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Technical Paper

Multi Sensor Information fusion for determining Road Quality for Semi Autonomous Vehicles

2022-10-05
2022-28-0004
Pothole detection in autonomous vehicles has been a part of ADAS for a long time. Various sensors have been used for this purpose so far: Accelerometer, Gyroscope, GPS etc. However fusion of multiple modality of information from different sensors still remains a challenge, mainly owing to the different sampling rates and varying frame rates used by each sensor. Other sensor types like radar and LIDAR, though precise, are difficult to use, thus forcing us to look for solutions in traditional techniques, like the ones mentioned. Our proposed work uses IMU and GPS sensor fusion to predict pothole presence in Indian scenarios. Previous work has mainly dealt with predicting potholes with data collected using either traditional machine learning techniques like Decision trees, SVM’s and LGBM and deep learning methods using neural networks and attention mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction of In-Plane Vertical Dynamics(IPVD)Performance on a Quarter Car at the Pre-CAD preliminary stages of product development

2022-10-05
2022-28-0396
In the present time, almost every motor vehicle company plans to launch a new vehicle or two on a per annum basis. With the time crunch and cost reduction in mind the R&D(Research and Development) process for every vehicle needs to be wrapped up in a hurry. Due to this, testing time for every vehicle is shortened drastically. Yet, to have safe, sound vehicle in the market, to maintain the company's rapport in the market and among the competition, the testing of new product in comparison with the benchmark vehicle is given its due importance always. Traditional vehicle performance takes use of a series of physical prototype evaluations by skilled drivers, who analyze the vehicle performance in subjective and objective terms either in lab or in road in comparison with benchmark. The problem with this approach is the fact that it is completely dependent upon physical component prototypes, whose costs and construction lead times cannot be afforded in the current tight development cycles.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Safety considerations in Indian EVs

2022-10-05
2022-28-0103
India is witnessing a rapid growth in electric vehicles employing higher voltage highlighting the need for isolation management and electrical safety considerations. This paper provides contemporary views on the regulatory and standardization landscape around isolation management. Specific needs in the Indian context are discussed in detail . State of the art techniques used in the industry towards high voltage safety are presented. Views about gaps in the present regulations are shared. In conclusion , passive and active isolation monitoring device implementations are compared and merits of continuous isolation monitoring are highlighted.
Technical Paper

Development of Lane Departure Warning System and SiL Testing for AV Systems in India

2022-10-05
2022-28-0117
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are self-contained vehicles equipped with control systems to execute various tasks. Lane Departure Warning (LDW) system is widely employed to prevent the most common cause of vehicle collisions. An autonomous lane-departure system will aid and reduce such collisions. When the vehicle is at risk of drifting or departing its lane, the LDW system monitors its relative position to the lane edge and sends an alarming warning signal to the driver. This work uses ML-based technique to detect lane markers using a high-resolution camera mounted on the car in an Indian context. Considering that, the LDW system requires three primary operations. The camera geometry information is used to divide the acquired image into two parts: a road part and a non-road component. Then, to circumvent the obstacles caused by the perspective effect, inverse perspective mapping is applied.
Technical Paper

Study of key attributes of sustainability of automobile solutions in India

2022-10-05
2022-28-0313
The changing mobility landscape of India reveals that erstwhile transport modes of the 20th century i.e., railways and road buses are making way for airlines, personal vehicles, shared mobility, metro rails etc. Rapid technological changes, stricter regulations, new transport cultures (ACES), state-of-the-art and mainly environmental concerns are shaping up the eco-system for automobiles. Despite these challenges, roadways and automobiles will continue to be most prominent solution in India for the future. But for that, the automobile sector should be agile, innovative and adaptable to changing eco-system, vigilant to thwart threat of alternate mobility solutions and must provide sustainable solutions for future. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate various mobility solutions, ascertain the prominence of upcoming automobile solutions and study key attributes regarding their sustainability in India.
Technical Paper

Method to improve DPF regeneration performance for challenging driving profiles.

