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Technical Paper

The Benefits of Advanced 3D Lidar for Autonomous Mobile Robots

2021-04-15
2021-01-1015
Breakthroughs in automation and robotics are already improving worker safety and efficiency, and these benefits will continue to grow as autonomous mobile robots (AMRs) become capable of performing increasingly complex tasks. Improvements in mobile robots’ performance capabilities will be driven largely by increased utilization of more advanced sensor and software technologies. Next generation sensors, such as advanced 3D lidar, will increase AMRs’ abilities to monitor and respond to their changing surroundings in both indoor and outdoor applications. These improvements are critical for achieving broad AMR adoption because robots must detect and classify objects at ranges that allow appropriate decision-making and safe, efficient navigation. This requires perception data detailed enough to support the robot’s ability to identify and distinguish between objects of varying motion, shape, reflectivity, and material composition.
Technical Paper

It Takes a Village: A Case Study of Business Development and Innovation in a UAS/AUS Ecosystem to Address Critical Industry Challenges

2021-04-15
2021-01-1002
Entrepreneurial innovation that spurs economic development requires a collaborative cluster of cooperative effort, across a diverse ecosystem of partners. Literature provides resounding evidence to support the notion that an innovative, entrepreneurial ecosystem is critical to both successful economic development and industry sector growth. The UAS/AUS industry sector is a fast-growing sector across the United States, with regional leadership demonstrated in North Dakota, California, North Carolina, New York, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico. This case study is focused on investigating how the North Dakota autonomous systems ecosystem continues to evolves and develop mechanisms and partnerships to address industry pain points, facilitate cutting edge research, ensure high-quality UAS/AUS testing, and support an adaptive business development pipeline across the entrepreneurial life cycle.
Technical Paper

Rattle and Squeak Investigation on the Interior Components of Automobile

2021-04-08
2021-01-5034
Automotive rattle and squeak performance is an important factor affecting passenger comfort and perceived quality. In the current work, finite element simulation is developed to analyze the noise potential of adjacent interior components. The statistical “3σ” limit is adopted to assess the rattle risk at adjacent surfaces assuming a Gaussian distribution. The probability expressions about noise registration are derived for the symmetric and asymmetric tolerance zones of an initial nominal gap. Also the acoustical effects of material pairs are tested by stick-slip experiments. Results show modified polypropylene is compatible in frictional contact with itself but expresses noise when paired to adjacent components manufactured of modified acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer under multiple conditions.
Technical Paper

Detailed Characterization of Gaseous Emissions from Advanced Internal Combustion Engines

2021-04-06
2021-01-0634
With the advancement of engine technologies and combustion strategies, aftertreatment architectures are expected to evolve as they continue to be the primary emissions mitigation hardware. Some of the engine approaches offer unique challenges and benefits that are not well understood beyond criteria pollutant emissions. As such, there continues to be a need to quantify engine emissions characteristics in pursuit of catalyst technology development and the use of advanced simulation tools. The following study discusses results from an extensive engine emissions assessment for current state-of-the-art technology and novel combustion regimes. The engines tested include a Tier 4 final compliant 6.8 L John Deere PSS 6068 diesel engine, a modified 15 L diesel engine, and a dual fuel 13 L natural gas-diesel engine. The dual fuel engine could operate in conventional positive ignition mode (CDF) or low temperature reactivity-controlled compression ignition mode (RCCI).
Technical Paper

Turbocompounding the Opposed-Piston 2-Stroke Engine

2021-04-06
2021-01-0636
This paper presents analytical research conducted into the level of fuel consumption improvement that can be expected from turbocompounding a medium-duty opposed-piston 2-stroke engine, which is part of a hybridized vehicle propulsion system. It draws on a successful earlier study which showed a non-compounded opposed-piston engine to be clearly superior to other forms of 2-stroke engine, such as the widely adopted uniflow-scavenged poppet valve configuration. Electrical power transmission is proposed as the method of providing the necessary variable-speed drive to transmit excess turbine power to the system energy storage medium. The work employs one-dimensional engine simulation on a single-cylinder basis, using brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) as the reportable metric, coupled with positive or negative power flow to the engine from the compounder; this is a variation on an approach successfully used in earlier work.
Technical Paper

