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Technical Paper

Innovative, Indigenous and economical on board weighting system for commercial vehicle

2021-09-22
2021-26-0005
Inspired from innovative global products, the domestic market is striving to develop novel technologies like the proposed On-Board weighing system, to enhance road safety and meet the upcoming challenging standards. Indigenous & economical payload sensing mechanism is essential to follow the stringent norms proposed to overlook the current scenario/issue of overloading in commercial vehicles. Over-loading results in tire damage with non-uniform tire degradation. The fuel economy is also severely affected due to excessive payload transportation. Proposed technology aims to provide effective payload data of vehicle, for very less investment and effort. Such a requirement calls for innovative designs and approaches to integrate them into commercial vehicles. The existing systems of this nature are not only expensive but also bulky, and often out of reach of the regular customer.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic development approach of a 1.2 Lt 3 Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2021-09-22
2021-26-0043
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engines are gaining widespread customer acceptance as they offer good balance between fuel efficiency and fun to drive. GDI engine have a distinct advantage over Port Fuel Injection (PFI) due to following reasons: avoiding wall film in the port, precise mixture control with high pressure injection, improved air-to-fuel ratio in dynamic operating conditions, fast heating of catalyst, high thermal efficiency by stratified mode operation, higher compression ratio, better knock control with advanced mass fraction burnt (MFB50), high pressure start and better cold start emission control. The present paper describes thermodynamic development approach followed in 1.2 Lt 3 Cyl TGDi Engine covering attributes of Injector selection, selection of Variable Valve timing (DVVT) on Intake and Exhaust Cam, selection of Start of Injection (SOI), Rail pressure and Air Flow Ratio (AFR) cylinder Deviation.
Technical Paper

Modular HD Transmission Family for Fuel Consumption Reduction Tailored for Indian Market Needs.

2021-09-22
2021-26-0049
Global warming is the driver for the introduction of CO2 and Fuel Consumption legislation worldwide. Indian Truck manufacturers are facing the introduction of Indian Fuel Efficiency Phase 2. In the European Union the CO2 emission monitoring phase of the most relevant truck classes will be completed in June 2020 by usage of the Vehicle Energy Calculation Tool VECTO. Indian rulemaking is currently also considering an adaptation of VECTO for the usage in the India Indian truck market used always to be very cost sensitive. Introduction of Bharat Stage VI Phase I already led to a significant increase of product costs, which not directly manifest benefits to the end users. Therefore, it will be of vital importance to keep the additional product costs for achievement of future fuel consumption legislation as low as possible as long as they don’t refund them in real world operation.
Technical Paper

Impact of fuel consumption standard on electrification of two-wheelers in India

2021-09-22
2021-26-0050
The two-wheeler market in India is currently dominated by internal combustion engine (ICE) technology, and this vehicle segment is not subject to fuel consumption standards. In this paper, we first assess the technology used in India’s existing two-wheeler fleet. We then estimate the technology potential for improving the fuel efficiency of ICE two-wheelers and the costs associated with doing so and compare the cost-effectiveness of ICE two-wheelers and electric two-wheelers in reducing overall fleet fuel consumption. Our analysis indicates that the ICE vehicles are cost effective till a 23% fuel consumption reduction in 2025. However, if higher fuel consumption reduction is required by 2025, then electric two-wheelers become cost effective. A fleet average of 25 gCO2/km in 2025 can be expected to result in nearly a third of new two-wheelers sold to be electric.
Technical Paper

Design and analysis of propeller shaft for commercial vehicle.

2021-09-22
2021-26-0054
The objective of this paper is to design and analyze the drive shaft tube of three piece propeller shaft system used in the commercial vehicle for power transmission. In this work attempt has been made for designing of convention shaft and also optimization of drive shaft with composite materials, the three piece drive shaft is designed to replace conventional steel drive shaft of an automobile using composite Materials. Laminated composites, with their advantage of higher specific stiffness, gained substantiality in the field of torque carrying structures through many applications. Composite drive shafts offer the potential of lighter and longer life drive train with higher critical speed. The design parameters were considered equal for both the material, optimized with the objective of minimizing the weight of composite drive shaft.
Technical Paper

