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Technical Paper

An On-line path correction method based on 2D laser profile measurement for Gluing Robot

2022-03-08
2022-01-0016
Gluing is an essential fastening step in the field of aircraft assembly except for riveting and bolting. Generally, the robotic programs of gluing are generated in CAM environment. Due to the positioning errors and deformation of the workpiece to be glued in the fixture, the nominal pose and the actual pose of the workpiece are no longer consistent with each other. The Robot trajectory of dispensing glue are adjusted manually according to the actual pose of the workpiece by robot teaching. In this paper, an on-line gluing path correction method is developed by 2D laser profile measurement. A pose calibration method for 2D laser profiler integrated into a gluing robot by measuring a fixed center point of a standard ball is proposed to identify the position and orientation of the laser sensor, which enables the accurate transforming coordinates between the robot frame and the sensor frame. Meanwhile, the pose of the gluing tool mounted on the end of the robot is calibrated.
Technical Paper

Best Practices in Establishing Business Case for Implementing Blockchain Solution in Aerospace

2022-03-08
2022-01-0002
The aircraft asset life cycle processes are rapidly being digitalized. Many novel ways of recording these electronic transactions are being emerged. One such technology for recording electronic transactions securely is Blockchain, defined as distributed ledger technologies which includes enterprise blockchain. Blockchain is not widely used in the aerospace industry due to lack of technical understanding and questions about its benefits. Assessment and establishment of business case for implementing blockchain based solution is needed. The aerospace industry is very conservative when it comes to technology adoption and hence it is difficult to change legacy processes. Additionally, the industry is very fragmented. The technology is advancing at a faster rate and applies across geographies under various regulatory oversight which makes blockchain based solution implementation challenging.
Technical Paper

Achieving compliance with RTCA DO-254/EUROCAE ED-80 Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware: Quality Management Perspective

2022-03-08
2022-01-0007
RTCA DO-254/ED-80 “Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware” is a widely accepted industry standard to ensure safety in avionics hardware. FAA and EASA have recognized DO-254 as an acceptable means of compliance with the applicable airworthiness regulations for the electronic hardware. While microprocessor based complex hardware utilization in safety critical avionic hardware are increasing, and DO-254 compliance is mandated by the certification authorities, development of DO-254 compliant or safety certifiable hardware is becoming more and more important and provides competitive advantage in the industry. The avionics manufacturers need to correlate their existing processes and procedures with DO-254 in order to satisfy DO-254 objectives in their own quality management system structure, which may be challenging and tricky.
Technical Paper

Derivation of a Theoretical Reactionless Drive, Using the Abraham-Lorentz force

2022-03-08
2022-01-0054
By using the Abraham-lorenz force, a theoretical and practical thruster can be theoretically derived and practically constructed. This paper will briefly review the idea of a reactionless drive, and some other theoretical proposals. It will then analytically derive a reactionless drive based on a specific application of the Abraham Lorenz force. It will present simulated data on such a drive and discuss its key characteristics. Finally it will analyze the supposed violation of momentum and thermodynamics which should occur with this scheme and a bench top working model of the theoretical drive derived in this paper will be presented as well as videos which show the drive in practice which can be seen here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QX6_fSVnu4E, demonstrating the first reactionless propulsion system which is visible to the naked eye in the history of engineering
Technical Paper

Prediction of Residual Stresses in Direct Metal Laser Sintering of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Numerical simulation

2022-03-08
2022-01-0047
This paper presents the efforts made in numerical simulation of residual stresses that are induced in Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) of Ti-6Al-4V alloy structures. The DMLS process is one of the Additive manufacturing processes that is widely used in the manufacturing of metal bodies used in automotive, aerospace and medical applications. However, the major challenge faced in this process is residual stresses that are caused by large thermal gradients. The DMLS manufactured Ti-6Al-4V has lower ductility when compared to hot work ad martensite structure formed due to the rapid solidification. Residual stresses imposed in them are a key contributor to these characteristics, Despite the fact that post-processing techniques such as hot working can alleviate some of the stresses, Some residual stress effects, like as warping and thermal stress-related cracking, are unaffected by post-processing.
Technical Paper

