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Technical Paper

Research on Trajectory Planning and Tracking Strategy of Lane-changing and Overtaking based on PI-MPC Dual Controllers

2021-10-11
2021-01-1262
Aiming at the problem of poor robustness after the combination of lateral kinematics control and lateral dynamics control when an autonomous vehicle decelerates and changes lanes to overtake at a certain distance. This paper proposes a trajectory determination and tracking control method based on a PI-MPC dual algorithm controller. To describe the longitudinal deceleration that satisfies the lateral acceleration limit during a certain distance of lane change, firstly, a fifth-order polynomial and a uniform deceleration motion formula are established to express the lateral and longitudinal displacements, and a model prediction controller (MPC) is used to output the front wheel rotation angle. Through the dynamic formula and the speed proportional-integral (PI) controller to control and adjust the brake pressure.
Technical Paper

Development of a Modeling Approach to Numerically Predict Filtration Efficiencies of Brake Dust Particle Filters

2021-10-11
2021-01-1285
According to the European Environment Agency, air pollution is the biggest environmental health risk in Europe. Since traffic is one of the main contributors of fine dust, technical solutions are necessary to reduce the particulate emission footprint of vehicles. Also the Health Effects Institute hosted recently an international workshop on non-tailpipe emissions. Brake dust filtration concepts have proven to be a promising solution to significantly reduce fine dust emissions from brakes directly at the source. While CFD simulations for inner-ventilated brakes have become state-of-the-art, a holistic models from particle generation and emission to particle dynamics in the vicinity of the brake is not yet available. However, a good modeling approach of particle tracks is essential to predict filtration efficiencies of brake dust particle filters.
Technical Paper

Customer Usage Profile based Luggage Compartment Development at Concept Phase

2021-10-01
2021-28-0153
The SAE J1100 based standard cargo volume index methods and predefined luggage objects are very specific to United States population. The European luggage volume calculation and standard luggage calculations are primarily based on DIN and ISO standards. Luggage volume declaration by manufacturers are based on any of these methods. The calculations are complicated and there is a possibility of declaring different values for similar luggage compartments. The major purchase decision of vehicle is based on its luggage capacity and current methods are very limited to make an intelligent decision by a customer. Market specific customer usage patterns for luggage requirements and protecting them in vehicle architecture upfront in concept stage is important to retain the market position and buying preference of customers. The usage patterns is collected from customer clinics and marketing inputs.
Technical Paper

Integrated Exhaust Manifold Design & Optimization of it through HCF and LCF Simulations for a BS6 Compliant Diesel Engine

2021-10-01
2021-28-0168
This paper discusses design and optimization process for the integration of exhaust manifold with turbocharger for a 3 cylinder diesel engine, simulation activities (CAE and CFD), and validation of manifold while upgrading to meet current BS6 emissions. Exhaust after-treatment system needs to be upgraded from a simple DOC (Diesel Oxidation Catalyst) to a complex DOC+sDPF (Selective catalytic reduction coated on Diesel Particulate Filter) to meet the BS6 emission norms for this engine. To avoid thermal losses and achieve a faster light-off temperature in the catalyst, the exhaust after-treatment (EATS) system needs to be placed close to the engine - exactly at the outlet of the turbocharger. This has given to challenges in packaging the EATS. The turbocharger in case of BS4 is placed near the 2nd cylinder of the engine, but this position will not allow placing the BS6 EATS.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Approach of IP Duct Vane Articulation Study for Enhanced Cabin Cool Down Performance

2021-10-01
2021-28-0200
The cabin cool down performance is influenced by heat load, AC system components and Air handling components. The air handling components are AC duct, vane and vent. Design of AC duct vane plays a crucial role in the airflow directivity in cabin which enhances the cabin cool down performance. Simulations are carried out by rotating the vanes manually and requires post process for every iteration. It leads to more time consuming and more number of simulations to achieve the target value. Research articles focusing on automation and optimization of vane articulation studies are scanty. Thus, the objective of this work is to execute the vane articulation study with less manual intervention. A parametric approach is developed by integrating ANSA and ANSYS FLUENT tools. With Direct Fit Morphing and DoE study approach from ANSA delivers the surface mesh model for the different vane angle configurations.
Technical Paper

