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Technical Paper

Design, Aerodynamic Analysis, and Fabrication of Agricultural Drone

2021-04-06
2021-01-0809
In the present era adding technology and innovations in agriculture will help in increasing crop productivity. The motive to use development in agriculture is not only to increase productivity but also to take care of our farmers and future generations and one such way to achieve it is by using agricultural drones. One of the main sources (around 70%) of income in India is agriculture. The production rate of crops in agriculture is based on various parameters like temperature, humidity, rain, etc. which are natural factors and are not in farmer’s control. The field of agriculture also depends on some other factors like pests, disease, fertilizers, etc. which can be controlled by giving proper treatment to crops. Pesticides may increase the productivity of crops but they also affect human health. The WHO (World Health Organization) estimated one million cases of ill effects when spraying the pesticides in the crop filed manually.
Technical Paper

Development of Aerodynamic Drag Reduction around Rear Wheel

2021-04-06
2021-01-0962
Due to new CO2 regulations and increasing demand for improved fuel economy, reducing aerodynamic drag has become more critical. Aerodynamic drag at the rear of the vehicle accounts for approximately 40% of overall aerodynamic drag due to low base pressure in the wake region. Many studies have focused on the wake region structure and shown that drag reduction modifications such as boattailing the rear end and sharpening the rear edges of the vehicle are effective. Despite optimization using such modifications, recent improvements in the aerodynamic drag coefficient (Cd) seem to have plateaued. One reason for this is the fact that vehicle design is oriented toward style and practicality. Hence, maintaining flexibility of design is crucial to the development of further drag reduction modifications. The purpose of this study was to devise a modification to reduce rear drag without imposing additional design restrictions on the upper body.
Technical Paper

Overload Identification System Based on Vibration State of Two-Axle Vehicle

2021-04-06
2021-01-0172
The non-contact overload recognition method refers to the method of detecting the vibration state of the vehicle through visual recognition without touching the vehicle, and then calculating the vehicle load in combination with the vehicle dynamics model to determine whether the passing vehicle is overloaded. Due to the convenience of detection, low cost of infrastructure and informatization, this method has great advantages in the field of overload identification. However, the model used in this recognition method is the single mass vibration model at present, which will have a large error due to the interaction between the front and rear suspension, and the position of the center of mass needs to be acquired in the recognition process, which is difficult in the actual identification process. In this paper, a vehicle vibration model containing two modes of vibration is proposed, and uses Sobol algorithm to analyze the parameter sensitivity of the model.
Technical Paper

Multiple Metamodeling Approaches for Improved Design Space Mapping

2021-04-06
2021-01-0840
The complexities involved in an optimization problem at a system level require knowledge base that has information on different approaches and customization of these approaches to a specific class of the optimization problems. One approach that is commonly used is the metamodel based design optimization. The metamodel is 1) a conceptual model for capturing, in abstract terms, essential characteristics of a given optimization problem, and 2) a schema of sufficient formality to enable the problem modeled to be serialized to statements in a concrete optimization language [1]. Optimization is performed based on this metamodel. This metamodel approach has been proven effective and accurate in providing the global optimum. Depending upon the computational hardware availability in an organization, the metamodel based optimization could be much faster way of achieving the optimized solution. However, the accuracy of the optimization is highly dependent on the quality of metamodel generated.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Aerodynamic Development Using a Novel Reduced Turn-Around Time Approach

2021-04-06
2021-01-0944
Automotive manufacturers are under continuous pressure to satisfy changing consumer demands and regulatory requirements in an increasingly competitive landscape. This requires Aerodynamic departments to evaluate more design ideas in less development time. Aerodynamic departments are seeking to speed up their analysis in order to provide more feedback on performance to design and styling. Vehicle designers already leverage Computational Fluid Dynamics in order to quickly assess vehicle aerodynamic performance during product development. However, in order to meet modern development challenges, reducing simulation cost and turn-around-time is necessary. To that end, a novel approach to reducing simulation time of vehicle aerodynamics without sacrificing accuracy was tested in this paper. The methodology is called Transient Boundary Seeding, and enables the usage of a reduced simulation domain without the loss of information from the omitted region.
Technical Paper

