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Research Report

Unsettled Aspects of the Digital Thread in Additive Manufacturing

2021-11-15
EPR2021026
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as “3D printing,” now provides the ability to have an almost fully digital chain from part design through manufacture and service. This “digital thread” can bring great benefits in improving designs, processes, materials, operations, and the ability to predict failure in a way that maximizes safety and minimizes cost and downtime. Unsettled Aspects of the Digital Thread in Additive Manufacturing discusses what the interplay between AM and a digital thread in the mobility industry would look like, the potential benefits and costs, the hurdles that need to be overcome for the combination to be useful, and how an organization can answer these questions to scope and benefit from the combination. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Technical Paper

Electrician Demand for Battery Electric Vehicle Charger Installation

2021-11-03
2021-01-5102
Demand for electricians was estimated based on projected increases in battery electric vehicle (BEV) sales. Total BEV sales were projected from current producer plans. Each scenario for charger type and charging location requires different combinations of electrical installation requirements. The need for types of charging will vary by location and individual preferences. Interviews with practicing electricians and field surveys were performed to assess current capabilities and the need for improvements. Very few current vehicle owners are prepared to make a smooth transition to even level 1 charging. It was determined that the demand for licensed electricians will increase by 25% over 20 years solely for the purpose of charger installation. However, this profession has been dropping over time and is under demand for growth from other areas such as green power.
Research Report

Unsettled Economic, Environmental, and Health Issues of Ammonia for Automotive Applications

2021-10-15
EPR2021022
Ammonia has been previously trialed as an automotive fuel; however, it was hardly competitive with fossil fuels in terms of cost, energy density, and practicality. However, due to climate change, those practical and cost-related parameters have finally become secondary deciding factors in fuel selection. Ammonia is safer than most fuels and it offers superior energy densities compared to compressed or liquefied hydrogen. It is believed that ammonia might be an ultimate clean fuel choice and an extension to the emerging hydrogen economy. Unsettled Economic, Environmental, and Health Issues of Ammonia for Automotive Applications examines the major unsettled issues of using ammonia as a clean automotive fuel alternative, including the lack of regulations and standards for automotive applications, technology readiness, safety perception, and presently limited supply.
Technical Paper

Lining Property Characterizations for an Improved Integration Cascade

2021-10-11
2021-01-1272
New technologies, such as electrified powertrain and autonomous driving solutions, are transforming the automotive industry in such a way that achieving vehicle level performance requirements demands an increasingly intensive and detailed system integration exercise. Validation of the braking system, critical to any vehicle level project, must evolve so that the ever-increasing requirements cascade is answered in a way that ensures the highest level of safety and performance as the industry moves toward a new frontier of features. To support this evolution of integration methodology, critical-to-performance components, such as brake pads, must undergo a transformation in how performance metrics are characterized, communicated, and documented.
Technical Paper

Designing a Next Generation Trailer Braking System

2021-10-11
2021-01-1268
Passenger vehicles have made astounding technological leaps in recent years. Unfortunately, little of that progress has trickled down to other segments of the transportation industry leaving opportunities for massive gains in safety and performance. In particular, the electric drum brakes on most consumer trailers differ little from those on trailers over 70 years ago. Careful examination of current production passenger vehicle hardware and trailering provided the opportunity to produce a design and test vehicle for a plausible, practical, and performant trailer braking system for the future. This study equips the trailer with high control frequency antilock braking and dynamic torque distribution through use of passenger vehicle grade apply hardware.
Technical Paper

Research on Braking Energy Recovery Strategy of Pure Electric Vehicle

2021-10-11
2021-01-1264
With the increasingly serious global environmental and energy problems, as well as the increasing number of vehicles, pure electric vehicles with its advantages of environmental protection, low noise and renewable energy, become an effective way to alleviate environmental pollution and energy crisis. Due to the current pure electric vehicle power battery technology is not perfect, the range of pure electric vehicle has a great limit. Through the braking energy recovery, the energy can be reused, the energy utilization rate can be improved, and the battery life of pure electric vehicles can be improved. In this paper, a pure electric vehicle is taken as the analysis object, and the whole vehicle analysis model is built. Through the comparative analysis, based on the driver's braking intention and vehicle running state, the braking energy recovery control strategy of double fuzzy control is proposed.
Technical Paper

