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Technical Paper

A novel welding monitoring and detection strategy for high voltage contactors in Electric Vehicles.

2021-09-22
2021-26-0166
DC fast charging brought a paradigm shift in EV & HEV battery charging with reduced charging times. The high voltage contactors are the major components in the DC fast charge controller and provide reliable and fast switching of DC power from EVSE to battery. However, unstable voltages, high inrush currents, poorly designed surge protectors, end of electrical endurance lifetime etc. cause welding of contactors while operating with high voltages. In general, welding detection algorithms, the voltages across contactors are compared. Current welding strategy has limitations as it does not detect high voltage contactor welding during charging, initiate power shut off, safe state is not reached and welding factor not used for contactor lifetime calculation. This paper proposes a novel strategy to monitor and detect welding using contact resistances and lifetime counters to detect and report welding even before the contactors are normally triggered to open.
Technical Paper

Case Study on Optimized Cooling System Concept for Electric Compact-SUV with Indian Environmental Conditions

2021-09-22
2021-26-0410
With the rising emission level in Indian cities, the focus on pure battery electric vehicle is increasing also in India. The Government of India his also focusing on preparing right policies like FAME-2 to promote the acceptability of EV's by providing subsidies as well as creating the required infrastructure. The environmental conditions in India is much different than other developed countries of Euro, China etc. The max. temperatures in India can go up to 55℃ in the hottest summer time, while during winters temperature can go up to <-25℃ in the northern Himalia region. In these conditions the cooling system of the electric-powertrain components like E-Machine Battery pack etc have to be protected for worst case scenarios specific to Indian conditions. Major cost driver of EV's lie in the HV battery packs and it is very important for acceptability of EV's that the Battery is maximized.
Technical Paper

Optimized Power Utilization of Air Conditioner in Electric City Bus Using Occupant Detection

2021-09-22
2021-26-0142
Electric vehicles have a limitation of limited range and long charging time. Energy optimization plays a very crucial role in determining the range of an electric vehicle. The innovative system proposed here gives the opportunity to reduce energy wastage and efficiently direct the electrical energy to improve the driving range of a 9 meter AC electric bus. The high voltage air conditioner unit alone consumes more than 40% of the electrical energy stored in the traction battery which reduces the driving range of the electric bus drastically. The proposed system optimizes the air conditioner utilization to direct cool air only in areas where passengers are present. Buses do not always run on full capacity, when there are less number of people in the bus the system detects the locations of the passengers using sensors and occupant detection algorithm, this enables the controller to identify the areas where cooling has to be focused and where cooling can be reduced or stopped.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Early Flame Development Produced by a Barrier Discharge Igniter in an Optical Access Engine

2021-09-05
2021-24-0011
Currently, conventional spark-ignition engines are unfit to satisfy the growing customer requirements on efficiency while complying with the legislations on pollutant emissions. New ignition systems are being developed to extend the engine stable operating range towards increasing lean conditions. Among these, the Radio-Frequency corona igniters represent an interesting solution for the capability to promote the combustion in a much wider region than the one involved by the traditional spark channel. Moreover, the flame kernel development is enhanced by means of the production of non-thermal plasma, where low-temperature active radicals are ignition promoters. However, at low pressure and at high voltage the low temperature plasma benefits can be lost due to occurrences of spark-like events. Recently, RF barrier discharge igniters (BDI) have been investigated for the ability to prevent the arc formation thanks to a strong-breakdown resistance.
Technical Paper

A comparative study on the ignition mechanism of multi-site ignition and continuous discharge strategy

2021-07-21
2021-01-1162
Advanced combustion engines dominate all automotive applications. Future high efficiency clean combustion engines can contribute significantly to sustainable transportation. Effective ignition strategies are studied to enable lean and diluted combustion under considerably high-density mixture and strong turbulences, for improving the efficiency and emissions of future combustion engines. Continuous discharge and multi-site ignition strategies have been proved to be effective to stabilize the combustion process under lean and EGR diluted conditions. Continuous discharge strategy uses a traditional sparkplug with a single spark gap and multiple ignition coil packs. The ignition coil packs operate under a specific time offset to realize a continuous discharge process with a prolonged discharge duration. Multi-site ignition strategy also uses multiple ignition coil packs.
Technical Paper