Effect of a Flush to Outer Skin Arrangement on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Active Grille Shutters

2021-12-17
2021-01-5109
In the present work, it is investigated how a flush arrangement to the outer skin affects the aerodynamic characteristic curve of active grille shutters (AGS). For this purpose, a recently developed theory, which analytically describes the aerodynamic behavior of AGS arranged in a straight flow channel, is extended accordingly, and the influence of an arrangement of AGS flush with the outer skin is first theoretically analyzed. The theoretical results are then validated experimentally. For this purpose, measurements of real vehicles with suitable AGS are used. The results show a good agreement of the theoretical predictions with the experiment. The theoretical and experimental analyses allow conclusions to be drawn as to how and under what conditions an arrangement flush with the outer skin affects the aerodynamic behavior of AGS.
Technical Paper

Automatic Calibration for Road Side Lidar and Camera Using Planar Target

2021-12-15
2021-01-7023
In recent years, vehicle-intelligent road cooperation is gaining an increasing attention from both academia and industry, which require deployment of a large scale of road side sensors such as lidar and camera. For the road side sensors, calibration is indispensable to obtain transformation between sensor coordinate frame and geographic coordinate frame. Currently, manual measuring using RTK and marking correspondent feature points in sensors’ field of view is the commonly used method of calibration, which is far too complicated. To simplify the calibration task and improve efficiency, an automatic calibration method for road side lidar and camera using a planar calibration target is proposed in this paper. The feature of planar target is designed to be easily identified by the sensors, and an Integrated Navigation System (INS), which acquires the geographic coordinate of itself in real time at an accuracy of centimeter level, is fixed on the target.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Lane Change on the Expressway Based on Logistic Regression

2021-12-15
2021-01-7032
In autonomous driving system, lane change decision-making plays an important role as the front-end of lateral control. However, the current prediction methods of lane change are typically performed by using basic variables as the features of model without deep processing, which reduces the accuracy of the prediction. Therefore, we propose a binary logistic regression method to solve the lane change decision problem under expressway conditions, which treat quantified willingness and risk as the inputs. Firstly, we design Lane Changing Willingness function and Lane Changing Risk function with the minimum safety spacing theory and traffic environment factors. Secondly, a binary logistic regression method for predicting lane change behavior is proposed. Thirdly, we develop the driving simulation platform with low latency data collecting tools and design the experiments.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Method to Substructure Crash Simulation Model

2021-12-03
2021-01-5107
This work presents a statistical method to use a portion of a full finite element vehicle model on a crash analysis event. The substructure model is linked to the full model by recording the interface boundary history. The lateral moving deformable barrier (MDB) test by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) is used to demonstrate this substructure method: Substructure portion is identified by energy absorption distribution, and noise elements are filtered out by density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN), a nonsupervised machine learning method. Crashworthiness simulation is performed in LS-DYNA software, and results between substructure vehicle model, full vehicle model, and physical vehicle test results are compared. It shows the result from the substructure model is more effective without accuracy compromise.
Technical Paper

Seat Belts: A Review of Technological Milestones, Regulatory Advancements, and Anticipated Future Trajectories

2021-10-21
2021-01-5097
Decades after their introduction, seat belts remain the most important safety innovation in automotive history. Seat belt usage remains the single most effective way to minimize the risk of injury or death in severe crash events. Despite having matured, seat belts continue to evolve and improve and are expected to play an equally critical role in future passenger vehicles as increasing automation leads to changes in occupant compartment design and occupant-to-vehicle interaction. In this paper, an overview of major technical milestones in the development of seat belts is presented, ranging from the earliest lap belts to today’s systems that seamlessly synthesize and integrate information from a variety of sensors to prepare the restraints for an imminent crash. A brief overview of contemporary regulatory events is also provided, illustrating how regulatory actions have followed and occasionally driven the development and proliferation of various aspects of occupant restraints.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Particle Dynamics on the Real Vehicle in Different Driving Scenarios with Swarm Sensors