Potential and Challenges for Application-Specific Friction Characteristics of Race Brake Pads

2021-10-11
2021-01-1282
As a race driver hits the pedal to trigger the braking event, a dynamic load transfer takes place in the car. This is a similar kind of weight transfer experienced on the road while stopping any vehicle abruptly. Modern race cars such as FIA-regulated Grand Touring Car classes GT3 and LMGTE produce a significant aerodynamic downforce at a reasonably high efficiency level. In this type of high downforce race cars, load variations originated by aerodynamics are added onto the mass transfer. The combination of these effects provide a braking effect with this type of cars a highly transient character. At the same time, our customers are facing the challenge of strict technical regulations, usually forbidding brake control systems. In motorsport competition, car performance is of primary priority to help our customers win championships.
Technical Paper

Research on Trajectory Planning and Tracking Strategy of Lane-changing and Overtaking based on PI-MPC Dual Controllers

2021-10-11
2021-01-1262
Aiming at the problem of poor robustness after the combination of lateral kinematics control and lateral dynamics control when an autonomous vehicle decelerates and changes lanes to overtake at a certain distance. This paper proposes a trajectory determination and tracking control method based on a PI-MPC dual algorithm controller. To describe the longitudinal deceleration that satisfies the lateral acceleration limit during a certain distance of lane change, firstly, a fifth-order polynomial and a uniform deceleration motion formula are established to express the lateral and longitudinal displacements, and a model prediction controller (MPC) is used to output the front wheel rotation angle. Through the dynamic formula and the speed proportional-integral (PI) controller to control and adjust the brake pressure.
Technical Paper

Application of Brake System Failed State Performance and Reliability Requirements to Brake System Architecting

2021-10-11
2021-01-1267
The modern braking system in the field today may be controlled by over a million lines of computer code and may feature several hundred moving parts. Although modern brake systems generally deliver performance, even with partial failures present in the system, that is well above regulatory minimums, they also have a level of complexity that extends well beyond what the authors of existing regulations had envisioned. Complexity in the braking system is poised for significant increases as advanced technologies such as self-driving vehicles are introduced, and as multiple systems are linked together to provide vehicle-level “features” to the driver such as deceleration (which can invoke service braking, regenerative braking, use of the parking brake, and engine braking). Rigorous safety-case analysis is critical to bring a new brake system concept to market but may be too tedious and rely on too many assumptions to be useful in the early architecting stages of new vehicle development.
Technical Paper

In-Depth Considerations for Electric Vehicle Braking Systems Operation with Steep Elevation Changes and Trailering

2021-10-11
2021-01-1263
As the automotive industry prepares to roll out an unprecedented range of fully electric propulsion vehicle models over the next few years - it really brings to a head for folks responsible for brakes what used to be the subject of hypothetical musings and are now pivotal questions for system design. How do we really go about designing brakes for electric vehicles, in particular, for the well-known limit condition of descending a steep grade? What is really an “optimal’ design for brakes considering the imperatives for the entire vehicle? What are the real “limit conditions” for usage that drive the fundamental design? Are there really electric charging stations planned for or even already existing in high elevations that can affect regenerative brake capacity on the way down? What should be communicated to drivers (if anything) about driving habits for electric vehicles in routes with significant elevation change?
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effect of the Wedged Type Brake Caliper Piston on Brake Drag

2021-10-11
2021-01-1293
Recently, there’s a massive flow of change in the automotive industry with the coming era of electric vehicles and self-driving (autonomous) vehicles. The automotive braking system field is not an exception for the change and there are not only lots of new systems being developed but also demands for researches for optimizations of conventional brake systems fitting to the newly appeared systems such as E-Booster and Electric Motor Brake (EMB) Caliper. Taking the Electric Motor Brake Caliper for example, it is considered as a very important and useful system for autonomous vehicles because the motor actuator of the caliper is much easier to control with ECUs compared to the conventional hydraulic pressure system. However, easy of control is not the only thing that excites brake system engineers.
Technical Paper

