustion process. This study leverages experimental data from an inline 6-cylinder heavy-duty dual fuel engine equipped with a fully-flexible variable intake valve actuation system to study cylinder-to-cylinder variations in power production. The engine is operated with late intake valve closure timings in a dual-fuel combustion mode featuring a port-injection and a direct-injection fueling system in order to improve fuel efficiency and engine performance. Experimental results show increased cylinder-to-cylinder variation in IMEP as IVC timing moves from 570°ATDC to 610°ATDC, indicating an increasingly uneven fuel distribution between cylinders.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ignition and Injection Perturbation under Lean and Dilute GDI Engine Operation

Turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are quickly becoming more prominent in light-duty automotive applications because of their potential improvements in efficiency and fuel economy. While EGR dilute and lean operation serve as potential pathways to further improve efficiencies and emissions in GDI engines, they also pose challenges for stable engine operation. Tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine that is representative of current automotive-style GDI engines. Baseline cases were performed under steady-state operating conditions where combustion phasing and dilution were varied to determine the effects on indicated efficiency and combustion stability. Sensitivity studies were then carried out by introducing binary low-high perturbation of spark timing and injection duration on a cycle-by-cycle basis under EGR dilute and lean operation to determine dominant feedback mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Performance and Efficiency Assessment of a Production CNG Vehicle Compared to Its Gasoline Counterpart

Two modern light-duty passenger vehicles were selected for chassis dynamometer testing to evaluate differences in performance end efficiency resulting from CNG and gasoline combustion in a vehicle-based context. The vehicles were chosen to be as similar as possible apart from fuel type, sharing similar test weights and identical driveline configurations. Both vehicles were tested over several chassis dynamometer driving cycles, where it was found that the CNG vehicle exhibited 3-9% lower fuel economy than the gasoline-fueled subject. Performance tests were also conducted, where the CNG vehicle's lower tractive effort capability and longer acceleration times were consistent with the lower rated torque and power of its engine as compared to the gasoline model. The vehicles were also tested using quasi-steady-state chassis dynamometer techniques, wherein a series of engine operating points were studied.
Technical Paper

Efficiency and Emissions Potential of Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles

This paper reviews and summarizes recent developments in hydrogen (H2) powered engine and vehicle research. Following an overview of mixture formation strategies, general trade-offs when operating engines on hydrogen are analyzed and highlights regarding accomplishments in efficiency improvement and emissions reduction are presented. These include estimates of efficiency potential of direct-injection hydrogen engines based on single-cylinder research engine data, fuel economy and emissions results of hydrogen powered passenger cars and pickup trucks as well as the impact and potential of hydrogen/methane blended operation.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Hydrogen Fueled Vehicles Compared to Conventional Vehicles from 2010 to 2045

Fuel cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and there is limited demand for hydrogen at present, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen powertrains to conventional gasoline vehicles. Several timeframes are considered: 2010, 2015, 2030, and 2045. To address the technology status uncertainty, a triangular distribution approach was implemented for each component technology. The fuel consumption and cost of five powertrain configurations will be discussed and compared with the conventional counterpart.
Technical Paper

Prospects on Fuel Economy Improvements for Hydrogen Powered Vehicles

Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite its lower cost, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers, for a similar amount of onboard hydrogen, a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen-fueled vehicles to their conventional gasoline counterparts. To take uncertainties into account, the current and future status of both technologies were considered.
Technical Paper

Efficiency-Optimized Operating Strategy of a Supercharged Hydrogen-Powered Four-Cylinder Engine for Hybrid Environments

As an energy carrier, hydrogen has the potential to deliver clean and renewable power for transportation. When powered by hydrogen, internal combustion engine technology may offer an attractive alternative to enable the transition to a hydrogen economy. Port-injected hydrogen engines generate extremely low emissions and offer high engine efficiencies if operated in a lean combustion strategy. This paper presents experimental data for different constant air/fuel ratio engine combustion strategies and introduces variable air/fuel ratio strategies for engine control. The paper also discusses the shift strategy to optimize fuel economy and contrasts the different engine control strategies in the conventional vehicle environment. The different strategies are evaluated on the urban driving cycle, then engine behaviors are explained and fuel economy is estimated. Finally, the paper projects the potential of hybridization and discusses trends in powertrain cycle efficiencies.
Technical Paper

Transient Efficiency, Performance, and Emissions Analysis of a Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Pick-up Truck

Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising future energy carriers. There are several challenges that must be overcome in order to establishing a “hydrogen economy”, including the development of a practical, efficient, and cost-effective power conversion device. Using hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a huge step toward developing a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure. This paper summarizes the testing of a hydrogen powered pick-up truck on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle is powered by a port-injected 8-cylinder engine with an integrated supercharger and intercooler. The 4-wheel drive chassis dynamometer is equipped with a hydrogen delivery, metering and safety system as well as hydrogen specific instrumentation. This instrumentation includes numerous sensors, includes a wide-band lambda sensor and an exhaust gas hydrogen analyzer. This analyzer quantifies the amount of unburned hydrogen in the exhaust indicating the completeness of the combustion.