Investigating the Effect of Water and Oxygen Distributions on Consistency of Current Density Using a Quasi-Three-Dimensional Model of a PEM Fuel Cell

2021-04-06
2021-01-0737
Activation loss, mass transfer loss and ohmic loss are the three main voltage losses of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. While the former two types are relevant to concentration of oxygen in catalyst layer and the later one is associated with the water content in membrane. Distributions of water content and oxygen in a single cell are inconsistent which cause that current densities in each segment of the single cell are different. For the dry inlet gas, the water in the segments near the gas inlet channel will be carried to the segments near the gas outlet channel, which causes high ohmic loss of the segments near the gas inlet channel. In this work, a transfer non-isothermal quasi-three-dimensional model is developed to investigate inconsistency of current densities.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of 48V and High Voltage Parallel Hybrid Diesel Powertrain Architectures for Class 6-7 Medium Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2021-04-06
2021-01-0720
Electrification of heavy-duty trucks has received significant attention in the past year as a result of future regulations in some states. For example, California will require a certain percentage of tractor trailers, delivery trucks and vans sold to be zero emission by 2035. However, the relatively low energy density of batteries in comparison to diesel fuel, as well as the operating profiles of heavy-duty trucks, make the application of electrified powertrain in these applications more challenging. Heavy-duty vehicles can be broadly classified into two main categories; long-haul tractors and vocational vehicles. Long-haul tractors offer limited benefit from electrification due to the majority of operation occurring at constant cruise speeds, long range requirements and the high efficiency provided by the diesel engine.
Technical Paper

xEV Propulsion System Control-Overview and Current Trends

2021-04-06
2021-01-0781
Propulsion system control algorithms covering the functional needs of xEV propulsion (‘x’ donates P0-P4 configurations) systems are presented in this paper. The scope and foundation are based on generic well-established HEV controller architectures. However, unlike conventional HEV (series, parallel and power split) powertrains, the next generation of integrated electric propulsion configurations will utilize a single micro controller that supports multiple control functions ranging from the electric machines, inverters, actuators, clutch solenoids, coolant pumps, etc. This presents a unique challenge to architect control algorithms within the AUTOSAR framework while satisfying the complex timing requirements of motor/generator-inverter (MGi) control and increased interface definitions between software components to realize functional integration between the higher level propulsion system and its sub-systems.
Technical Paper

Response Characteristics of an Amperometric NOx-O2 Sensor at Non diffusion-Rate-Determining Conditions

2021-04-06
2021-01-0678
Experimental results are combined with a physical understanding of an amperometric NOx-O2 sensor to study the effect of three main operating parameters on the sensor behavior in non diffusion-rate-determining operating conditions. The sensor response to NOx concentration is examined over a range of sensor operating temperatures, reference cell potentials, and second sensing cell potentials. The results show that the sensor sensitivity increases gradually with the sensing cell voltage while the sensor output is almost linearly dependent on NOx concentration for cell voltages higher than ≈ 0.25 V. The results also reveal that reducing the reference cell potential from the typical cell potential (0.42 V) reduces the sensor cross-sensitivity to O2 particularly at high NOx concentrations (>600 [ppm]).
Technical Paper

A Domain-Centralized Automotive Powertrain E/E Architecture

2021-04-06
2021-01-0786
This paper proposes a domain-centralized powertrain E/E (electrical and/or electronic) architecture for all-electric vehicles that features: a powerful master controller (domain controller) that implements most of the functionality of the domain; a set of smart actuators for electric motor(s), HV (High Voltage) battery pack, and thermal management; and a gateway that routes all hardware signals, including digital and analog I/O, and field bus signals between the domain controller and the rest of the vehicle that is outside of the domain. Major functional safety aspects of the architecture are presented and a safety architecture is proposed. The work represents an early E/E architecture proposal. In particular, detailed partitioning of software components over the domain’s Electronic Control Units (ECUs) has not been determined yet; instead, potential partitioning schemes are discussed.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalytic Reaction in an Electric Field for Exhaust Emission Control Application

