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Technical Paper

Seat Belts: A Review of Technological Milestones, Regulatory Advancements, and Anticipated Future Trajectories

2021-10-21
2021-01-5097
Decades after their introduction, seat belts remain the most important safety innovation in automotive history. Seat belt usage remains the single most effective way to minimize the risk of injury or death in severe crash events. Despite having matured, seat belts continue to evolve and improve and are expected to play an equally critical role in future passenger vehicles as increasing automation leads to changes in occupant compartment design and occupant-to-vehicle interaction. In this paper, an overview of major technical milestones in the development of seat belts is presented, ranging from the earliest lap belts to today’s systems that seamlessly synthesize and integrate information from a variety of sensors to prepare the restraints for an imminent crash. A brief overview of contemporary regulatory events is also provided, illustrating how regulatory actions have followed and occasionally driven the development and proliferation of various aspects of occupant restraints.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Particle Dynamics on the Real Vehicle in Different Driving Scenarios with Swarm Sensors

2021-10-11
2021-01-1299
Due to the increase in public attention in the analysis of non-exhaust emission sources because of the growing electrification of vehicles, measurements have been performed in recent years to develop a consistent test standard. In particular, the consideration of tyre and brake abrasion took a predominant position due to the small particle sizes. With measurements under controlled and laboratory-like athmosphere, for example for brakes on dynamometers, attempts have been made to create a uniform test standard according to the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). However, a transfer to the real driving environment is not yet feasible because of many external disturbance variables, such as the wheel housing or atmospheric variables. Typical reference measurement sensors in the vehicle are only suitable to a limited extent for mobile operation due to their size and the necessary measurement infrastructure.
Technical Paper

Customer Usage Profile based Luggage Compartment Development at Concept Phase

2021-10-01
2021-28-0153
The SAE J1100 based standard cargo volume index methods and predefined luggage objects are very specific to United States population. The European luggage volume calculation and standard luggage calculations are primarily based on DIN and ISO standards. Luggage volume declaration by manufacturers are based on any of these methods. The calculations are complicated and there is a possibility of declaring different values for similar luggage compartments. The major purchase decision of vehicle is based on its luggage capacity and current methods are very limited to make an intelligent decision by a customer. Market specific customer usage patterns for luggage requirements and protecting them in vehicle architecture upfront in concept stage is important to retain the market position and buying preference of customers. The usage patterns is collected from customer clinics and marketing inputs.
Technical Paper

Styling Parameter Optimization of the Type C Recreational Vehicle Air Drag

2021-09-30
2021-01-5094
Recreational vehicles have a lot of potential consumers in China, especially the type C recreational vehicle is popular among consumers due to its advantages, prompting an increase in the production and sales volumes. The type C vehicle usually has a higher air drag than the common commercial vehicles due to its unique appearance. It can be reduced by optimizing the structural parameters, thus the energy consumed by the vehicle can be decreased. The external flow field of a recreational vehicle is analyzed by establishing its computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model. The characteristic of the RV’s external flow field is identified based on the simulation result. The approximation models of the vehicle roof parameters and air drag and vehicle volume are established by the response surface method (RSM). The vehicle roof parameters are optimized by multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MO-PSO).
Technical Paper

Mold in Color Pianno Black PC Material for Automotive Exterior Application

2021-09-22
2021-26-0242
Aesthetics contribute significantly to the customer’s buying decision of an automobile. This is traditionally achieved through painting. Sustainability and cost challenges have led automakers to look at substituting painting through molded-in color polymers in decorative bezels like pillar appliques. These appliques and bezels have a unique mix of material requirements that include color tone, gloss, stiffness, scratch resistance and weathering. Polycarbonates are an interesting class of polymers that has the potential to meet these challenging requirements. This paper reports the work done in evaluating a polycarbonate compound in piano black shade to meet the functional and aesthetic requirements. The results prove that the material can substitute painting thereby resulting in significant cost savings. This is a ready to mold material used in injection molding process. This modified polycarbonate material has been explored for thin wall appliques and bezels with thickness of 2.7 mm.
Technical Paper