2022-10-05
2022-28-0326
A major share of Small Commercial Vehicle applications is operated in city conditions with frequent stops and short driving distance. Often the end customers will operate these types of vehicles with loads that exceed their rated specifications. Such driving profiles are particularly observed in food, e-commerce delivery, garbage collection vehicles which are driven inside the city. During DPF regeneration events in such driving profiles, it is a challenge to maintain light-off temperature of oxidation catalyst, leading to prolonged regeneration durations with multiple regeneration interrupts and poor regeneration efficiency. Frequent engine start operations and lower passive regeneration result in a low regeneration interval. The extended DPF regeneration duration in combination with a low regeneration interval will lead to high oil dilution. Our study focuses on identifying such driving profiles and actions to improve the regeneration performance.
Technical Paper

Comfort Backup Assist Function

2022-10-05
2022-28-0395
Abstract The US American government introduced a law to mandatorily equip passenger vehicles with rear view cameras. Furthermore, US NCAP presented a test for passenger vehicles to brake on pedestrians while back up. These two circumstances lead to main motivation of the development of the Comfort Backup Assist (CBUA). Nevertheless, more and more passenger cars in general are being equipped with rear view cameras. Rear view system (RVS) allows to deliver a rear-view camera system including a braking functionality which is intended to make the driving mission safer and reduce the number of accidents in parking driving situations. RVS also focus on vehicle safety by reducing accidents while taking reversing/parking scenarios and to provides slow de-acceleration of the vehicle gradually to avoid jerk and increase the ride comfort. Comfort backup assist (CBUA) is one of the ADAS applications that improves vehicle safety and driver comfort during the parking procedure.
Technical Paper

Performance Analysis of an SRM driven Electric Vehicle

2022-10-05
2022-28-0054
Due to the increased fuel costs and concern towards environmental emissions, the transportation interests of the people are leaning towards electric mobility. Since there is no ICE involved in electric vehicles, fuel and emission crisis can be eliminated. When EVs are considered, powertrain becomes the most important factor, which is responsible for driving the vehicle. Improving the powertrain is given more importance as it reflects the overall vehicle performance to a great extent. Most commonly used motor drives for EVs are permanent magnet and induction motors. The magnets, brushes involved in these motors results in complex construction as well as maintenance. Switch Reluctance Motor has various advantages over other motors such as simple construction due to absence of magnets, easy maintenance, good fault tolerance and good reliability. These advantages make it a very prominent and interesting alternative for electric vehicle applications.
Technical Paper

Braking Dynamics of Auto-rickshaw

2022-10-05
2022-28-0382
Auto-rickshaw is one of the most common modes of transport in urban as well as rural areas of India. The safety of this vehicle is one of the prime concerns. The braking system plays a vital role in the safety of any vehicle. This work is carried out in order to analyze the vehicle behavior during braking maneuver since the literature survey carried out did not discuss in detail about the braking performance of Auto-rickshaw. Bajaj RE is chosen in particular for our study because it is widely used. Stopping distance analysis is utilized in order to study the vehicle braking performance. The straight line braking performance is concentrated upon and hence a 3-DOF mathematical model of the vehicle is developed which includes the surge, heave and pitch motions. This model is formulated based on Newtonian approach and is built on Simulink environment. The complete brake system is developed and coupled with the mathematical model.
Technical Paper

Software adaptive method to determine the mechanical stop limits to improve the drivability and emission optimization in two wheeler

2022-10-05
2022-28-0407
Given the tight requirements of modern air/fuel ratio (AFR) control strategies, the accuracy of models needs to be better than ever, during steady-state of course. The model inputs play major role in deciding the accuracy of AFR control and engine performance. In Control software design components mechanical stop limits will be fixed by considering the worst case tolerances (includes mechanical tolerance, manufacturing tolerance, mounting tolerance, electrical tolerance etc.). These fixed mechanical limits leads to compromised performance and affects emissions due to difference in actual limits value and fixed limits value in Engine control unit (ECU) for each components. In Engine Management system (EMS), The position of Lower mechanical stop (LMS) and upper mechanical stop (UMS) of Accelerator Position Sensor (APS) and Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) play a vital role in controlling engine operation.
Technical Paper