2021-10-11
2021-01-1299
Due to the increase in public attention in the analysis of non-exhaust emission sources because of the growing electrification of vehicles, measurements have been performed in recent years to develop a consistent test standard. In particular, the consideration of tyre and brake abrasion took a predominant position due to the small particle sizes. With measurements under controlled and laboratory-like athmosphere, for example for brakes on dynamometers, attempts have been made to create a uniform test standard according to the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). However, a transfer to the real driving environment is not yet feasible because of many external disturbance variables, such as the wheel housing or atmospheric variables. Typical reference measurement sensors in the vehicle are only suitable to a limited extent for mobile operation due to their size and the necessary measurement infrastructure.
Technical Paper

SCV Chassis Performance Optimization Through Parametric Beam Modelling & Simulation

2021-10-01
2021-28-0183
In automotive product development, design and development of the chassis plays an important role since all the internal and external loads pass through the vehicle chassis. Durability, NVH, Dynamics as well as overall vehicle performance is dependent on the chassis structure. Even though passenger vehicle chassis has a ladder frame or a monocoque construction, small commercial vehicle chassis is a hybrid chassis with the cabin welded to the ladder frame. As mileage is critical for sale of SCVs, making a light-weight chassis is also important. This creates a trade-off between the performance and weight which needs to be optimized. In this study, a parametric beam model of the ladder frame & the cabin of the vehicle is created in COMSOL Multiphysics. The structure has been parameterized into the long member & crossmember geometry & sections. The model calculates the first 12 natural frequencies, global stiffness, and weight.
Technical Paper

Customer Usage Profile based Luggage Compartment Development at Concept Phase

2021-10-01
2021-28-0153
The SAE J1100 based standard cargo volume index methods and predefined luggage objects are very specific to United States population. The European luggage volume calculation and standard luggage calculations are primarily based on DIN and ISO standards. Luggage volume declaration by manufacturers are based on any of these methods. The calculations are complicated and there is a possibility of declaring different values for similar luggage compartments. The major purchase decision of vehicle is based on its luggage capacity and current methods are very limited to make an intelligent decision by a customer. Market specific customer usage patterns for luggage requirements and protecting them in vehicle architecture upfront in concept stage is important to retain the market position and buying preference of customers. The usage patterns is collected from customer clinics and marketing inputs.
Technical Paper

Styling Parameter Optimization of the Type C Recreational Vehicle Air Drag

2021-09-30
2021-01-5094
Recreational vehicles have a lot of potential consumers in China, especially the type C recreational vehicle is popular among consumers due to its advantages, prompting an increase in the production and sales volumes. The type C vehicle usually has a higher air drag than the common commercial vehicles due to its unique appearance. It can be reduced by optimizing the structural parameters, thus the energy consumed by the vehicle can be decreased. The external flow field of a recreational vehicle is analyzed by establishing its computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model. The characteristic of the RV’s external flow field is identified based on the simulation result. The approximation models of the vehicle roof parameters and air drag and vehicle volume are established by the response surface method (RSM). The vehicle roof parameters are optimized by multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MO-PSO).
Technical Paper

Mold in Color Pianno Black PC Material for Automotive Exterior Application

2021-09-22
2021-26-0242
Aesthetics contribute significantly to the customer’s buying decision of an automobile. This is traditionally achieved through painting. Sustainability and cost challenges have led automakers to look at substituting painting through molded-in color polymers in decorative bezels like pillar appliques. These appliques and bezels have a unique mix of material requirements that include color tone, gloss, stiffness, scratch resistance and weathering. Polycarbonates are an interesting class of polymers that has the potential to meet these challenging requirements. This paper reports the work done in evaluating a polycarbonate compound in piano black shade to meet the functional and aesthetic requirements. The results prove that the material can substitute painting thereby resulting in significant cost savings. This is a ready to mold material used in injection molding process. This modified polycarbonate material has been explored for thin wall appliques and bezels with thickness of 2.7 mm.
Technical Paper