Brake Groan Noise Investigation and Optimization Strategies for Passenger Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0301
Groan is a low frequency noise generated when moderate brake pressure is applied between the surfaces of the brake disc and the brake pad at a low-speed condition. Brake groan is often very intense and can cause large numbers of customer complaints. During a groan noise event, vehicle structure and suspension components are excited by the brake system and result in a violent event that can be heard and felt during brake application. The cause of noise is friction variation of stick-slip phenomenon between friction material and disc. Creep groan is the structure-borne noise that is related to dynamic characteristic of the vehicle. However, it has been mainly improved through friction material modifications in the past. In this paper, transfer path of creep groan noise was analyzed by means TPA and structural countermeasure to creep groan noise was suggested. This paper discusses the approach for prediction and mitigation of brake groan noise for passenger vehicles having disc brakes.
Technical Paper

Sink Butt Welding for 120 Degree Door Frame Design

2021-09-22
2021-26-0440
This paper deals with vehicle door 120-degree joint rust issue and water leak faced in most of SUV cars. Generally based on vehicle segment its styling curves and exterior design are defined. A Sedan or Hatchback is provided with curves to show its fluidic design but a SUV is provided with Straight lines to show its aggressive look. In existing condition door frame Joint has sharp joints where weld bead is added to prevent rust in joint area, but still improper seating of weather strip on weld bead cause water leak. Door’s A Pillar Frame and Horizontal Frame match at 120 degree joint edges are chamfered straight to match perfectly. Weld bead runs over the matching profile to join it. But weld bead project over the Frame surface and affects weather strip seating & results in poor sealing. Adhesive added for better sealing also follows the same path on bead and create a path way for water entry. Thus in long run this water stagnates and cause chronic rust issues in frame.
Technical Paper

Overview of Various Scratch Test Methods for High Gloss Polymer Materials

2021-09-22
2021-26-0448
Polymers are substituting traditional materials, such as metals, in existing as well as new applications, both for structural and aesthetic applications as they are lightweight, customizable and are easy to mould into complex shapes. With such an extensive use of polymers, there is a need to carefully scrutinize their performance to ensure reliability. This is particularly the case in the automotive and electronic industries where the aesthetic appeal of their products is of prime concern and any visible scratch damage is undesirable. Concern for aesthetics has led to a need for the quantification of visibility due to scratch damage on polymeric surfaces Many painted plastic parts used in vehicles are being replaced with the molded-in color plastics for cost reduction and also due to environmental concerns associated with solvent emissions. There are multiple methods used for scratch evaluation of polymers and paints.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Safety Performance Prediction using Machine Learning Techniques

2021-09-22
2021-26-0026
As per WHO 2018 report, pedestrian fatalities account for 23% of world road accident fatalities. Every day 850 pedestrians lose their lives in the world. As per MoRTH 2018 report, 16% of road accident fatalities are of pedestrians in India. Everyday 64 pedestrians lose their lives in India. Based on accident data, one of the most common reason for the pedestrian fatality is head injury due to primary contact from vehicle front-end structure. Pedestrian head injury performance highly depends on front-end styling, bonnet stiffness, clearance with aggregates underneath the bonnet and hard contact points. During concept stage of vehicle development, safety recommendation on front-end design is provided based on geometric assessment of the class A surface.
Technical Paper

Techniques to Evaluate Energy Efficiency and Performance of an Electric Vehicle by Leveraging Co-Simulation

2021-09-22
2021-26-0367
During the development phase of any Powertrain component/subsystem for a conventional ICE or an XEV (Hybrid/Battery Electric Vehicle), system Energy efficiency and Performance improvement simulations are a very important step to prove the worthiness of the product before we can advance to building Prototypes, Vehicle level Integration, Testing, analysis and benefit’s evaluation phases. This work describes how two simulation tools have been leveraged effectively for Energy efficiency and Performance simulations for an Electric vehicle. Schaeffler has an internal Physical Modelling Tool (PMT) for building vehicle level models. This tool has readymade physical blocks for various Mechanical and Electrical components. These blocks can be parameterized as per required specifications. The powertrain subsystems like the Battery, BLDC Motor, Vehicle Dynamics and the Multi-speed transmission consisting of various mechanical elements have been modelled and parametrized using this tool.
Technical Paper