Strategies of powertrain selection based on Real World Usage profile and its impact on fuel efficiency and vehicle performance

2021-09-22
2021-26-0056
Driveline matching is one of the initial phases of product development to introduce a product into the market. It is a general practice followed by all automotive OEMs while launching the product. The introduction of a product begins with a concept definition where the need and usage of a product in the market is justified followed by benchmarking, driveline matching, driveline freezing and the design phases of the product. Driveline matching requires the assessment of competitors driveline in terms of performance namely gradability, acceleration and fuel economy which distinguish the product w.r.t competitor. This assessment is required to select a suitable driveline that can be well accepted in the market. In most of the cases the OEMs tend to give a similar driveline configuration w.r.t the competitor to match and meet the performance targets at the expense of higher cost.
Technical Paper

Application of Electric Cam Phaser System (ECP) for Smooth Engine Starting Behavior in Hybrid Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0057
In the current situation and upcoming government regulations, hybrid vehicles are very promising in terms of meeting fuel economy and stringent requirements of emission norms. Herein, hybridization will be mostly done with gasoline and CNG vehicles. As a normal practice, engine is switch off at the signal and again restart with engine start-stop technology. So, instances of engine start/stop are increases in hybrid vehicle in comparison with standard IC engine vehicle. In order to achieve smooth engine start, engine starting torque can be optimized by adjusting engine valve timing. As electric cam phaser (ECP) meets valve timing target even before first engine combustion start, this is one of the critical technologies in reducing engine starting torque and time reaching to idle speed. This engine starting strategy also gives benefits in terms of reducing engine start emissions and improving fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of the Effect of End of Fuel Injection and Spark Ignition Timing on Exhaust Gas Emissions on Medium Duty Multi-point injection CNG CV Engine

2021-09-22
2021-26-0064
Commercial Vehicle Manufacturers in India are putting consistent efforts to drive modernisation of the powertrains to develop products that are aligned to latest regulatory framework along with optimized overall product cost. While diesel remains the prime fuel for commercial vehicles around the world, Indian Government is consistently promoting use of Alternate Fuel for transportation. Among the alternative fuels, over the years CNG has been emerged as real alternative to diesel. As per government of India projection there is ambitious plan to add 10,000 CNG filling station across every nook and corner of the country in coming decade. As there is limited study done on CNG BS6 engine related to engine out and system out emissions. The primary objective of this work is to quantify the effect of variation in injection Stop angle, Injection duration and Spark timings on engine out and subsequently system out emissions engine along with brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC).
Technical Paper

Improvement on User Riding Profile based on novel Gear Shift Mechanism.

2021-09-22
2021-26-0065
Getting the desired Fuel Economy is now a days very challenging because of irregular road profiles, Traffic and different user driving Profiles. It is also day by day getting worse because user don’t put the vehicle OFF in traffic light also and it impact the Fuel Efficiency of the Vehicle. We adopted a novel algorithm which improves the Fuel Economy by indicating the user to drive the vehicle in corresponding gear based on his driving pattern and current traffic situation. The driving pattern is defined by the Telematics system available which act as a feedback system. We have found that by adopting the proposed gear shift algorithm the Fuel Economy is increased by about 5% from current situation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Light off Behaviour and conversion efficiency of three way catalytic convertor with Variation in Catalyst Position and Changes in Substrate Structure for CNG BS6 CV engine

2021-09-22
2021-26-0063
To keep Commercial Vehicles aligned to regulatory framework of meeting stringent BS6 emission norms, SI engines including CNG commercial vehicles manufactures are forced to use higher PGM loading along with bigger catalyst brick in three way catalytic converter. Due to this rapid increase in PGM concentrations, the cost of BS6 three way catalytic converters have been increased several times compare to BS4 catalytic convertor. The movement in PGM price in international market further increases the volatility in overall cost of catalytic converters. Although, the engine out emissions are tuned to lowest possible level, it is imperative to position the catalytic converter at best possible location to achieve highest conversion efficiency. The main objective of this work is to analyse variation in conversion efficiency of catalytic converter by varying catalyst distance from engine exhaust manifold.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Approach towards Low-emission and Improved-Performance of Diesel Engine with Conventional Fuel Injection Equipment (Non-Electronic Injectors and E-Governed In-Line Fuel Injection Pump)