2021-04-06
2021-01-0573
To prevent global warming, further reductions in carbon dioxide are required. It is therefore important to promote the spread of electric vehicles powered by internal combustion engines and electric vehicles without internal combustion engines. As a result, emissions from hybrid electric vehicles equipped with internal combustion engines should be further reduced. Interest in catalytic reactions in an electric field with a higher catalytic activity compared to conventional catalysts has increased because this technology consumes less energy than other electrical heating devices. This study was therefore undertaken to apply a catalytic reaction in an electric field to an exhaust emission control. First, the original experimental equipment was built with a high voltage system used to conduct catalytic activity tests.
Technical Paper

Pyrofuse Modeling for eVTOL Aircraft DC Protection

2021-03-02
2021-01-0041
Contemporary trends are leading towards the electrification of aircraft for urban mobility applications. Accordingly, there is a high demand for advancements in light-weight, high voltage technologies to realize these new aircraft types. Driven by recent developments in the automotive industry, hybrid Pyrofuse protection devices have emerged as one such new candidate technology. Pyrofuses offer rapid clearance of fault currents, reduced cost and weight when compared to conventional mechanical breakers. In addition, Pyrofuses have the ability to tune the time-current curve to fit the application’s fault response characteristics. However, Pyrofuses are non-resettable devices whose exclusive use for electrical protection could present potential operational hazards and certification challenges in aerospace applications. Model-based analysis will be critical in supporting this evaluation.
Journal Article

Numerical Simulation of the Electrostatic Coating Process: the Effect of Applied Voltage, Droplet Charge and Size on the Coating Efficiency

2021-03-02
2021-01-0022
Electrostatic Rotary Bell Sprayers (ERBSs) have been widely used in the painting industry, especially in the automotive and aerospace industries, due to their superior performance. The effects of the applied voltage and paint droplet charge values on the spraying pattern and coating Transfer Efficiency (TE) in the ERBS, including a high-voltage ring for spray cloud control, have been studied numerically in a wide range of droplet size distribution. A 3D Eulerian-Lagrangian numerical analysis is implemented under the framework of the OpenFOAM package. The fluid dynamics of turbulence, primary and secondary breakup procedures are modeled using a large eddy simulation (LES) model, Rosin-Rammler distribution, and modified TAB approach, respectively.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell Vehicle Powertrain System Real-Time Simulation Platform

2020-12-14
2020-01-5172
The fuel cell vehicle has the fuel cell engine system (including the hydrogen system, the air system, the thermal management system, and the control system), the high voltage DC / DC transformation system, the low voltage DC / DC transformation system, the motor system, the battery system, and the high-power energy consumption accessories(like Air-Conditioning system) are typically complex systems.
Technical Paper

Optical Measurement of Spark Deflection Inside a Pre-chamber for Spark-Ignition Engines

2020-10-14
2020-01-5096
The start of combustion in a spark-ignited engine is highly dependent upon the conditions between the two spark plug electrodes at ignition. In addition to the air-to-fuel ratio in this gap, the gas flow is seen as most critical. In a combustion engine with a standard spark plug that protrudes into the combustion chamber, this gas flow is mainly dependent upon the tumble, swirl, or squish that is developed by the cylinder head and the piston movement. However, the air movement in the pre-chamber depends on the orientation of the orifices towards the main combustion chamber (MCC). This implies a less complex manipulation of local velocity in the electrode gap. This paper focuses on the effect of different pre-chamber designs on spark deflection by the inflowing gas. Therefore, a test rig was developed using the spark plug thread in the cylinder head of a motored engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Dual AC System Used for Battery Cooling Plate

