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Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Hybrid Monocoque chassis for an FSAE car

2021-10-01
2021-28-0251
The automotive industry is increasingly focused on developing the vehicle chassis structure with passenger safety being the priority followed by improving the overall dynamic efficiency. Competition vehicles built using isotropic materials can be made safe but are heavier as compared to anisotropic materials like composite sandwich structures. This project is focused on designing a Hybrid Monocoque Chassis by incorporating both traditional and alternative materials to demonstrate that the hybrid chassis will be lighter, stiffer, and meet all of the safety and rule requirements. It is imperative to calculate the strength and stiffness of the composite sandwich panels before qualifying the monocoque for Formula SAE competition. The surface model of chassis is generated and shaped around the driver and then connected with the rear subframe while conforming to the torsional, hardpoint and bending stiffness benchmarks.
Technical Paper

Customer usage profile based Luggage compartment development at concept phase

2021-10-01
2021-28-0153
The SAE J1100 based standard cargo volume index methods and predefined luggage objects are very specific to United States population. The European luggage volume calculation and standard luggage calculations are primarily based on DIN and ISO standards. Luggage volume declaration by manufacturers are based on any of these methods. The calculations are complicated and there is a possibility of declaring different values for similar luggage compartments. The major purchase decision of vehicle is based on its luggage capacity and current methods are very limited to make an intelligent decision by a customer. Market specific customer usage patterns for luggage requirements and protecting them in vehicle architecture upfront in concept stage is important to retain the market position and buying preference of customers. The usage patterns is collected from customer clinics and marketing inputs.
Technical Paper

Styling Parameter Optimization of the Type C Recreational Vehicle Air Drag

2021-09-30
2021-01-5094
Recreational vehicles have a lot of potential consumers in China, especially the type C recreational vehicle is popular among consumers due to its advantages, prompting an increase in the production and sales volumes. The type C vehicle usually has a higher air drag than the common commercial vehicles due to its unique appearance. It can be reduced by optimizing the structural parameters, thus the energy consumed by the vehicle can be decreased. The external flow field of a recreational vehicle is analyzed by establishing its computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model. The characteristic of the RV’s external flow field is identified based on the simulation result. The approximation models of the vehicle roof parameters and air drag and vehicle volume are established by the response surface method (RSM). The vehicle roof parameters are optimized by multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MO-PSO).
Technical Paper

Utilizing Weathering Effect to Understand Squeak Risk on Material Ageing

2021-09-22
2021-26-0280
Squeak and rattle concerns accounts for approximately 10% of overall vehicle Things Gone Wrong (TGW) and are major quality concern for automotive OEM’s. Objectionable door noises such as squeak and rattle are among the top 10 IQS concerns under any OEM nameplate. Customers perceive Squeak and rattle noises inside a cabin as a major negative indicator of vehicle build quality and durability. Door squeak and rattle issues not only affects customer satisfaction index, but also increase warranty cost to OEM significantly. Especially, issues related to door, irritate customers due to material incompatibilities. Squeaks are friction-induced noises generated by stick-slip phenomenon between interfacing surfaces. Several factors, such as material property, friction coefficient, relative velocity, temperature, and humidity, are involved in squeak noise causes.
Technical Paper

Brake Groan Noise Investigation and Optimization Strategies for Passenger Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0301
Groan is a low frequency noise generated when moderate brake pressure is applied between the surfaces of the brake disc and the brake pad at a low-speed condition. Brake groan is often very intense and can cause large numbers of customer complaints. During a groan noise event, vehicle structure and suspension components are excited by the brake system and result in a violent event that can be heard and felt during brake application. The cause of noise is friction variation of stick-slip phenomenon between friction material and disc. Creep groan is the structure-borne noise that is related to dynamic characteristic of the vehicle. However, it has been mainly improved through friction material modifications in the past. In this paper, transfer path of creep groan noise was analyzed by means TPA and structural countermeasure to creep groan noise was suggested. This paper discusses the approach for prediction and mitigation of brake groan noise for passenger vehicles having disc brakes.
Technical Paper

Techniques to Evaluate Energy Efficiency and Performance of an Electric Vehicle by Leveraging Co-Simulation