2021-09-22
2021-26-0060
The conventional internal combustion engines continue to dominate many fields like transportation, agriculture and power generation. Moreover, apprehension over oil price restriction has created an unprecedented demand for fuel economy. Diesel engine is mostly preferred for its higher thermal efficiency, high-torque and outstanding longevity. In recent days with flooded technologies, Uniqueness and the Differentiation of Product play vital role for a successful business in Auto Industry. However, there is always demand for low cost solutions and the product should be easily acceptable the end-user.
Technical Paper

Adopting the features of Digital Rate Shaping (DRS) with Multiple injections strategy on small 2 Cylinder Common Rail BSVI engine to improve FE

2021-09-22
2021-26-0061
The Common Rail Fuel Injection System (CRS) has completely changed the whole diesel engine combustion cloud dynamics and enhanced the applicability of diesel engines further with a motto of providing a more cleaner sky and greener earth. The most cutting-edge technological developments made in CRS and EGT system enables OEMs to achieve further more stringent emission norms and adopt the environmental protection compliances. Today’s CRS systems are the most advanced generation fuel injection systems providing further high injection pressures, wide multiple injections capability with shorter dwell periods enabling real smoother Digital Rate Shaping (DRS) benefits and Smart thermal management of exhaust systems while meeting stringent emission compliances and achieving future CO2 reductions goal. Initial DRS I system developments were tried with a dwell period up to 500us-800us due to injector durability life limitations.
Technical Paper

A DUAL FUEL CONVERSION SYSTEM FOR DIESEL ENGINES

2021-09-22
2021-26-0111
Diesel dual fuel engines offer noteworthy potential to reduce pollutants like NOx and particulate matter emissions while maintaining diesel engine efficiency intact. In an attempt to reduce the overall cost and complexity of conversion, the engine was left completely original, including the diesel fuel injection system. Also, for the sake of simplicity, the CNG fuel was introduced into the intake manifold by suitable technology like carburation or injector. The CNG quantity was controlled by Electronic controlled unit. Various calibration parameters like CNG start of injection, injection duration, and injection pressure was varied along with the diesel flowrate to minimize various emission like NOx, HC, CO and PM. In-cylinder pressure data was collected during engine calibration and used to calculate parameters such as indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), heat release rate (HRR) and to observe the ignition delay period.
Technical Paper

Biodiesel-an alternative fuel similar to conventional or ‘fossil’ diesel

2021-09-22
2021-26-0110
Currently automotive industry is looking for sustainable alternate of conventional fuels. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel similar to conventional or ‘fossil’ diesel. It is produced from vegetable oil, animal fats, tallow and waste cooking oil. Biodiesel is one of the most promising fuel which can not only replace the conventional fuels but also environment friendly in terms of greenhouse gases emission. Biodiesel can be produced from various sources and can be sustainable fuel for automotive vehicles. In this paper, efforts have been taken to convert existing Diesel engine into Biodiesel compliant engine. For making suitable for Biodiesel operation, modification in Engine Fuel system, filter and Sealing were carried out. Further Engine performance and emission testing were done and results were compared with performance and emission of same configuration Diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Study of High Cetane Green Diesel and Naphtha Blends as a Fuel for a Passenger Vehicle

2021-09-22
2021-26-0115
The effects of using a blend of hydroproccesed vegetable oil (also known as green diesel) and heavier naphtha obtained from catalytic processing of non-edible oils in a small displacement passenger car has been evaluated in this paper. Prior to the vehicle tests, the blend was optimized to meet the specification of the cetane number and flashpoint of the commercial Bharat Stage-4 diesel (BS4D). The blend of neat naphtha (10%) and green diesel (90%) fuel met the specifctaion of cetane number, and could not meet the flash point specifications. To improve the flash point, naphtha was distilled to extract the heavier fraction with an initial boiling point of 120 oC and used for blending with green diesel. Vehicle tests were conducted with a blend of 90% green diesel and 10% heavier naphtha (GD90N10), and compared with BS4D fuel.
Technical Paper

EGR Strategies Pertaining to High Pressure and Low Pressure EGR in Heavy Duty CNG Engine to Optimize Exhaust Temperature and NOx Emissions