Development of an Optimized Rotary Screw Air Compressor for the Electrical Vehicle Air Brake Systems/Suspension Systems on Trucks and Buses

2021-10-11
2021-01-1281
Air brake systems and their reciprocating air compressors are incumbent, legislated, and mature technologies integral to commercial trucks and especially the Class 8 Diesel Semi-Truck industry. The introduction of the Class 8 Electric-Semi Truck (electric-semi) will displace diesel driven trucks over time. The air brake systems and the requirement for an air compressor will not be displaced for the foreseeable future and the requirements will be inherited by the new electric-semi industry. The industry shall have to work hard to optimize the air compressor for this new electric platform that demands high energy density, high efficiency, low mass, excellent NVH management, small space claim, high levels of durability and reliability, low and easy maintenance over a life of 20 years.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of a Pneumatically Actuated Drag Reduction System

2021-10-05
2021-01-5080
The main goal of race car aerodynamics is to generate a desired intensity of downforce for the least possible amount of drag. Nonetheless, the balance of the forces under all circumstances due to speed and acceleration is equally important. The modeling was performed using SolidWorks, and the analysis was done both analytically and by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) using a flow simulation with STAR-CCM+. The aerodynamics package, which includes the rear wing, front wing, and undertray that help in faster cornering, is analyzed in the full-car analysis. The full-car analysis is done for pitch and yaw. The increase in cornering ability can come from two major aspects: an increase in the aerodynamic downforce and a decrease in the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. In order to implement the desired aerodynamics package, an airfoil with a predefined profile was selected. The main factor that limits the selection of an airfoil is its effectiveness at low velocities.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Spring-Damper Orientation in Double-Wishbone Type Suspension Geometry Using Genetic Algorithm in Python

2021-10-01
2021-28-0256
Orientation of the spring-damper system in a suspension geometry is a critical but hidden factor in vehicle performance characteristics. Spring and damper mounting characteristics are the significant factors to ensure proper contact of the tire with the ground, maintaining ride height, minimizing forces on spring, smooth ride, and driver comfort. Determining the spring orientation is conventionally a long and iterative process that involves computational simulations and processing of analytical expressions, which should align with the practical vehicle constraints. Due to numerous possible orientations, the designer would randomly pick the orientation and do the simulation, which reduces the reliability of the solution and the better solutions remain unexplored. This paper proposes a new methodology to optimize spring damper orientation in a suspension geometry using a genetic algorithm in Python Programming Language.
Technical Paper

Weight Reduction of Double Wishbone-Arm Component in the Suspension System of an Automobile using Generative Design

2021-10-01
2021-28-0258
This work uses the Generative Design approach to achieve a weight reduction of the wishbone arm used in the vehicle suspension system. The suspension system of Haynes Roadster an open two-seater club racing car is taken for this study. Detailed calculations were done to understand the dynamic loads acting in the wishbone arm during acceleration, braking, and cornering. The above-calculated loads, material, domain, fabrication techniques are used as design parameters and weight reduction as the objective in the Generative design to obtain a final output. The various design iterations will be proposed by the algorithm based on the parameters and objectives defined. Generative design uses a machine learning approach which is time-saving and also eliminates the need for redoing and refining the initial designs by giving us optimum designs based on our usage as well as manufacturing requirement at the early stage.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on SS 304 Sheet Metal for Bending Process Optimization using Response Surface Method