2021-09-22
2021-26-0367
During the development phase of any Powertrain component/subsystem for a conventional ICE or an XEV (Hybrid/Battery Electric Vehicle), system Energy efficiency and Performance improvement simulations are a very important step to prove the worthiness of the product before we can advance to building Prototypes, Vehicle level Integration, Testing, analysis and benefit’s evaluation phases. This work describes how two simulation tools have been leveraged effectively for Energy efficiency and Performance simulations for an Electric vehicle. Schaeffler has an internal Physical Modelling Tool (PMT) for building vehicle level models. This tool has readymade physical blocks for various Mechanical and Electrical components. These blocks can be parameterized as per required specifications. The powertrain subsystems like the Battery, BLDC Motor, Vehicle Dynamics and the Multi-speed transmission consisting of various mechanical elements have been modelled and parametrized using this tool.
Technical Paper

Door Seal Behavior Prediction and Enhancement in Performance Using Digital Simulation

2021-09-22
2021-26-0387
Automotive door seal has an important function which is used extensively where interior of the vehicle is sealed from the environment. Problem with door seal system design will cause water leakage, wind noise, hard opening or closing of doors, gap and flushness issue which impair customer’s satisfaction of the vehicle. Moreover, improper design of seal can lead to difficulty in installation of door seal on body panel. The design prudence and manufacturing process are important aspect for the functionality and performance of sealing system. However, the door sealing system involves many design and manufacturing variables. At the early design stage, it is difficult to quantify the effect of each of the multiple design variables. As there are no physical prototypes during rubber profile beading-out stages, engineers need to carry out non-linear numerical simulations that involve complex phenomena as well as static and dynamic loads for door seal.
Technical Paper

Sink Butt Welding for 120 Degree Door Frame Design

2021-09-22
2021-26-0440
This paper deals with vehicle door 120-degree joint rust issue and water leak faced in most of SUV cars. Generally based on vehicle segment its styling curves and exterior design are defined. A Sedan or Hatchback is provided with curves to show its fluidic design but a SUV is provided with Straight lines to show its aggressive look. In existing condition door frame Joint has sharp joints where weld bead is added to prevent rust in joint area, but still improper seating of weather strip on weld bead cause water leak. Door’s A Pillar Frame and Horizontal Frame match at 120 degree joint edges are chamfered straight to match perfectly. Weld bead runs over the matching profile to join it. But weld bead project over the Frame surface and affects weather strip seating & results in poor sealing. Adhesive added for better sealing also follows the same path on bead and create a path way for water entry. Thus in long run this water stagnates and cause chronic rust issues in frame.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Multi Axis Suspension Test Rig from Reaction Type to Inertial Type

2021-09-22
2021-26-0471
This paper highlights the transition of multi-axis suspension test rig from fixed reacted type to semi-inertial type and the benefits derived thereof in simulation accuracies. The critical influence of ‘Mx’ and ‘Mz’ controls on simulation accuracies has been highlighted. The vital role of ‘Mz’ control in the resonance of wheel pan along ‘Z’ axis and thereof arresting unwanted failures modes in spindle has been duly emphasized. Finally, the role of constraints and boundary conditions on simulation accuracies has been demonstrated by replacing the reaction frame with vehicle body.
Technical Paper

Mold in Color Pianno Black PC Material for Automotive Exterior Application

2021-09-22
2021-26-0242
Aesthetics contribute significantly to the customer’s buying decision of an automobile. This is traditionally achieved through painting. Sustainability and cost challenges have led automakers to look at substituting painting through molded-in color polymers in decorative bezels like pillar appliques. These appliques and bezels have a unique mix of material requirements that include color tone, gloss, stiffness, scratch resistance and weathering. Polycarbonates are an interesting class of polymers that has the potential to meet these challenging requirements. This paper reports the work done in evaluating a polycarbonate compound in piano black shade to meet the functional and aesthetic requirements. The results prove that the material can substitute painting thereby resulting in significant cost savings. This is a ready to mold material used in injection molding process. This modified polycarbonate material has been explored for thin wall appliques and bezels with thickness of 2.7 mm.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Safety Performance Prediction using Machine Learning Techniques