2020-08-18
2020-28-0021
As the global warming due to carbon footprint is very alarming, vehicle emissions are getting stringent day by day. In such situation vehicle hybridization or fully electric vehicles are of obvious choices. However in any of the cases the battery cooling is a big concern area. As the heat produced by the battery need to be dissipated in the long run, it is of utmost need to develop and understand the battery cooling system. Present paper describes the experimental investigation of a battery cooling circuit. A complete bench comprising of both primary and secondary circuit is used for the testing. The primary circuit has a cooling unit with TXV, condenser and electric compressor run by high voltage. The secondary circuit consists of a chiller (integrated with TXV) unit responsible for battery cooling. The whole circuit typically resembles with one of dual air conditioning unit and uses one of known refrigerant used in vehicle AC system.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Battery (HVB) Durability Enhancement in Electric Mobility through 1D CAE

2020-08-18
2020-28-0013
The public transport in India is gradually shifting towards electric mobility. Long range in electric mobility can be served with High Voltage Battery (HVB), but HVB can sustain for its designed life if it’s maintained within a specific operating temperature range. Appropriate battery thermal management through Battery Cooling System (BCS) is critical for vehicle range and battery durability This work focus on two aspects, BCS sizing and its coolant flow optimization in Electric bus. BCS modelling was done in 1D CAE software. The objective is to develop a model of BCS in virtual environment to replicate the physical testing. Electric bus contain numerous battery packs and a complex piping in its cooling system. BCS sizing simulation was performed to keep the battery packs in operating temperature range.
Technical Paper

Multitarget Evaluation of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain Architectures Considering Fuel Economy and Battery Lifetime

2020-06-30
2020-37-0015
Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrains are characterized by a complex design environment as a result of both the large number of possible layouts and the need for dedicated energy management strategies. When selecting the most suitable hybrid powertrain architecture at an early design stage of HEVs, engineers usually focus solely on fuel economy (directly linked to tailpipe emissions) and vehicle drivability performance. However, high voltage batteries are a crucial component of HEVs as well in terms of performance and cost. This paper introduces a multitarget assessment framework for HEV powertrain architectures which considers both fuel economy and battery lifetime. A multi-objective formulation of dynamic programming is initially presented as an off-line optimal HEV energy management strategy capable of predicting both fuel economy performance and battery lifetime of HEV powertrain layout options.
Technical Paper

Development of New Power Control Unit with Small Size and Low Cost for Small Hybrid Vehicle with Two-motor Hybrid System

2020-04-14
2020-01-0458
A new power control unit (PCU) has been developed for a Honda small hybrid vehicle with a two-motor hybrid system launched in 2020. For small hybrid vehicles, downsizing and reducing costs of hybrid systems are major challenges. As such, there were emphatic requirements for the newly developed PCU to be small and affordable. To satisfy these requirements for the PCU, new technologies and components have been introduced such as an all-in-one type intelligent power module (IPM) with integrated functions and reverse conducting IGBT (RC-IGBT), a new control sequence for voltage control unit (VCU), and revised PCU packaging to improve cooling performance. The new IPM has a printed-circuit board (PCB) equipped with an electric control unit (ECU) and gate drive circuits, 7 current sensors, and a power module with RC-IGBTs. This functional integration led to a reduction in the number of main electrical PCU assembly components from 9 in the previous PCU to 2 in the new PCU.
Journal Article

48 V High-power Battery Pack for Mild-Hybrid Electric Powertrains

2020-04-14
2020-01-0441
Mild hybridisation, using a 48 V system architecture, offers fuel consumption benefits approaching those achieved using high-voltage systems at a much lower cost. To maximise the benefits from a 48 V mild-hybrid system, it is desirable to recuperate during deceleration events at as high a power level as possible, whilst at the same time having a relatively compact and low cost system. This paper examines the particular requirements of the battery pack for such a mild-hybrid application and discusses the trade-offs between battery power capabilities and possible fuel consumption benefits. The technical challenges and solutions to design a 48 V mild-hybrid battery pack are presented with special attention to cell selection and the thermal management of the whole pack. The resulting battery has been designed to achieve a continuous-power capability of more than 10 kW and a peak-power rating of up to 20 kW.
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