Parametric Optimization of Friction Stir Welded AA2024 using Regression Methods

2021-10-01
2021-28-0223
The developed model analysis is built in matrix runs to optimise the friction stir welding parameters of rotational speed, welding speed, shoulder diameter and tilt angle in this research. The aim of any design is to maximise the welded properties, either to surpass the base metal properties. The model that is created is the product of a number of regression methods that have been tested for adequacy. In this model we have taken three levels of varying parameters shoulder diameters, rotational speed, welding speed. Mathematical model is developed for the effect of three process parameter at three levels using response surface methodology (RSM).
Technical Paper

Optimization of Body-in-White Weld Parameters for DP590 and EDD Material Combination

2021-10-01
2021-28-0215
Body in White (BIW) of an automobile serves as the shell, on which all the components that make up a vehicle, are mounted. The BIW is an assembly of press formed sheet metal components. The sheet metal composition of each component varies based on the form and functionality requirement of that component. The resulting assembly has multiple weld joineries with dissimilar compositions. The weld integrity of the joineries is crucial in maintaining the geometrical and structural integrity of the BIW. The primary welding method used in BIW assembly is Resistance Spot Welding (RSW). The quality of the weld is an outcome of a combination of multiple weld parameters. These parameters are majorly estimated based on the joinery thicknesses and material combinations. Multiple welding and testing iterations are done to fine tune the parameters for an optimum weld joinery. This is a very tedious process which increases the process time of a BIW assembly.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation Methodology for Robust Optimization Using Six Sigma Analysis

2021-10-01
2021-28-0248
Climate change and global warming are the main threats to our planet. CO2 emissions contribute vastly to climate change and automobiles contribute to CO2 emissions. We can reduce the CO2 emissions from vehicles by various measures, out of which shredding weight is one of the solutions, and even for hybrid or electric vehicles there will be a need for weight reduction for the control of global CO2 emission. We can shred the weight of the automobiles by replacing the components with lighter materials or by optimizing the components by removing excessive material. It is not always possible to change the materials due to its mechanical, thermal properties, manufacturability etc. This leads to the other method which is removing excessive material. Today, we use different simulation tools like ANSYS for topology or shape optimization. During the traditional optimization, we perform the simulation, based on the available design limits and propose the best optimized design to the customer.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Spring-Damper Orientation in Double-Wishbone Type Suspension Geometry Using Genetic Algorithm in Python

2021-10-01
2021-28-0256
Orientation of the spring-damper system in a suspension geometry is a critical but hidden factor in vehicle performance characteristics. Spring and damper mounting characteristics are the significant factors to ensure proper contact of the tire with the ground, maintaining ride height, minimizing forces on spring, smooth ride, and driver comfort. Determining the spring orientation is conventionally a long and iterative process that involves computational simulations and processing of analytical expressions, which should align with the practical vehicle constraints. Due to numerous possible orientations, the designer would randomly pick the orientation and do the simulation, which reduces the reliability of the solution and the better solutions remain unexplored. This paper proposes a new methodology to optimize spring damper orientation in a suspension geometry using a genetic algorithm in Python Programming Language.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on SS 304 Sheet Metal for Bending Process Optimization using Response Surface Method

2021-10-01
2021-28-0268
Productivity plays a vital role in manufacturing processes as well as in service. Sheet metal bending process is a type of forming process that has been used by the wide range in industries. There are several tangible and intangible factors affecting the production rate during the bending process. Spring back is one of the severe factors which affects the production rate, especially in stainless steel material. The spring back is mostly affected by material properties, sheet thickness, bending radius, die sizes and component geometry. In this paper, the spring back is studied by the effect of various parameters such as rectangle/oblong slots with varying pitch distance and without slots and bending time in the stainless-steel material 304 grade in V-air bending machine. The experimental data are evaluated by means of the Response Surface Method (RSM). Finally, it was observed that explored results have the betterment of the production rate with connection to spring back.
Technical Paper

Application of Taguchi Approach on Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of SS304