Case study of scale pads height variation influences on vehicle mass distribution

2021-03-26
2020-36-0040
The mass monitoring of assembled vehicles is mandatory to understand if the current production vehicles is in accordance with the already certificated mass and in agreement with Inovar-Auto, Rota 2030 requirements and support vehicle development special the chassis components sizing and vehicle dynamics performance. It is important to highlight that a great part of that measurements happens on the field in a not ideal condition. However, must be a natural deviation of the measured masses due to environmental influences, as the height differences between scale pads for each vehicle corner. Once that a height difference must be impact the vehicle measured mass distribution it is necessary to understand these influences on the measurements results.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a stabilizer bar influence focused on handling performance at virtual correlated vehicle model

2021-03-26
2020-36-0240
The present paper investigates the potential of a dynamic driving simulator in the analysis of vehicle dynamics, specifically the effects of different stabilizer bar geometries in handling behavior. For this purpose, a case study was prepared using a standard maneuver in the field of vehicle dynamics. The objective was to investigate the influences of the proposed changes to the stabilizer bar on behavior / handling and whether the pilot in the simulator could identify the differences in performance while driving the simulated vehicle. The results clearly show the differences in the behavior of the vehicle in most of the tests performed, which motivates further studies in this area and exposes the viability of the driving simulator in the development of a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Integrated Design and Control of Active Aerodynamic Features for High Performance Electric Vehicles

2021-03-26
2020-36-0079
Aerodynamics plays a major role in the design of all kinds of vehicles throughout automotive history. Initially the main topic under investigation was the aerodynamic drag reduction to achieve high-energy efficiency, however in the late ‘60s the vertical aerodynamic forces gained traction, particularly in high performance cars. The automotive market usually treats design, aerodynamics and vehicle dynamics in different departments. This paper proposes an integrated approach for the aerodynamics development in which a sport car is defined as reference vehicle. The objective of the concurrent engineering operation is to control the aerodynamic forces by implementing active surfaces control finally improving vehicle lap time. The vehicle dynamics analysis is carried out in cooperation with vehicle aerodynamics in order to perform the hardware and software design of the active system.
Technical Paper

Development of a Non-Parametric Robot Calibration Method to Improve Drilling Accuracy

2021-03-02
2021-01-0003
The drilling of large quantities of repetitive holes during the manufacture of large aerospace components is often considered a key limiting factor with regards to production efficiency. Whilst the desire within aerospace is to use relatively cheap six axis robot arms with drilling end effector units, their poor accuracy remains an obstacle. Robot calibration presents a way of improving robot accuracy such that aerospace drilling tolerances can be met, without permanently committing metrology equipment to an automation cell during production. Extensive research has been conducted into robot calibration by correcting the kinematic model, known as parametric calibration. This method is highly complex, and calibrates the robot across the entire working volume. This is often not required in industrial drilling applications, as drilling routines are often contained within a smaller volume of the robot reach. In this paper, a non-parametric method of robot calibration is proposed.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Dynamic Contact Analysis in the Course of Aircraft Assembly Simulation

2021-03-02
2021-01-0004
A new numerical approach is proposed for studying possible vibrations caused by drilling during the assembly of aircraft structures. It is based on modelling of the stress-strain state of assembled structures by solving the corresponding transient contact problem. This approach is intended for fast dynamic analysis of the structure in the drilling area. It includes a time discretization algorithm, a special reduction technique and a reformulation of contact problem in terms of quadratic programming. The high speed of the algorithm allows one to combine the non-stationary calculations with variation analysis in order to check the possible deviations in the shape of assembled parts. The proposed approach is validated by commercial software and it is also applied for analysis of a test problem.
Technical Paper

Application of Selective Assembly as an Aerospace Design for Manufacturing and Assembly Principle for Effective Variation Management in Aerospace Assemblies