Development of High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage System for New FCV

2021-04-06
2021-01-0741
This paper describes the high-pressure hydrogen storage system developed for new FCV. With the aim of further popularizing FCVs, this development succeeded in improving the performance of the system and reducing costs. This new storage system consists of multiple tanks of different sizes, which were optimized to store the necessary amount of hydrogen without sacrificing the interior space of the vehicle. The new tanks achieved one of the highest volume efficiencies in the world by adopting high-strength carbon fiber, developed in conjunction with the carbon fiber manufacturer, and by optimizing the layered construction design which allowed the amount of carbon fiber to be reduced. To increase the amount of available hydrogen, the longer high pressure tanks were mounted under the vehicle floor unlike the previous model. This was accomplished by the following two measures: First, individual design and manufacturing measures for the tanks were adopted.
Technical Paper

Development of Air Supply Controller for FCV Based on Model-Based Development Approach

2021-04-06
2021-01-0742
In Toyota’s 2nd generation FCV, an electric turbo-type air compressor has been adopted for downsizing and cost reduction. Automotive Fuel Cell applications present several challenges for implementing a turbo-type air compressor. When operating a fuel cell in high-temperature or high-altitude locations, the FC stack must be pressurized to prevent dry-up. The flow rate vs pressure conditions that the FC must pass through or in some cases operate at are typically within the surge region of a turbo-type air compressor. Additionally, Toyota requires quick air transient response (< 1 sec) for power generation, energy management, and FC dry-up prevention. If the turbo-type air compressor is not precisely controlled during quick transients, it can easily enter the surge region.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Hydro-Mechanical Transmission System Simulations for Model-Guided Assessment of Complex Shift Sequence

2021-04-06
2021-01-0715
Model-guided development of drivetrain control and calibration is a key enabler of robust and efficient vehicle design process. A number of CAE tools are available today for modeling hydro-mechanical systems. Automatic transmission behaviors are well understood to effectively tune the model parameters for targeted applications. Drivetrain models provide physical insight for understanding the effects of component interactions on system behaviors. They are also widely used in HIL/SIL environments to debug control strategies. Nonetheless, it is still a challenge to predict shift quality, especially during a sequence of multiple events, with enough accuracy to support model-guided control design and calibration. The inclusion of hydraulic circuits in simulation models often results in challenges for numerical simulation.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Objective Drivability for Passenger Cars Based on Hierarchical Mixture Model: A Case Study of Downshift Condition

2021-04-06
2021-01-0716
In order to solve the problems of insufficient accuracy for theoretical models and data-driven models for objective drivability evaluation requiring a large amount of data, an objective drivability evaluation method based on a hierarchical mixture model is proposed. First, a novel method of constructing a drivability evaluation system is developed, which combined by work breakdown structure (WBS) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Then, downshift condition is taken as a case study, and the subdivision condition is identified based on the hybrid mixture model. What's more, the drivability evaluation indexes of downshift condition are analyzed to establish the evaluation system of drivability.
Technical Paper

Downsizing the ICE in Commercial Series Hybrids with Known Routes Using a Modular Energy Storage Approach

2021-04-06
2021-01-0794
An efficient and low cost approach to managing the internal combustion engine of commercial series hybrids with a priori known routes is introduced. The concept put forward explores the boundaries of minimizing the internal combustion engine using a modular approach to storage capacity. Engine size is chosen such that brake-specific fuel consumption (bsfc) optimal operating point is approximately at (or slightly above) the maximum average power level of all encountered routes. The energy storage device has a modular structure, so energy storage capacity can be adapted to the route in steps of 1 KWh. The engine can operate at a high power operating point in case of unexpectedly high power draws, which the engine management algorithm tries to avoid due to the higher bsfc values associated with the corresponding operating points. The paper introduces the state diagram for power management of the ICE and provides state transition information based on route and energy storage conditions.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Clamp Loss for Sunroof Mountings under Vehicle Operating Conditions