2021-10-01
2021-28-0271
SS304 (Stainless Steel 304) is a nickel- chromium based alloy, that is extensively used for the applications like cryogenic vessels, valves, refrigerator equipment and evaporators because of its high corrosion resistance, ductility and ability to remain as solid up to a temperature of 14000 C. SS304 is one of the tough to machine materials by conventional methods of machining. Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) facilitates the ease of machining complicated cuts with hard to machine, conductive materials where high surface finish is required. In this investigation, a study has been done on WEDM of SS304 and mainly to optimize the process parameters during the machining of SS304 by using Taguchi’s analysis. Taguchi’s DoE approach is used to plan the experimental runs and by considering the process parameters such as pulse on time, pulse off time and peak current at three different levels the experiments were conducted.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Transient Response on a Downsized 4 Cylinder Engine for Automobile Application

2021-10-01
2021-28-0280
Ever since mainstreaming of automobiles, engineers are focusing on making the vehicles better by means of making them more efficient, powerful and less polluting. In this study, venues of improving low end torque via improvement in volumetric efficiency as well as proper selection of turbochargers is done. An in-depth analysis of gas dynamics with respect to valve timing is studied along with the AVL Boost 1D simulation. It was found that volumetric efficiency starts to improve when there is a reduction in exhaust - exhaust valve overlap. There is an improvement found in the fresh air ratio (lambda) as the residual gas content is reduced. After the selection of valve timing, turbocharger optimization is done with comparison between two turbine sizes. Along with turbocharger comparison, technology comparison is also done namely between normal electronic VGT (Variable Geometry Turbo) (bigger turbine) and electronic VGT coupled with waste gate (smaller turbine).
Technical Paper

Optimization of One Way Tesla Valve

2021-10-01
2021-28-0250
Nikola Tesla in the year 1920 invented a new type of one-way valve, without any moving parts. He made this possible, by virtue of the geometry of the fluid path. In this work, we have optimised the design made by Tesla and increased its efficiency. Today, these valves are used in micro-fluidic systems, pulsating heat pipes, spacecraft propulsion systems etc. Apart from this, we have found that this valve can also be used in the Intra-venous fluid administration system and also in suppressors of guns. In the IV system, the valve can be used to address the reverse blood flow issue. In suppressors, the valve can reduce the pressure of hot gas coming from the gun which in turn reduces the sound made by the gun. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis where done using Ansys fluent software. From CFD analysis it was observed that the efficiency of the optimised valve has increased 4 times as compared to the original tesla valve.
Technical Paper

Styling Parameter Optimization of the Type C Recreational Vehicle Air Drag

2021-09-30
2021-01-5094
Recreational vehicles have a lot of potential consumers in China, especially the type C recreational vehicle is popular among consumers due to its advantages, prompting an increase in the production and sales volumes. The type C vehicle usually has a higher air drag than the common commercial vehicles due to its unique appearance. It can be reduced by optimizing the structural parameters, thus the energy consumed by the vehicle can be decreased. The external flow field of a recreational vehicle is analyzed by establishing its computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model. The characteristic of the RV’s external flow field is identified based on the simulation result. The approximation models of the vehicle roof parameters and air drag and vehicle volume are established by the response surface method (RSM). The vehicle roof parameters are optimized by multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MO-PSO).
Technical Paper

Mold in Color Pianno Black PC Material for Automotive Exterior Application

2021-09-22
2021-26-0242
Aesthetics contribute significantly to the customer’s buying decision of an automobile. This is traditionally achieved through painting. Sustainability and cost challenges have led automakers to look at substituting painting through molded-in color polymers in decorative bezels like pillar appliques. These appliques and bezels have a unique mix of material requirements that include color tone, gloss, stiffness, scratch resistance and weathering. Polycarbonates are an interesting class of polymers that has the potential to meet these challenging requirements. This paper reports the work done in evaluating a polycarbonate compound in piano black shade to meet the functional and aesthetic requirements. The results prove that the material can substitute painting thereby resulting in significant cost savings. This is a ready to mold material used in injection molding process. This modified polycarbonate material has been explored for thin wall appliques and bezels with thickness of 2.7 mm.
Technical Paper

Robust Approach for Development and Analysis of Electric Three Wheeler Vehicle Using Digital Twin