2021-03-02
2021-01-0005
Aerospace engine parts are complex precision-engineered products with tighter assembly tolerances produced by conventional and non-conventional manufacturing processes. Variations in these manufacturing processes have to be controlled, process risks mitigated, and managed effectively, to facilitate the ease of aero-engine assembly to reduce overall variation and improve the assembly quality. One such technique is the application of the Selective Assembly as a Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DfMA) tool. The paper details the methodology of Selective Assembly, its applications, benefits, and limitations in the aerospace industry along with a framework case study with a focus on ease of assembly and meeting the design intent of the assembly fit with the detailed study on the current traditional assembly process.
Technical Paper

High Strength Corrosion Resistant Steel for Aircraft Landing Gears and Structures

2021-03-02
2021-01-0028
High stressed aircraft landing gear and structural components are subjected to severe loading, corrosion and adverse environmental conditions. Materials such as high strength steels and high-strength titanium alloys are widely used for those critical components. The main criterions for choosing the materials are their strength and fatigue strength, toughness and ductility. 300M steel is widely used for high stress aircraft landing gears and structures; however, this steel is not corrosion-resistant and requires protective coatings. Cobalt-free, quenched and tempered high strength corrosion resistant steel alloy (“HSCR steel”) provides the same strength, ductility, and toughness as the 300M steel and while it possesses corrosion resistance in salt spray test. HSCR steel has showed no rust after the standard salt spray test in accordance with ASTM B117 using a 5% NaCl concentration, natural pH, at 95°F, for 200 hours test duration.
Technical Paper

Augmentation of Gas-Turbine Performance Using Inlet Air Cooling and Turbine Blade Cooling: A Thermodynamic Approach

2021-03-02
2021-01-0031
A systematic and comprehensive first law analysis of a cooled gas turbine cycle subjected to vapor compressor inlet air cooling (VC-IAC) has been conducted in our study. Film air cooling technique has been implemented to cool the gas turbine (GT) buckets. The gas turbine is subjected to variation of various operating and ambient parameters and the corresponding effect is analyzed to find out the optimal one. The integration of VC-IAC has been reported to further enhance the plant specific work and plant efficiency of gas turbine cycle, the enhancement being higher in regions having a hot and dry climate. This increase in cycle performance due to VC-IAC has been found superior in case of bucket cooled GT cycle when compared to uncooled one. It has further been witnessed that the plant specific work increases by more than 0.35 % and the plant efficiency increases by little above 0.1 % for every 1o C drop in CIT.
Technical Paper

Virtual Simulation-Based Training for Aviation Maintenance Technicians: Recommendations of a Panel of Experts

2021-03-02
2021-01-0038
A well implemented and suitable training plan makes a company's operations more effective. In the aviation industry, qualified maintenance technicians are one of the most significant assets to improve safety of passengers and reliability of air transportation. This paper investigated the effectiveness of virtual simulation-based training in the aviation maintenance. It garnered data from a panel of experts to discover if virtual simulation-based training can be used instead of the traditional training techniques to train maintenance technicians. From the aviation industry in Saudi Arabia, 11 experts were selected and interviewed. Experts were asked 9 questions seeking their opinions on utilizing the virtual reality technology on the aviation maintenance training, and if it can overcome the limitations of utilizing traditional methods while providing the needed skills.
Technical Paper

Multi-Modal Conversion of a Boundary-Layer Wind Tunnel to Open-Jet Test Cell

2021-03-02
2021-01-0018
A low-speed, open-circuit wind tunnel at Youngstown State University has been converted to a multi-modal facility, enabling interchangeable configurations from boundary-layer test section to an open-jet test cell to support flexible capabilities for ground and air vehicle technology development. The existing test-section entrance geometry of 0.24- by 1.0-m (internal flow configuration) was converted to a 0.50- by 0.50-m cross-section (external flow configuration), making use of the commonality of upstream flow conditioning components. Redistribution of the contraction exit area from the internal flow configuration enables the facility to maintain the same maximum test speed between the two modes. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculations of the flow in the new three-dimensional contraction section and evolution of the free jet in the test cell are reported from the design study phase to assess boundary-layer separation margin and modeled plane jet spreading rate.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Aircraft Assembly Process with Presence of Sealant