2021-04-06
2021-01-0796
A vehicle fitted with a sunroof has structural challenges due to the mountings of the assembly with the Body-In-White parts. The major challenges include water leakage, noise and durability issues. This results in warranty issues and cost penalties for the Original Equipment Manufacturer. The focus of this paper is to address the challenges due to the mounting issues in the sunroof. The clinching process of the sunroof panels results in the reduction of the contact area for the clamping process. This reduction could result in bolt slippage either during the assembly of the vehicle or during the operating conditions. The sunroof module is also prone to cracks and bulging, due to bolt slippage. The Virtual engineering simulation used in this study represents the clinching process and the variations in the surface of the body panels. In addition, the clamping of the Body-In-White to the sunroof module is represented for the assembly torque considering the frictional characteristics.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Discretization for Transient Impact Loads on Door Closing

2021-04-06
2021-01-0799
The transient impact load generated by door closing is used as the input of the closing condition, which is an important part of door system investigation. In this article, the basic theory of transfer path analysis (TPA) is introduced to handle the abnormal vibration of the front-left door with the glass down stall position of a certain vehicle during the closure. The transient impact loads are discretized under the closed door and obtained using the inverse matrix (IM) method in TPA. Vehicle test and bench test are conducted. The closed door is subjected to the transient impact loads of the sealing strip and the latch on the body side. In the vehicle test, acceleration sensors are pasted on the target point and the reference point on the door to obtain the acceleration vibration response upon the door closure.
Technical Paper

Effect of Casting Process on Strength Behaviour of Automotive Alloy Wheel

2021-04-06
2021-01-0800
Strength and fatigue assessment of chassis components are essentially influenced by the material used and manufacturing processes chosen. The manufacturing process of chassis components decides the variation in the mechanical properties of the component, which has an impact on the strength/fatigue performance. Investigating the design concerning the manufacturing processes is vital to the industry. Standard computer aided engineering (CAE) procedures for validating the alloy wheels usually consider the material properties as homogeneous. There was a gap between test results and CAE durability prediction (as per standard procedure). Incorporating the manufacturing process related characteristics with the strength simulation will be a viable solution to reduce this gap. This study was intended at developing a procedure for the strength analysis of an alloy wheel by considering the manufacturing process.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Static Characteristics of Solenoid Valve in Decoupled Brake-by-Wire System

2021-04-06
2021-01-0804
The static characteristics of solenoid valve play an important role in the performance of brake system and can indirectly reflect the response speed of the brake system. The static characteristics of the solenoid valve reflect the electromagnetic characteristics of the solenoid valve itself, revealing the maximum potential of the solenoid valve in the system work, which is one of the important characteristics to characterize the working ability of the solenoid valve. In this paper, a numerical calculation method is used to build a finite element model of the solenoid valve electromagnetic field on the Ansoft Maxwell simulation platform. The model takes into account the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of soft magnetic materials and the air gap.
Technical Paper

Systems Level Trade Studies with CAE Data

2021-04-06
2021-01-0803
This paper describes the method of performing systems level architecture trade studies using data from high fidelity CAE calculations. The method is applied to a SysML model of an IRS Rear Axle driveline with the aim of accurately predicting the lowest possible weight of the half shafts for a driveline configuration while considering complex requirements. First the parametric equations defined in the SysML model that estimate the impact torque are solved. Next a response surface model is created that takes the impact torque as an input and outputs the optimal weight of the half shaft axle. In order to do this, a CAE model of the half shaft axle is developed as an automated workflow. It uses a parametrized CAD model to define the geometry which is then evaluated for maximum stress and deflection with an FEA solver. The performance of all possible axle geometries is sampled using a large DOE and approximated using an RSM.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Solenoid Valve Flow Field in Decoupled Brake-by-Wire System

