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Technical Paper

Prediction of Crack Initiation for One-Piece Type Brake Disc for Motorcycles under Overload Condition

2005-10-12
2005-32-0047
A prediction method was proposed for crack initiation in one-piece type brake discs under extreme braking conditions. Braking tests under extreme loading conditions were conducted by using sample discs. The variations of internal temperatures and surface strains at several locations were measured by using thermocouples and strain gages. In order to obtain the S-N curve of the disc material, specimens with a hole in their center were used for the fatigue test in which an alternative strain was cyclically applied. The numbers of strain cycles, when a 0.3mm crack initiated from the hole, were analyzed by the Weibull plot. The maximum and minimum strains at the hole edge were estimated by calculation considering the temperature variation with respect to time as well as the strain induced by friction due to braking pads. The number of cycles corresponding to the strain amplitude range was estimated by the rain-flow method.
Technical Paper

Thermal Deformation of Pressure Plates for Manual Clutches

2005-04-11
2005-01-1784
The mechanism of permanent deformation of pressure plates has been investigated under very severe conditions, which are used for automobile clutches. Sliding tests were performed, where an extreme overload was applied to the pressure plate. It is found from the test results that the residual stress in the circumferential direction varied from compression to tension after the sliding test near the sliding surface of the plate. FE (Finite element) calculations were also conducted taking both plastic deformation of the plate due to thermal expansion and geometrical non-linearity into account. The FE calculations agreed well with the experimental results. The permanent deformation mechanism for pressure plates was summarized as follows. Compressive yielding of the plate occurs at the heating stage near the sliding surface. The residual stress in tension appears in the sliding surface when the plate becomes cool, and it deflects the plate like a bowl.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Manufacturing Process of Glass Fibers/Phenol Composites. Effects of Solidification Conditions, Fiber Length and Additional Materials on their Mechanical Properties

2003-03-03
2003-01-1128
The aim of these experiments is to determine the best way to obtain high mechanical properties for phenol resin and glass fibers based composites. Various ways of fabricating the material were studied, as well as its best composition. The conditions of drying, molding processes were optimized. From the most conventional method, using ethanol as a solvent to newer ones, including continuous ways of processing and the use of water instead of ethanol, a lot of possibilities exist to produce such a material. This paper explains the advantages and drawbacks of a whole range of manufacturing processes.
Technical Paper

Effect of Acid Modification for FRPP (Chopped Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene) on Creep Resistance Under Bending Loading at Elevated Temperature

2000-03-06
2000-01-1128
Creep tests under three-point bending loading were conducted at elevated temperatures for long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene in order to examine the effect of maleic anhydride modification for polypropylene matrix on the creep resistance. The high acid modification (1 wt%) significantly reduces the creep deflection at both low and high sustained loads. The residual tensile strength after 1000 hours creep also increased with an increase of maleic anhydride content. AE observation indicating an occurrence of debonding decreased with increasing acid density. The fractured surfaces show that the interfacial strength between glass fibers and matrix can be increased owing to an increase of maleic anhydride fraction.
Technical Paper

Power Transmitting Mechanisms of CVT Using a Metal V-Belt and Load Distribution in the Steel Ring

1998-02-23
980824
An advanced numerical model is proposed to analyze the power transmitting mechanisms of a CVT using a metal V-belt. By using the present model, forces acting on the belt are well estimated not only at steady states but also during transitional states where the speed ratio is changing. The numerical results show that blocks are in compression in both strands when the speed ratio is rapidly shifted. A complementary model is also developed to analyze the load distribution among bands which form the ring. The load distribution in the ring is governed by the difference in coefficients of friction among elements.
Technical Paper

Effects of Temperature and Crack Tip Opening Rate on Fracture Behavior of CNBR Modified Epoxy Adhesives Under Mode I Loading

1997-02-24
970661
The effects of temperature, crack tip opening rate and rubber content on static fracture characteristics of CNBR (Cross-linked acryloNitrile Butadiene Rubber) modified epoxy adhesives were investigated under mode I loading. Loading-unloading tests were statically performed by using DCB (Double Cantilever Beam) specimens. The fracture toughness increased with increasing the rubber content. The fracture toughness of CNBR modified and unmodified epoxy adhesives was much influenced by temperature and crack tip opening rate. The surface topology of fractured surface was changed by temperature and type of adhesive.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Fracture Characteristics of Toughened Epoxy Adhesive Under Mode I Loading - Effects of Glass Beads and CNBR Rubber Modification

1996-02-01
960576
The effects of inclusion of glass beads and rubber modification on the fatigue fracture characteristics of an epoxy adhesive were investigated. Hybrid effects were also investigated when not only the epoxy adhesive was rubber modified but also when glass beads were mixed simultaneously. Fatigue crack growth resistance was greatly increased due to glass beads, CTBN and CNBR modifications at the second stage of crack growth (da/dN=10-4-10-3 mm/cycle). However, the energy release rate at threshold for both CNBR and CTBN modified adhesives were lower than that for the unmodified adhesive. No significant hybrid effects were distinguishable.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Evaluation for Toothed Belts Based on FE Analysis