Traffic Object detection and Distance estimation using YOLOV3

2022-10-05
2022-28-0120
According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration(NHTSA), many people are killed each year in automobile collisions, this may be because of distractions like inattention, sleepiness, drowsiness falls, talking or texting using mobile phones, eating and drinking, talking to passengers in the vehicle, adjusting the radio, etc... Improvements in Advanced driving and correspondence innovations have given broad and propelled changes. The use of new innovations gives incredible advantages to people, organizations, and governments. This Paper works on Object detection to assist drivers and autonomous vehicles in estimating crash risks using dash cameras on vehicles and Machine learning algorithms. Although these technologies (Object detection) are increasingly available, the cost-effective method still remains a challenge.
Technical Paper

Electrochemical & Equivalent Circuit Modelling and Validation of Lithium-Ion Battery Cell in GT-AutoLion

2022-10-05
2022-28-0338
High energy and power density Lithium-ion batteries are used as energy storage devices for indispensable applications ranging from cell phones to hybrid electric vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles and commercial passenger aircrafts. To monitor the health of the battery and its various performances, it is crucial to understand the electrochemical behavior of the battery. The Doyle-Fuller-Newman (DFN) model is a popular electrochemistry-based model, which characterizes the solid and electrolyte diffusion dynamics in the battery and predicts current/voltage response. However, the DFN model requires many parameters that need to be estimated to obtain an accurate battery model. In this article, an electrochemistry-based cell model is developed using GT-AutoLion to simulate and validate the performance for two different commercially available Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) and Nickel Cobalt Aluminum (NCA) cells.
Technical Paper

Evolution of ADAS and V2X(Vehicle to vehicle/cloud/infrastructure) for Indian roads and the Challenges thereof.

2022-10-05
2022-28-0010
This paper focuses on adapting the technology of Autonomous Driving with respect to different SAE level that fits for Indian roads. The need of the mobility in India is more on safety, faster connectivity, shared services and comfort functions. The driving factors for this change on Indian roads will be cost, legality, consumer experience and driver experience. Some of the problem areas which needs to be addressed are the dynamic infrastructure changes ( roads constructions, traffic etc), seamless integration of goods transportation from the source to the end user, traffic congestion and Farming and Health Care. To progress faster from developing country to developed country, one of the important factor to be improved is on mobility and connectivity in mobility. Here we need to use the technology in an optimized way w.r.t the control units, cameras, sensors etc in the vehicle to connect and share the live information in advance to the external world.
Technical Paper

Advance Cabin Simulation in 1D CAE to Predict Occupants Nose Level Air Temperature

2022-10-05
2022-28-0387
Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) system provides year round thermal comfort to the occupants inside vehicle cabin. In present scenario, 1D CAE simulation tools are widely used for MAC system design, component sizing, component selection and cool down performance prediction. The MAC component sizing and selection mainly depends on cooling load which varies with ambient conditions, occupancy, cabin size, geometry and material properties. Therefore, detailed modeling of vehicle cabin is essential during MAC system digital validation as it helps to predict performance across wide number of contributing factors. There are two different methods available in 1D Simulation for vehicle cabin modeling, viz. ‘simple cabin’ and ‘advance cabin’. With the simple cabin modeling approach, vehicle cabin is modelled as a group of lumped masses, which only enables prediction of average vent and average cabin temperatures. In advance cabin modeling approach, vehicle cabin is modelled more comprehensively.
Technical Paper

Influence of Rotor Geometry on the Circulating Currents of a Delta Connected Electrical Machine

2022-10-05
2022-28-0330
The increase in demand of electric vehicles leads to increased concentration towards the performance and stability of the electrical machines used. Compared to other electrical machines, the permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) are predominantly used in electric vehicles, due to its high efficiency and power density. The permanent magnets are generally placed in different configurations (like V-shaped, U-shaped, etc.), to achieve the required performance characteristics. But, these non-linear arrangement of magnets leads to unbalanced flux linkage in the stator windings. This unbalanced flux linkage in different phase windings induces unbalanced back-emf, which results in unbalanced currents (generally termed as circulating currents). In case of star connected machines, these circulating currents are balanced with the help of neutral connection. Whereas, these circulating currents are inevitable in delta connected machines, which leads to increased copper losses.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Low-cost Electric Microcar for Urban Commute