2021-09-22
2021-26-0114
CNG has proven to be a concrete alterative to gasoline and diesel fuel for sustained mobility. Due to stringent emission norms and sanctions being imposed on diesel fuel vehicles, OEMs have shifted their attention towards natural gas as an efficient and green fuel. Newly implemented BS VI emission norms in India have stressed on the reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) from the exhaust by almost 85% as compared to BS IV emission norms. Also, Indian Automotive market is fuel economy cautious. This challenges to focus on improving fuel economy but without increase in NOx emissions. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has the potential to reduce the NOx emissions by decreasing the in-cylinder temperature. The objective of the paper is to model a CNG TCIC engine using 1-D simulation in order to optimize the NOx emissions and maintain exhaust temperatures under failsafe limits.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Heavy Duty CNG Engine based on its Aspiration and Fuel System

2021-09-22
2021-26-0117
Engine calibration involves the interaction of Electronic components with various engine systems like intake system, exhaust system, ignition system, etc. Emissions are the byproducts of combustion of fuel and air inside the combustion chamber. After-treatment systems generally take up the responsibility to scrape out harmful emissions from the engines. However, a good engine calibration will focus on emission reduction at source i.e. during the combustion itself. Thus, the intake of air and fuel in proper amount at each engine operating point is crucial for optimized engine performance and minimal emissions. The Intake system is an integral part of any internal combustion engine and it plays an important role to improve its performance and emission. Generally, for an SI engine, maintaining the stoichiometric A/F ratio is a challenging endeavor from an operational standpoint.
Technical Paper

Effect of CCV and OCV system in Heavy Duty CNG Engine on the Particulate Emissions

2021-09-22
2021-26-0116
Due to increasing pollution and climatic cries, newly implemented BS VI emission norms in India have stressed on the reduction of emission. For which many automobiles have been shifted to alternate fuels like CNG. Also, Indian Automotive market is fuel economy cautious. This challenges to focus on improving fuel economy but without increase in emissions. Crankcase blowby gases can be an important source of particulate emission as well as other regulated and unregulated emission. They can also contribute to the loss of lubricating oil and to fouling of surface and engine components. Closed Crankcase Ventilation (CCV) or Open Crankcase Ventilation (OCV) is capable to reduce the particulate emissions by removing the oil mist that caused mainly due to blowby in combustion chamber. This paper work is focused, to measure the effect of the CCV and OCV systems on the engine out emissions, primarily on the particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of Dual Fuel (Diesel + CNG) Engine for Off-Road Application

2021-09-22
2021-26-0119
The evolution of engine technology has so far seen the most beneficial side of progress in the fields of transportation, agriculture and mobility. With the advent of innovation, there is also an impact on our environment that needs to be balanced. This is where fuels like CNG, LPG, LNG, etc. outperform the conventional fossil fuels in terms of pollution & operational cost. This paper enlightens on the use of innovative dual fuel technology where diesel & CNG fuels are used for combustion simultaneously inside the combustion chamber. Dual fuel system adaptation for farm application ensures self-reliance of the farmer where he can generate bio-CNG to use the renewable fuel for farming making him less dependent on conventional fossil fuel thus promoting a green economy. The dual fuel system is adapted on the existing in-use diesel engine with minimum modifications. This makes it feasible to retro-fit a CNG fuel system on existing diesel engine so as to operate it on dual fuel mode.
Technical Paper

Design and optimization CNG mixing unit for dual fuel engine

2021-09-22
2021-26-0100
Most of the heavy duty engines are fitted with diesel engines due to its lower specific fuel consumption and superior efficiency. However, in spite of these advantages, NOx and particulate emissions from diesel engines have caused major health and environmental problems. But to convert an existing diesel engine to run on some other fuel is a costly affair and not affordable to fowners. So one of the method of using the existing engine is to use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid diesel fuel. Dual fuel engines simultaneously inject diesel and gaseous fuel into the combustion chamber. Financial benefits are seen as the relatively more expensive diesel fuel is substituted by a cheaper less polluting CNG fuel. In this particular project, a diesel engine is converted to dual fuel operation by using bolt-on CNG fuel system.
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