2021-09-22
2021-26-0323
Objective of this project was to establish very comprehensive, robust vehicle model of three wheeler electric vehicle. This was achieved by simulating vehicle operation and performance on standard as well as realistic driving cycles. Purpose of building a virtual electric three wheeler vehicle model was to validate the mathematical model with respect to real time road load testing. Electric 3 wheeler vehicle model was built in Ricardo-IGNITE. This model includes advanced vehicle which consists of detailed vehicle parameters like mass & CG locations, suspension, brakes and aerodynamic input parameters. Also other parameter includes road load resistances, rotational, transnational inertial effects and power-train efficiencies and detailed battery and motor model with its thermal & inertial properties respectively. Simulation results of performance and range are validated by actual vehicle testing on dynamo-meter and road for standard and realistic driving-cycles respectively.
Technical Paper

Brake Groan Noise Investigation and Optimization Strategies for Passenger Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0301
Groan is a low frequency noise generated when moderate brake pressure is applied between the surfaces of the brake disc and the brake pad at a low-speed condition. Brake groan is often very intense and can cause large numbers of customer complaints. During a groan noise event, vehicle structure and suspension components are excited by the brake system and result in a violent event that can be heard and felt during brake application. The cause of noise is friction variation of stick-slip phenomenon between friction material and disc. Creep groan is the structure-borne noise that is related to dynamic characteristic of the vehicle. However, it has been mainly improved through friction material modifications in the past. In this paper, transfer path of creep groan noise was analyzed by means TPA and structural countermeasure to creep groan noise was suggested. This paper discusses the approach for prediction and mitigation of brake groan noise for passenger vehicles having disc brakes.
Technical Paper

Optimal Time-Window Based Formulation for Autonomous Vehicle Path Planning

2021-09-22
2021-26-0124
This paper proposes a practical optimal-time window-based path-planning approach for a fleet of autonomous vehicles. Specifically, autonomous vehicles in this work refers to fleet of tractors that performs spraying operations in a vineyard field. The approach involves two main steps. In the first step based on a behavior and actions of the tractors that mimic manual spraying operations, a linear integer programming (ILP) optimization model is constructed. The second step then seeks a solution for this MIP model to obtain paths for autonomous navigation of the tractors in a vineyard field. The simulation results on a real-world data collected using Google Maps application for Sula vineyards located in the Nashik region [1] is reported. The obtained results show effectiveness of the proposal with respect to manual operator driven fleet management.
Technical Paper

Engine Friction Optimization Approach using Multibody Simulations

2021-09-22
2021-26-0409
From April 2020 BS 6 phase 1 legislation has come into place in India. Further in the coming years from 2022 CAFÉ norms will be implemented targeting 122 g/km CO2 fleet emissions. Also, from year 2023 onwards BS 6 phase 2 emission legislation with RDE cycle will be in place. With the expensive exhaust after-treatment system needed for meeting BS 6 norms, the Diesel powertrain based vehicles cost has increased further creating even further price difference to it’s Gasoline fuel variants. Additionally, the price difference between Diesel and Gasoline fuel is always reducing. These reasons have changed the buying pattern of passenger cars in India, with vehicle powered by engine<1.5 L displacements have gradually shifted predominantly to Gasoline powertrain. The impact of this will further stress the fleet CO2 emissions for manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Sink Butt Welding for 120 Degree Door Frame Design

2021-09-22
2021-26-0440
This paper deals with vehicle door 120-degree joint rust issue and water leak faced in most of SUV cars. Generally based on vehicle segment its styling curves and exterior design are defined. A Sedan or Hatchback is provided with curves to show its fluidic design but a SUV is provided with Straight lines to show its aggressive look. In existing condition door frame Joint has sharp joints where weld bead is added to prevent rust in joint area, but still improper seating of weather strip on weld bead cause water leak. Door’s A Pillar Frame and Horizontal Frame match at 120 degree joint edges are chamfered straight to match perfectly. Weld bead runs over the matching profile to join it. But weld bead project over the Frame surface and affects weather strip seating & results in poor sealing. Adhesive added for better sealing also follows the same path on bead and create a path way for water entry. Thus in long run this water stagnates and cause chronic rust issues in frame.
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