2021-04-06
2021-01-0806
The decoupling brake-by-wire system controls the key components of the flow path and liquid flow of the whole brake system through the solenoid valve of the bottom control unit. The reference cross-sectional area value at the valve inlet is obtained by calculation, and the valve body structure model is established. The flow channel structure is extracted, and the porous media model is used to replace the fluid area of the filter screen at the entrance of the solenoid valve. The Fluent software is used to analyze the influence on the flow characteristics of the solenoid valve with or without a filter. The accuracy of the model is verified by the experimental results, which also show that the porous medium can effectively and accurately reflect the characteristics of the solenoid valve end filter.
Technical Paper

Simulation Method for Automotive Remote Keyless application

2021-04-06
2021-01-0805
In recent years, increased emphasis on the development of keyless entry and keyless start technology has been seen from automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). To significantly reduce the design cycle time and need for physical tests, an analytical approach has been developed to predict the performance of the Remote Keyless System (RKS). In specific, a detailed analytical model of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) antenna and installation component was developed to obtain electric(E) and magnetic(H) fields. An equivalent radiation source (ERS) of BLE antenna was developed from the obtained fields and installed in a full vehicle electromagnetic (EM) model to analyze Radio Frequency (RF) wave propagation using a commercial tool. This method predicts RF propagation inside and outside the vehicle, which in turn, determine the receiver (e.g., smart phone) location. The E and H field distribution levels are requested for different usage heights of the receiver.
Technical Paper

Team AVERERA’s Alterno V4.0 - A Hyper Energy-Efficient Electric Prototype Vehicle for Shell Eco-Marathon

2021-04-06
2021-01-0792
Team AVERERA is a group of automobile enthusiast students from Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University). The team works under the Center for Energy and Resources development. The team designs and develops energy-efficient vehicle prototypes and takes part in Shell Eco-marathon Asia each year. The competition demands student teams to design and build a prototype vehicle with a focus to achieve maximum energy efficiency. After 3 successful attempts in the competition since 2015, the team built a completely redesigned fourth version named Alterno V4.0 shown in Figure 1. The vehicle represented IIT (BHU) and India in the 2018 and 2019 chapters of the event. The vehicle clocked highest energy efficiency of 465.1 km/kWh in the 2019 chapter of Shell Eco-marathon Asia held at Sepang International F1 Circuit, Malaysia and stood 2nd in the event.
Technical Paper

Impact of Power Profile on the Estimation of Second Life Batteries Remaining Useful Life

2021-04-06
2021-01-0767
Second-life batteries (SLBs, automotive batteries that have lost their usefulness for vehicular applications) can provide low-cost environment-friendly solutions for grid-connected systems. The estimation of the remaining useful life (RUL) of SLBs is a fundamental step for the development of appropriate business models. This paper aims at unveiling correlations between the SLB's power profile and aging performance by defining appropriate metrics. A widely accepted empirical degradation model, that can predict calendar and cycling aging, is considered for this study. Several grid-connected power profiles are analyzed, such as peak shaving for DC-fast charge stations and frequency regulation. The results of this analysis show a correlation between the SLB's replacement rate with the minimum daily SoC.
Technical Paper

Research on Effect of Dynamic Working Condition on Electrochemical Impedance

2021-04-06
2021-01-0747
Impedance is an important parameter of power lithium-ion batteries, which can represent battery characteristics and can also be used as an indicator for battery fault diagnosis. Since Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) includes various electrode processes and information, it is more significant and worthwhile for lithium-ion batteries research. However, it is quite difficult to attain EIS online because of the nonlinear characteristics of batteries. Therefore, this paper focus on studying the nonlinear impedance characteristics of lithium-ion batteries and proposing a new method to calculate the EIS online based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Data similarity analysis is used to study the influence of resting time, excitation current amplitude, bias current amplitude and the state of charge (SOC) on the impedance quantitatively.
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