2021-09-22
2021-26-0026
As per WHO 2018 report, pedestrian fatalities account for 23% of world road accident fatalities. Every day 850 pedestrians lose their lives in the world. As per MoRTH 2018 report, 16% of road accident fatalities are of pedestrians in India. Everyday 64 pedestrians lose their lives in India. Based on accident data, one of the most common reason for the pedestrian fatality is head injury due to primary contact from vehicle front-end structure. Pedestrian head injury performance highly depends on front-end styling, bonnet stiffness, clearance with aggregates underneath the bonnet and hard contact points. During concept stage of vehicle development, safety recommendation on front-end design is provided based on geometric assessment of the class A surface.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Sustainable Alternative Fuel from Waste Coffee Grounds

2021-09-21
2021-01-1206
In the frame of circular economy, wastes are perceived as sources not only for the recovery of high added-value compounds but also for energy production. Coffee is one of the most popular beverages with the consumption continuously increasing and generating huge amounts of solid residues in return. This solid waste after the extraction of the coffee beverage is known as Waste or Spent Coffee Grounds (WCG). Among others, the valorization has the potential to be directed as a bioresource for sustainable energy and particularly for the production of alternative liquid fuels for internal combustion engines. The aim of the current study is to formulate alternative fuel from WCG and to examine the fundamental properties per relevant specifications and requirements. Parameters related to stability, cold flow properties, lubricating characteristics and ignition quality are studied in comparison with other types of biodiesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Under-hood CRFM and CAC Air Flow Management of Vehicle to Improve Thermal Performance by 1D method using AMEsim.

2021-09-15
2021-28-0140
Abstract Currently the Automotive industry demands highly competitive product to survive in the global tough competition. The engine cooling system plays a vital role in meeting the stringent emission norms and improving the vehicle fuel economy apart from maintaining the operating temperature of engine. The airflow through vehicle subsystems like the grille, bumper, the heat exchangers, the fan and shroud and engine bay are called as front-end flow. Front end flow (Under-hood air flow) is crucial factor in engine cooling system as well as in determining the aerodynamic drag of vehicle. The airflow through the engine compartment is determined by the front-end vehicle geometry, the CRFM and CAC package and the engine compartment geometry including the inlet and outlet sections. This paper discusses the 1D modelling method and front-end flow rate prediction by 1D method using AMEsim. The required grill opening is decided, and CRFM and CAC specifications are derived.
Technical Paper

Attaining Thermal Comfort by Utilizing Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Embedded Wind Shield and Roof of a Passenger Car

2021-09-15
2021-28-0151
Thermal Comfort is necessary for the passenger cars for the rider and co-passengers while using the vehicle for a long-distance and in hot sunlight. This study is attaining thermal comfort in a passenger car by utilizing Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal embedded windshield and roof. The property of this glass is that the increase in the temperature changes the transparency into opaque such that the hot sunlight rays are not allowed to pass into the cabin of the passenger car. This enables the thermal discomfort caused by the hot sunlight during the daytime and at the parking place. This study has been conducted in a full experimental manner for a super sedan vehicle. Normal windshield and roofing used are not providing thermal comfort (25-27ᵒC) of cabin temperature although the air conditioner has been utilized. This increases the cabin temperature and consuming more power for the air conditioner to run.
Technical Paper

Representing SUV as a 2D Beam Carrying Spring-Mass Systems to Compute Powertrain Bounce Mode

2021-08-31
2021-01-1116
Accurate prediction of in-vehicle powertrain bounce mode is necessary to ensure optimum responses are achieved at driver’s touch points during 4post shake or rough road shake events. But, during the early stages of vehicle development, building a detailed vehicle finite element (FE) model is not possible and often powertrain bounce modes are computed assuming the powertrain to be a stand-alone unit. Studies conducted on FE models of a large SUV with body on frame architecture showed that the stand-alone approach overestimates the powertrain bounce mode. Consequently, there is a need for a simplified version of vehicle model which can be built early on to compute powertrain modes. Previously, representing all the major components as rigid entities, simplified unibody vehicle models have been built to compute powertrain modes. But such an approach would be inaccurate here, for a vehicle with body on frame architecture due to the flexible nature of the frame (even at low frequencies).
Technical Paper

