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Journal Article

Design of Engine-Out Virtual NOx Sensor Using Neural Networks and Dynamic System Identification

Fuel economy improvement and stringent emission regulations worldwide require advanced air charging and combustion technologies, such as low temperature combustion, PCCI or HCCI combustion. Furthermore, NOx aftertreatment systems, like Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) or lean NOx trap (LNT), are needed to reduce vehicle tailpipe emissions. The information on engine-out NOx emissions is essential for engine combustion optimization, for engine and aftertreatment system development, especially for those involving combustion optimization, system integration, control strategies, and for on-board diagnosis (OBD). A physical NOx sensor involves additional cost and requires on-board diagnostic algorithms to monitor the performance of the NOx sensor.
Technical Paper

Controls Development for Clutch-Assisted Engine Starts in a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

In a parallel hybrid electric vehicle, higher fuel economy gains are typically achieved if significant electric drive (or engine-off) operation is possible, shifting the engine operating schedule so that it only runs at medium to high load for best efficiency. To enable efficient engine-off driving, a typical configuration will have a disconnect clutch between the engine and the rest of the driveline. In some configurations, when engine-on operation is requested the disconnect clutch is applied in conjunction with the traction motor/generator to crank the engine (i.e., a flying engine start). In this paper we describe the development of a control system for a flying engine start using an engine disconnect clutch. The clutch is located between the engine and electric motor, which is connected to the input of a multispeed transmission. We first describe an initial control algorithm evaluation using a driveline model.
Technical Paper

Optimization of an Electric Turbo Compounding System for Gasoline Engine Exhaust Energy Recovery

A large proportion (about 33%) of the fuel energy is lost through exhaust gas in a gasoline engine. Electric turbo compounding (ETC) is a promising technology for gasoline engine exhaust energy recovery. In this paper, optimization of an ETC system for turbocharged gasoline engines is carried out. The ETC system has a turbo-generator that is in parallel with the turbocharger, the flow distribution between the turbocharger and the turbo-generator is controlled. The engine exhaust energy is recovered by the turbo-generator with fixed geometry turbine (FGT) or variable nozzle turbine (VNT). The design and control of the ETC system are optimized for best recovery of engine exhaust energy at engine full load and part load operating conditions. The system performance is studied by 1D simulation methods. The gasoline engine is modeled with the GT-POWER software and the turbochargers and turbo-generators are modeled with turbo through-flow models.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Drivability Assessment of a Single-Motor Strong Hybrid at Engine Start

Using a clutch to disconnect and shut-off the engine when engine power is not required, the single-motor strong hybrid has the potential for significant fuel economy improvement with reduced costs and less system complexity. However, it is a challenge for the single-motor strong hybrid to maintain acceptable drivability at engine start since it requires diverting motor torque through a slipping clutch to start the engine. In this study, dynamic simulations of the hybrid transmission driveline with hydraulic and motor controls have been employed to assess the feasibility of the single-motor strong hybrid, to address drivability issues specific to this hybrid architecture at engine start, and to develop control methods to manage driveline disturbances to an acceptable level.
Technical Paper

Power Capability Testing of a Lithium-ion Battery Using Hardware in the Loop

The energy storage system (ESS) is the key enabler to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) that offer improved fuel economy and reduced vehicle emissions. The power capability of a battery has significant impact on the fuel economy of HEVs. This paper presents the power capability testing of a lithium-ion battery with a conventional metal oxide cathode using the hardware in the loop (HIL) at a wide range of charge/discharge conditions and at different temperatures. The achieved test results provide critical data of battery power characteristics and effectively accelerate the development of battery power prediction algorithm.
Technical Paper

Investigation into Different DPF Regeneration Strategies Based on Fuel Economy Using Integrated System Simulation

An integrated system model containing sub-models for a multi-cylinder diesel engine, NOx and soot(PM) emissions, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been developed to simulate the engine and aftertreatment systems at transient engine operating conditions. The objective of this work is two-fold; ensure correct implementation of the integrated system level model and apply the integrated model to understand the fuel economy trade-off for various DPF regeneration strategies. The current study focuses on a 1.9L turbocharged diesel engine and its exhaust system. The engine model was built in GT-Power and validated against experimental data at full-load conditions. The DPF model is calibrated for the current engine application by matching the clean DPF pressure drop for different mass flow rates. Load, boost pressure, speed and EGR controllers are tuned and linked with the current engine model.
Technical Paper

Opportunities and Challenges for Blended 2-Way SCR/DPF Aftertreatment Technologies

Diesel engines offer better fuel economy compared to their gasoline counterpart, but simultaneous control of NOx and particulates is very challenging. The blended 2-way SCR/DPF is recently emerging as a compact and cost-effective technology to reduce NOx and particulates from diesel exhaust using a single aftertreatment device. By coating SCR catalysts on and inside the walls of the conventional wall-flow filter, the 2-way SCR/DPF eliminates the volume and mass of the conventional SCR device. Compared with the conventional diesel aftertreatment system with a SCR and a DPF, the 2-way SCR/DPF technology offers the potential of significant cost saving and packaging flexibility. In this study, an engine dynamometer test cell was set up to repeatedly load and regenerate the SCR/DPF devices to mimic catalyst aging experienced during periodic high-temperature soot regenerations in the real world.