2022-10-05
2022-28-0332
Global warming, pollution, dependence on foreign oil resources and rising petroleum prices are major issues the nations facing today. Increasing density of IC engine powered vehicles, urban air pollution, traffic congestion and wastage of valuable land for parking have negative impact economically, ecologically and politically. Moreover, an increasing preference for personal mobility, owing to the pandemic and social distancing norms has witnessed notable growth in automobile sales. Hence, a strategy to replace conventional vehicles is urgently required by electric vehicles, which is one of the most promising alternative technologies. Governments also recognized the value of electric mobility in building a cleaner, smarter and more sustainable future cities.
Technical Paper

Cloud Based Framework for OBD-II System Diagnosis using Recursive Least Square Parametric Estimation

2022-10-05
2022-28-0013
Cloud computing technologies are embodied with automotive sector in copiously. It aids in using data and computing services to manage information, communication, and computing, using Internet-based apps and online digital services. A cloud computing-based framework is suitable for developing and deploying simulation models to study, analyse and optimise the vehicle performance. The framework proves functional in collecting vehicle data, processing and then using them for data-driven or model-based development to deliver a complete software solution. Serverless cloud computing technologies with storage and function triggers form the architecture. The paper outlines a data-driven model of a three-way catalytic converter to test the cloud framework as an end-to-end solution. The model estimates a metric to quantify the oxygen storage capacity of the TWC over the air.
Technical Paper

Effect of Normalizing Heat Treatment on Material and Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steel Tube for Lift axle of Commercial Vehicles

2022-10-05
2022-28-0351
Lift axles of heavy commercial vehicles are deployed to handle increased payload. These axles of Commercial vehicles are made of low alloy carbon steel materials. Lift axles are designed in hollow condition for weight reduction opportunity. Two types of tube materials are used for the manufacturing of lift axles. These are either Cold Drawn Seamless (CDS) tubes or Hot Finished Seamless (HFS) tube material. The vanadium micro-alloyed steel grade, 20MnV6 is an excellent choice for the manufacturing of lift axles. The 20MnV6 has favorable mechanical properties for lift axles and also offers good weldability. However, lift axles made of 20MnV6 when manufactured in hot-finished condition, shows significant scatter in terms of durability performance. This requires further heat treatment of 20MnV6 to be deployed for reducing the scatter in the material properties to reduce scatter in durability performance and thus increasing the reliability of the lift axles.
Technical Paper

Unified Thermal System simulations of an Electric Truck

2022-10-05
2022-28-0040
Once the powertrain sizing is decided for any new EV, electric Vehicle thermal management is major challenge and opportunity to improve on overall energy efficiency. This is more important in the context of a commercial vehicle where range is of utmost importance. Effective thermal management of an EV becomes a complex and yet essential topic due to strong dependence of electric powertrain performance on the thermal system performance. A novel approach is proposed hereby to integrate different stakeholder systems of a vehicle that play a critical role for determination of thermal system sizing. This includes starting from Vehicle model, ePT HVAC and Cooling systems and simulate them in one environment under different scenarios as per customer expectations. A simplified controller is designed and integrated as well to monitor and control the functioning of thermal system for optimum performance.
Technical Paper

Aircraft systems qualification test definition by structural analysis techniques

2022-10-05
2022-28-0081
Aircraft systems have a stringent requirement governed by the certifying authorities demanding that the system and components are qualified for all the applicable requirements. Conducting qualification tests on all the components in a system for all the operational requirements, environmental loads, and the loads for uncertainties such as limit and ultimate cases would consume a significant time in the product design cycle. With improved computational power and with validated higher fidelity models, structural analysis is proving to be a way forward in reducing the product design cycle time. This paper discusses about the structural analysis driven qualification test definition aligning with modes of compliances defined by CS25.307 with an objective to minimize and simplify the tests carried out as a step towards certification by analysis.
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