Development Work for a New Damping Standard SAE J3130

2021-08-31
2021-01-1122
Standards organizations develop standards depending on the need in the market place. With the change in vehicle design, lightweighting structures, and body panels made out of aluminum and composites, SAE’s Acoustical Materials Committee is developing a new damping standard. This standard is also very suitable in determining the damping performance of materials used in the off-highway applications, where the thickness of the steel body panel is much greater than in the automotive application. The general methodology of this standard is based on the mechanical impedance measurement method and has been developed with the general consensus of automotive engineers, suppliers, and independent test laboratories. This method is essentially based on the fact that a bar is excited at the center by a shaker. The force exerted by the shaker and the corresponding vibration is measured at that point to determine the frequency response function of the mechanical impedance signal.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Cradle and Sub Frame Type Powertrain Mounting System on Electric Vehicle

2021-08-31
2021-01-1022
The growing demand of fuel and cost saving on vehicle, today’s vehicle manufacturer are working on various weight reduction initiative in EV. Lighter weight vehicle have bigger challenges to meet NVH requirement. There are two types of EV called modified and adopted EV’s are commonly in use. The sub frame type of EV system comes under the category of modified EV. In this paper, a mounting system is studied and compared for a cradle type EV as well as sub frame or saddle type EV. MATLAB based optimization tools are used for parameter optimization. The focus is put on the optimization of mounting system location and stiffness for energy optimization, CoG and TRA-EA optimization. The best engine mounting system is compared and adopted based on simulation. 12 DOF studied to address high frequency resonance issues for a sub frame type EV. Finally robustness of the system is checked based on various simulation and optimization.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Sunroof Buffeting of a Simplified Mercedes-Benz S-Class

2021-08-31
2021-01-1051
Sunroof buffeting is examined experimentally and numerically in this paper. Despite the fact that some consider the simulation process for sunroof buffeting to be mature, there remain substantial uncertainties even in recently published methodologies. Capturing the frequencies and especially the sound pressure levels correctly is essential if CFD simulations are intended to be used during early stages of a car development process. Numerous experimental results of sunroof buffeting and the interior low-frequency characteristics of a 2013 Mercedes-Benz S-Class have been used to develop a simplified car model: a full-size S-Class model with slightly simplified geometries in the interior as well as at the exterior. To avoid the effects of numerous different materials in the interior, it is solely made from polyurethane and aluminum and built to maximize its structural rigidity and air-tightness.
Technical Paper

Torque Weighting Vibration Dose Value to Aid Powertrain Calibration Process for Transient Torque Maneuvers

2021-08-31
2021-01-1034
This paper investigates the application of torque weighting to vibration dose value. This is done as a means to enhance correlation of perceived drive comfort directly to driver pedal commands while rejecting uncorrelated inputs. Current industry standards for vehicle comfort are formulated and described by ISO2631, which is a culmination of research with single or multi-axis vibration of narrow or broadband excitation. The standard is capable of estimating passenger comfort to vibrations, however, it only accounts for reaction vibrations to controlled inputs and not perceived vibration request vs. response vibration. Metrics that account for torque inputs and the vibration response create actionable estimates of dosage due to driver torque requests without uncorrelated inputs. This reduces the need for additional accelerometers and special compensating algorithms when road or track testing. The use case for the proposed modified metric is during the powertrain calibration process.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Laminated Panels Addressing Acoustic Issues in Vehicles

2021-08-31
2021-01-1086
Laminated steel body panels are used in different applications in vehicles, such as dash panels and wheel wells. A part made out of laminated steel has the potential to provide structure-borne noise reduction and also improve the airborne noise reduction of the part compared to a monolithic part. The use of laminated steel has been more critical when there are deep draws on the part as the deep draws cause localized resonances which degrade the acoustic performance significantly. However, due to lightweighting demands, hybrid laminated panels, commonly known as acoustic patch laminates have become very attractive. This paper discusses the damping and sound transmission loss performances of a dash panel part with monolithic, laminated, and acoustic patch panels.
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