Door Seal Behavior Prediction and Enhancement in Performance Using Digital Simulation

2021-09-22
2021-26-0387
Automotive door seal has an important function which is used extensively where interior of the vehicle is sealed from the environment. Problem with door seal system design will cause water leakage, wind noise, hard opening or closing of doors, gap and flushness issue which impair customer’s satisfaction of the vehicle. Moreover, improper design of seal can lead to difficulty in installation of door seal on body panel. The design prudence and manufacturing process are important aspect for the functionality and performance of sealing system. However, the door sealing system involves many design and manufacturing variables. At the early design stage, it is difficult to quantify the effect of each of the multiple design variables. As there are no physical prototypes during rubber profile beading-out stages, engineers need to carry out non-linear numerical simulations that involve complex phenomena as well as static and dynamic loads for door seal.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Multi Axis Suspension Test Rig from Reaction Type to Inertial Type

2021-09-22
2021-26-0471
This paper highlights the transition of multi-axis suspension test rig from fixed reacted type to semi-inertial type and the benefits derived thereof in simulation accuracies. The critical influence of ‘Mx’ and ‘Mz’ controls on simulation accuracies has been highlighted. The vital role of ‘Mz’ control in the resonance of wheel pan along ‘Z’ axis and thereof arresting unwanted failures modes in spindle has been duly emphasized. Finally, the role of constraints and boundary conditions on simulation accuracies has been demonstrated by replacing the reaction frame with vehicle body.
Technical Paper

Hurdles and Solutions towards Improving the Charging Experience

2021-09-22
2021-26-0144
Charging is a key challenge for electromobility that needs interconnected and seamlessly integrated solutions and technologies. The focus of this paper is on charging robustness, interoperability, fast charging and efficiency inside as well as outside of the vehicle. A comprehensive overview of the complexity of charging features and hurdles will be given including issues which are typically faced in developing, integrating and testing. Elaborated methods and solutions to overcome these hurdles will be presented along the development roadmap. AVL’s success story as forerunner in the 800V technology for passenger cars goes back to 2012. It represents one of the fundamental requirements for ultrafast charging and mirrors AVL’s pioneering spirit to contribute to the vision of a clean, affordable, connected and intelligent mobility.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Weathering Effect to Understand Squeak Risk on Material Ageing

2021-09-22
2021-26-0280
Squeak and rattle concerns accounts for approximately 10% of overall vehicle Things Gone Wrong (TGW) and are major quality concern for automotive OEM’s. Objectionable door noises such as squeak and rattle are among the top 10 IQS concerns under any OEM nameplate. Customers perceive Squeak and rattle noises inside a cabin as a major negative indicator of vehicle build quality and durability. Door squeak and rattle issues not only affects customer satisfaction index, but also increase warranty cost to OEM significantly. Especially, issues related to door, irritate customers due to material incompatibilities. Squeaks are friction-induced noises generated by stick-slip phenomenon between interfacing surfaces. Several factors, such as material property, friction coefficient, relative velocity, temperature, and humidity, are involved in squeak noise causes.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Sustainable Alternative Fuel from Waste Coffee Grounds

2021-09-21
2021-01-1206
In the frame of circular economy, wastes are perceived as sources not only for the recovery of high added-value compounds but also for energy production. Coffee is one of the most popular beverages with the consumption continuously increasing and generating huge amounts of solid residues in return. This solid waste after the extraction of the coffee beverage is known as Waste or Spent Coffee Grounds (WCG). Among others, the valorization has the potential to be directed as a bioresource for sustainable energy and particularly for the production of alternative liquid fuels for internal combustion engines. The aim of the current study is to formulate alternative fuel from WCG and to examine the fundamental properties per relevant specifications and requirements. Parameters related to stability, cold flow properties, lubricating characteristics and ignition quality are studied in comparison with other types of biodiesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Under-Hood CRFM and CAC Air Flow Management of Vehicle to Improve Thermal Performance by 1D Method Using Amesim

