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Technical Paper

LIN Protocol Conformance Test

Networking is an important technology in today's vehicles: Up to 100 electronic control units are interlinked through various communication protocols such as CAN, LIN, MOST, etc. As such communication protocols represent a “standard” component in vehicles which is assumed to provide a specified functionality regardless who the manufacturer is. Unfortunately 10 years of practical experience show that implementations of communication protocol specifications done by different manufacturers in most cases are not compliant a priori. Luckily experience of automotive OEMs together with their suppliers and silicon manufacturers have proven that conformance testing is a very effective means to avoid interoperability problems in mixed suppliers automotive systems. The following paper describes for LIN protocol the process of conformance test specification, conformance test suite implementation and the experiences gained while performing such tests.
Technical Paper

Interoperability of Networked Components Requires Conformance Test of Communication Interfaces

Actually automotive industries is in a dilemma: Further customer satisfaction requires further features to be built into cars and this requires more electronics in cars. All this currently happens at a rapidly increasing pace and thus increasing networked cars electronic control systems complexity correspondingly. Networking obviously requires interoperable communication modules consisting of communication hardware and software. And here is the problem: As network protocols are specified mostly in natural languages such as English, no precise and non-ambiguous specification exists. As such implementers may understand the same specification differently. And as a result realizations of the same protocol may behave differently under certain operational conditions. As a consequence mixed suppliers control modules may not be able to communicate properly. Conformance testing is the solution to this problem.
Technical Paper

In-Vehicle Communication Protocol Conformance Testing - The Developing ISO Standard and Its Extensions

Current in-vehicle electronics are based on networked modules. Knowing this and taking into account the rapidly increasing number of network nodes in cars, the proper functionality and interoperability of network interfaces produced by various manufacturers is an important pre-requisite in order to obtain a good quality system operation. One way to ensure good interoperability of network interfaces is to apply conformance tests. The following paper therefore outlines the specification of such conformance tests, as they are defined by ISO. Along with the specification of standard conformance tests a set of test extension is proposed checking the proper functionality of a network interface according to its register interface to the processor and its proper behavior in (random) stress situations - referred to as random or robustness tests. Finally an implementation of a tester performing the conformance tests is introduced.
Technical Paper

Network Application Layer

Networked systems inherently must be considered as highly complex systems. In order to guarantee high quality and highly efficient results while designing and applying networked systems the degree of complexity to be handled by the system designer must be decreased to an acceptable level. The methodology to achieve this goal is to hide details in software/hardware support drivers. The subsequently presented paper gives an overview on CAL = CAN Application Layer. CAL has been defined in Europe by industrial manufacturers of CAN networked controller systems. As the CAL features and characteristics are of generic type the gained results may be of interest for being considered in automotive applications. Furthermore CAL can be regarded as a generic higher layer for autobus protocols whether it is CAN, VAN, J1850, … Therefore the ideas presented in this paper may be a point of discussion for the design of a generic automotive communication layer.