Brake Groan Noise Investigation and Optimization Strategies for Passenger Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0301
Groan is a low frequency noise generated when moderate brake pressure is applied between the surfaces of the brake disc and the brake pad at a low-speed condition. Brake groan is often very intense and can cause large numbers of customer complaints. During a groan noise event, vehicle structure and suspension components are excited by the brake system and result in a violent event that can be heard and felt during brake application. The cause of noise is friction variation of stick-slip phenomenon between friction material and disc. Creep groan is the structure-borne noise that is related to dynamic characteristic of the vehicle. However, it has been mainly improved through friction material modifications in the past. In this paper, transfer path of creep groan noise was analyzed by means TPA and structural countermeasure to creep groan noise was suggested. This paper discusses the approach for prediction and mitigation of brake groan noise for passenger vehicles having disc brakes.
Technical Paper

Ladder Frame Concept Development through Parametric Beam Modelling

2021-09-22
2021-26-0416
Body-over-Frame is the primary type of construction used in SUVs, pick-ups, and other commercial vehicles in India. In this type of construction, the body, engine, suspensions etc. are mounted on the ladder frame. Since the frame acts as the skeleton of the vehicle, optimal design of frame at the concept stage of the vehicle program is critical for meeting all structural performance targets. Frontloading of these targets aids in architecture development and reduces future design modifications. The natural frequency response from the frame directly affects the NVH performance of the vehicle. This paper focuses on frontloading the natural frequency targets by performing concept-level simulations on the ladder frame even before creation of 3D concept data. A parametric beam model is created based on the reference vehicles. The beam model has been validated with correlation of more than 85% compared with CAE and physical testing outputs of existing vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of Generic Frame Testing Methodology by Synthetic Drive File Generation Technique

2021-09-22
2021-26-0444
Frame is one of the vital part of Light & Heavy Commercial vehicle which holds all the parts and testing the frame is not a cost effective as the complete vehicle assembly needs to be tested as the individual testing of frame is not formulated for testing. In the development stage of the vehicle we always seek for a quick, cost effective and reliable methodology so that any modification can be made by identifying the failures. In this paper we have addressed this problem by developing a generic frame test methodology by which the frame can be tested in the preliminary stage of development in a cost effective way and reliable way. The Multi Body Dynamics Simulation was carried out and rig was designed comprising of servo hydraulic actuators. The frame was instrumented to acquire the Field, Event and Torture track data for the formulation and verification of the synthetic drives.
Technical Paper

Sink Butt Welding for 120 Degree Door Frame Design

2021-09-22
2021-26-0440
This paper deals with vehicle door 120-degree joint rust issue and water leak faced in most of SUV cars. Generally based on vehicle segment its styling curves and exterior design are defined. A Sedan or Hatchback is provided with curves to show its fluidic design but a SUV is provided with Straight lines to show its aggressive look. In existing condition door frame Joint has sharp joints where weld bead is added to prevent rust in joint area, but still improper seating of weather strip on weld bead cause water leak. Door’s A Pillar Frame and Horizontal Frame match at 120 degree joint edges are chamfered straight to match perfectly. Weld bead runs over the matching profile to join it. But weld bead project over the Frame surface and affects weather strip seating & results in poor sealing. Adhesive added for better sealing also follows the same path on bead and create a path way for water entry. Thus in long run this water stagnates and cause chronic rust issues in frame.
Technical Paper

Overview of Various Scratch Test Methods for High Gloss Polymer Materials

2021-09-22
2021-26-0448
Polymers are substituting traditional materials, such as metals, in existing as well as new applications, both for structural and aesthetic applications as they are lightweight, customizable and are easy to mould into complex shapes. With such an extensive use of polymers, there is a need to carefully scrutinize their performance to ensure reliability. This is particularly the case in the automotive and electronic industries where the aesthetic appeal of their products is of prime concern and any visible scratch damage is undesirable. Concern for aesthetics has led to a need for the quantification of visibility due to scratch damage on polymeric surfaces Many painted plastic parts used in vehicles are being replaced with the molded-in color plastics for cost reduction and also due to environmental concerns associated with solvent emissions. There are multiple methods used for scratch evaluation of polymers and paints.
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