2021-09-15
2021-28-0140
Currently the Automotive industry demands highly competitive product to survive in the global tough competition. The engine cooling system plays a vital role in meeting the stringent emission norms and improving the vehicle fuel economy apart from maintaining the operating temperature of engine. The airflow through vehicle subsystems like the grille, bumper, the heat exchangers, the fan and shroud and engine bay are called as front-end flow. Front end flow is crucial factor in engine cooling system as well as in determining the aerodynamic drag of vehicle. The airflow through the engine compartment is determined by the front-end vehicle geometry, the CRFM and CAC package, the engine back restriction and the engine compartment geometry including the inlet and outlet sections. This paper discusses the 1D modelling method for front-end airflow rate prediction and thermal performance by 1D method. The underbody components are stacked using heat stack and simulated in pressure mode.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Simulate Adsorption and Desorption Phenomena of Gasoline Fuel Vapour in Activated-Carbon Canister to Meet Post-EU6 and US EPA Global Emission Norms

2021-09-15
2021-28-0131
This paper covers the mathematical modeling of governing equations for the coupled heat and mass transfer phenomena during adsorption and desorption. Also the main focus is given on the methodology for numerical simulation for solving these partial differential equations for carbon canister. A comprehensive literature review is presented to summarize the target requirements of allowed evaporative emission level of gasoline vapour in grams per day based on global standards like, EU6, EPA stage II enhanced, CARB LEVII, PZEV and SULEV. In order to meet these stringent emission norms, presence of carbon canister is mandatory. The simulation results are compared for the gasoline vehicle application at various climatic temperature conditions in India, in which the canister sizing vs allowable emission targets are summarized.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of a Muffler for Engine Exhaust Noise and Heat Reduction

2021-09-15
2021-28-0128
Engine exhaust noise and heat are significant sources of emissions in the environment. Engine exhaust systems are designed to minimize noise and heat while maintaining the necessary db levels and sound quality, as well as emissions in accordance with environmental regulations. Mufflers remain an integral portion of the IC engine arrangement are widely used in IC engine exhaust arrangements to reduce sound generated by engine exhaust gases as well as to reduce heat. The most efficient way to reduce noise and heat is to install a exhaust muffler in the engine tail pipe. The aim of our project is to design and analysis an engine exhaust muffler for reducing exhaust noise and heat. Appropriate design and analysis would aid in the reduction of noise and heat, while at the same time, the backpressure generated by the muffler should not affect the engine's efficiency. 3D models are developed in Solid Works software before being exported to ANSYS FLUENT CFD software for review in this report.
Technical Paper

Under-Expanded Jets Characterization by Means of CFD Numerical Simulation Using an Open FOAM Density-Based Solver

2021-09-05
2021-24-0057
Among the others, natural gas (NG) is regarded as a potential solution to enhance the environmental performance of internal combustion engines. Low carbon-to-hydrogen ratio, worldwide relatively homogeneous distribution and reduced price are the reason as, lately, many researchers efforts have been put in this area. In particular, this work focuses on the characterization of the injection process inside a constant volume chamber (CVC), which could provide a contribution to the development of direct injection technologies for a gaseous fuel. Direct injection of a gaseous fuel involves the presence of under-expanded jets whose knowledge is fundamental to achieve the proper mixture formation prior to the combustion ignition. For this reason, a density based solver was developed within the OpenFOAM library in order to simulate the jet issued from an injector suitable for direct injection of methane.
Technical Paper

Lifetime Modeling for Silicon Carbide Based Power Module

2021-09-05
2021-24-0102
In the presented paper it has been proposed a methodology that translates the customer conditions in terms of electric power into thermo-mechanical variables correlated with power module failure mechanisms. An initial analysis of power module failure modes will be presented, then the module temperature during inverter load profile will be numerically estimated. The so-obtained time-temperature during inverter operation will be converted using Rainflow-like approach into a pre-defined number of loading conditions. According to the time and temperature dependency of the typical failure mechanism, the mentioned loading cases will be characterized by different temperature swing and time duration. The extrapolated equivalent history will be a starting point to set durability tests aimed to predict reliability performances.
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