1996-02-01
960712
A new parameter was proposed to evaluate the fatigue life of toothed belts. The parameter is the frictional work spent on the belt tooth surface for driving and driven pulleys. It can be estimated only with the 2D finite element model of the belts previously developed by the authors. As well as the frictional work, an alternative parameter, maximum tooth load (widely used in the literature) was also used to evaluate the fatigue life of toothed belts. In order to prove the effectiveness of the present parameter, fatigue tests were conducted using S8M belts at a constant power. The test results show that the maximum tooth load can explain the fatigue degradation of the toothed belts to some extent while the proposed parameter, the frictional work can evaluate the fatigue life of the belt due to wear of the belt facing fabric more appropriately than the maximum tooth load.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Approach to Analyze the Power Transmitting Mechanisms of a Metal Pushing V-Belt Type CVT

1996-02-01
960720
Some theories on the behaviour of CVT using metal pushing V-belts have been recently drawn. However, our previous experiments did not well prove their prediction. A numerical model which can calculate all block motions of the belt was developed in this paper. Using this model, some steady states of power transmitting of CVT were calculated and compared with the previous experimental results. Satisfactory agreements were obtained between two results in all ratio. This model is effective to estimate the CVT response at steady states.
Technical Paper

A Study on a Metal Pushing V-Belt Type CVT (Part 4: Forces Act on Metal Blocks when the Speed Ratio is Changing)

1995-02-01
950671
Six forces act on the block of a metal pushing V-belt. Previously, we successfully measured these forces at steady states using devised blocks and a telemeter system. In this paper, six forces are measured using the same testing and measuring systems at transitional states where a speed ratio varies from low to high, or vice versa. The experimental results reveal that distributions of four forces at transitional states except normal and frictional forces between rings and blocks are different in shape from those at steady states.
Technical Paper

Effects of CNBR Modification on Mode I Fracture of Epoxy Adhesives for Automotive Application

1995-02-01
950130
The effects of CNBR (cross-linked acrylonitrile butadiene rubber) modification on the fracture characteristics of epoxy adhesives were investigated under Mode I static loading. Fracture tests were conducted by using DCB (double cantilever beam) specimens. Rubber content, adhesive thickness and loading rate were changed. The crack extension resistance (given by energy release rate) of the epoxy adhesives was much improved by CNBR modification. For the rubber modified epoxy adhesives, the crack extension resistance becomes high with an increase in adhesive thickness as well as loading rate. The reason why the CNBR modification improves the crack extension resistance was explained based on the surface observation and fractal dimension of the fractured surface.
Technical Paper

A Study on a Metal Pushing V-Belt Type CVT (Part 3: What Forces Act on Metal Blocks?)

1994-03-01
940735
Block compression force and ring tension of a metal pushing V-belt type CVT have been experimentally measured at steady states. The peculiar transmitting mechanisms for this type of belts has also been outlined based on the experimental results in the previous works. In this paper, other forces simultaneously acting on a block at steady states were measured using newly developed devised blocks. These forces are frictional force between blocks and rings, normal force between blocks and pulleys, frictional forces between blocks and pulleys in radial and tangential directions. The transmitting mechanisms for the metal pushing V-belt type CVT were drawn in detail based on new experimental data. The following conclusions are emphasized in the present work. (1) A cohesive point where the block coheres with the ring exists in the pulley having a larger pitch radius at all conditions. This is not dependent on speed ratio and transmitting torque.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Metal Pushing V-Belt Type CVT-Part 1: Relation Between Transmitted Torque and Pulley Thrust

1993-03-01
930666
Transmitted torque, thrusts of driving and driven pulleys, and axial force between two pulleys were measured on a metal pushing V-belt type CVT. Thrust ratios between driving and driven pulleys at several different speed ratios were plotted with respect to torque ratio and compared with each other. It was found that the relation between thrust ratio and speed ratio was almost independent of rotational speed of the pulley and the maximum transmittable torque at a constant torque ratio. The thrust ratio is primarily a function of speed ratio. It also depends on torque ratio and coefficient of friction between blocks and a pulley. An empirical equation for pulley thrust balance was derived. The equation is expressed in an explicit form. It is so simple that it can be applicable for electronic control of CVT.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Metal Pushing V-Belt Type CVT-Part 2: Compression Force Between Metal Blocks and Ring Tension

1993-03-01
930667
In this study, distributions of block compression force on the driving and driven pulleys were measured using a tiny load-cell inserted between two blocks and a telemeter system, under several constant speed ratios. Ring tension distributions were also measured using a specially devised block. From the experimental results, the following conclusions were drawn: (1) Block compression force distribution on the driving pulley is significantly different from that on the driven pulley. (2) Ring tension takes different value at each side of strings. It is considered that this phenomenon is caused by difference of saddle surface speed between two pulleys.
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