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Technical Paper

Mixture Model Approach for the Study of the Inner Flow Dynamics of an AdBlue Dosing System and the Characterization of the Near-Field Spray

Selective Catalytic Reduction stands for an effective methodology for the reduction of NOx emissions from Diesel engines and meeting current and future EURO standards. For it, the injection of Urea Water Solution (UWS) plays a major role in the process of reducing the NOx emissions. A LES approach for turbulence modelling allows to have a description of the physics which is a very useful tool in situations where experiments cannot be performed. The main objective of this study is to predict characteristics of the flow of interest inside the injector as well as spray morphology in the near field of the spray. For it, the nozzle geometry has been reconstructed from X-Ray tomography data, and an Eulerian-Eulerian approach commonly known as Mixture Model has been applied to study the liquid phase of the UWS with a LES approach for turbulence modeling. The injector unit is subjected to typical low-pressure working conditions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Soot Concentration in a Prototype Multi-Hole Diesel Injector by High-Speed Color Diffused Back Illumination Technique

A prototype multi-hole diesel injector operating with n-heptane fuel from a high-pressure common rail system is used in a high-pressure and high-temperature test rig capable of reaching 1100 Kelvin and 150 bar under different oxygen concentrations. A novel optical set-up capable of visualizing the soot cloud evolution in the fuel jet from 30 to 85 millimeters from the nozzle exit with the high-speed color diffused back illumination technique is used as a result of the insertion of a high-pressure window in the injector holder opposite to the frontal window of the vessel. The experiments performed in this work used one wavelength provide information about physical of the soot properties, experimental results variating the operational conditions show the reduction of soot formation with an increase in injection pressure, a reduction in ambient temperature, a reduction in oxygen concentration or a reduction in ambient density.
Journal Article

Schlieren Methodology for the Analysis of Transient Diesel Flame Evolution

Schlieren/shadowgraphy has been adopted in the combustion research as a standard technique for tip penetration analysis of sprays under diesel-like engine conditions. When dealing with schlieren images of reacting sprays, the combustion process and the subsequent light emission from the soot within the flame have revealed both limitations as well as considerations that deserve further investigation. Seeking for answers to such concerns, the current work reports an experimental study with this imaging technique where, besides spatial filtering at the Fourier plane, both short exposure time and chromatic filtering were performed to improve the resulting schlieren image, as well as the reliability of the subsequent tip penetration measurement. The proposed methodology has reduced uncertainties caused by artificial pixel saturation (blooming).
Technical Paper

An Experimental Approach in the Impact of Electric Fields on Liquid Fuel Spray Injection

This publication is the result of a multidisciplinary collaboration between the academia and the industry. An attempt to pre-ionize and influence the trajectory and the fluid mechanics of the injected fuel into an experimental injection system by means of electromagnetic fields was made. This collaboration project started from research proposal, which aims at exploring the effects of a highly ionized environment on the fuel injection event and how the momentum of the injected fuel droplets may be affected by the electromagnetic fields in form of quantified variables, such as spray penetration, spreading angle and the spray axis angle. An influence of the applied electromagnetic field on the fuel spray depending on the electrode configuration was observed and is presented and discussed in this publication.