2021-10-01
2021-28-0268
Productivity plays a vital role in manufacturing processes as well as in service. Sheet metal bending process is a type of forming process that has been used by the wide range in industries. There are several tangible and intangible factors affecting the production rate during the bending process. Spring back is one of the severe factors which affects the production rate, especially in stainless steel material. The spring back is mostly affected by material properties, sheet thickness, bending radius, die sizes and component geometry. In this paper, the spring back is studied by the effect of various parameters such as rectangle/oblong slots with varying pitch distance and without slots and bending time in the stainless-steel material 304 grade in V-air bending machine. The experimental data are evaluated by means of the Response Surface Method (RSM). Finally, it was observed that explored results have the betterment of the production rate with connection to spring back.
Technical Paper

Detailed Concept Selection Strategy for Rear Suspension Design Entailing Comparison Between H-Arm and Trailing-Arm Geometries for ATV Application

2021-10-01
2021-28-0245
Choice of suspension geometry is an integral part of an ATV design. It has a direct role in ride comfort and vehicle-dynamic characteristics, the most prominent one being the unsprung mass. In the rear vehicle suspension, teams often face the decision to select either a Trailing-Arm suspension design or an H-Arm design. Teams must take into account their existing parameters to rightly decide which geometry is suitable for their application. In this paper, a concept selection strategy is proposed. This strategy combines the conventional way of analyzing mechanical systems and machines with product design aspects. We analyze several characteristics of the geometry and assign a criteria weight to each of these. These criteria include the cost to manufacture, unsprung mass, load handling capacity, acceleration gain ratio during bumps, ease of manufacturing, and ergonomics of the design.
Technical Paper

Front Suspension Joint Integrity Analysis for Addressing Noise Issue Due to Torque Loss at Lower Control Arm Joint

2021-10-01
2021-28-0246
The lower control arm (LCA) is a part of the front suspension system which is mounted on chassis with flexible rubber bushing through-bolted joint which allows the control arm to swing up and down, absorb road bumps and reduce noise and vibrations as front wheels roll over bump or potholes. In bolted joints, torque is applied so as the joint develops a certain preload that is higher than the external loads and losses acting on the joint. But the loss of preload is evident over time which causes quality problems, reworks, or even joint failures. While moving over speed breakers/obstacles abnormal squeak noise is observed in the vehicle due to torque loss in the LCA joint. The intent of this study is to determine preload requirements in LCA joint and various factors contributing to preload loss by performing joint integrity analysis in CAE. Road load data acquisition (RLDA) with Wheel Force Transducer (WFT) is performed for different testing tracks.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation Methodology for Robust Optimization Using Six Sigma Analysis

2021-10-01
2021-28-0248
Climate change and global warming are the main threats to our planet. CO2 emissions contribute vastly to climate change and automobiles contribute to CO2 emissions. We can reduce the CO2 emissions from vehicles by various measures, out of which shredding weight is one of the solutions, and even for hybrid or electric vehicles there will be a need for weight reduction for the control of global CO2 emission. We can shred the weight of the automobiles by replacing the components with lighter materials or by optimizing the components by removing excessive material. It is not always possible to change the materials due to its mechanical, thermal properties, manufacturability etc. This leads to the other method which is removing excessive material. Today, we use different simulation tools like ANSYS for topology or shape optimization. During the traditional optimization, we perform the simulation, based on the available design limits and propose the best optimized design to the customer.
Technical Paper

Regeneration of Waste Energy from Tire Strain and Rapid Charging Through Super-Capacitor for Electric Vehicles

2021-10-01
2021-28-0278
Vehicle tyres lead us to move miles and miles, which faces a lots of heat and stresses all that energy should not go in vain, Peizoelectric materials are materials which have the ability to convert the applied mechanical stress into electrical charge. Our experimental work deals with the conversion of heat and stress of the tyre into an electrical energy by using piezoelectric transducer followed by rapid collection and storage of electric energy using super-capacitor. For this experimental study, electric bike was taken and conventional tyres was replaced by regenerative tyre. PZT (lead zirconate titanate) type PET is chosen for greater stability and higher operating temperature. PET is placed in the order of 8 columns in which 4 columns is placed over another 4 columns and 40 rows in the circumference of the inner tyre at about 320 PET in each tyre.
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