2021-03-02
2021-01-0001
Sealant is applied between joined aircraft parts in the final stage of the assembly, before installation of permanent fasteners. In this paper a novel approach for aircraft assembly simulation is suggested, which allows to resolve the transient interaction between parts and sealant in the course of airframe assembly process. The simulation incorporates such phenomena as compliance of parts, contact interaction between them and fluidity of sealant with presence of free surface. The approach based on fluid-structure interaction techniques consists of two basic steps: at the first one the pressure of sealant is found after corresponding fluid dynamics problem is solved and at the second the displacements of parts and sealant are calculated through the solving of contact problem. Iterations between structural and fluid dynamics solvers are performed to achieve convergence. The developed approach is demonstrated on example of joining of two test aircraft panels.
Technical Paper

Monitoring of Virtual and Hybrid Test Benches in the Cloud

2021-03-02
2021-01-0007
In recent years, the concept of hybrid test systems consisting of real and virtual parts emerged in the aerospace industry. The concept features a communication infrastructure that provides the standardized transport mechanisms required for interoperability. For example, this allows system integrators to easily reuse and exchange laboratory tests means, even if they originate from different suppliers. The “Virtual and Hybrid Testing Next Generation” (VHTNG) research project aims at creating a standard for such an infrastructure. One central aspect is the unified monitoring and control of the test equipment. So far, VHTNG has primarily focused on monitoring and controlling related aspects of the test bench in a local environment. However, recent events have repeatedly shown that it becomes increasingly important to monitor and control test benches remotely.
Technical Paper

Carbon Neutrality, Reduction and Offset-Aviation Solutions in the 21st Century

2021-03-02
2021-01-0039
Begun in 2016, the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) was developed and agreed by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) 191 Member States, while the Airport Carbon Accreditation was developed by the Airports, Council International Europe as a carbon management system and certification. The aviation industry has its own offsetting scheme to measure aviation emissions and carbon offsetting and it has become the first industry sector which leads the world making commitments to reduce emissions. CORSIA and the Airport Carbon Accreditation are programs that impose carbon management obligations on the aviation industry.
Technical Paper

Digital Thread and the Impact on Weapon System Acquisition Cost Growth

2021-03-02
2021-01-0026
The traditional acquisition and development cycles of a weapon system by government agencies goes through multiple stages throughout the life cycle of the product. Over the last few decades, many of the United States military equipment had experienced acquisition cost growth. Many studies by the Department of Defense indicates that the cost growth is a result of multiple factors including the development and manufacturing stages of the product. Organizations with multiple operation sites that goes across multiple states or even countries and continents are finding it increasingly difficult to share informational databases to ensure the corporate synergy between multiple sites or divisions. For such organizations, there exist the need to synchronize the operations and have standard and common database where everything is stored and equally accessed by different sites. Digital transformation sounds real exotic and futuristic and promise to reduce operation costs of big organizations.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Electrostatic Coating Process: the Effect of Applied Voltage, Droplet Charge and Size on the Coating Efficiency

2021-03-02
2021-01-0022
Electrostatic Rotary Bell Sprayers (ERBSs) have been widely used in the painting industry, especially in the automotive and aerospace industries, due to their superior performance. The effects of the applied voltage and paint droplet charge values on the spraying pattern and coating Transfer Efficiency (TE) in the ERBS, including a high-voltage ring for spray cloud control, have been studied numerically in a wide range of droplet size distribution. A 3D Eulerian-Lagrangian numerical analysis is implemented under the framework of the OpenFOAM package. The fluid dynamics of turbulence, primary and secondary breakup procedures are modeled using a large eddy simulation (LES) model, Rosin-Rammler distribution, and modified TAB approach, respectively.
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