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Technical Paper

Piston and Guide-Pin Rattle Noise Mitigation in Electro-Mechanical Brake Caliper

2024-09-08
2024-01-3032
The hydraulic brake caliper utilizes pressurized brake fluid to actuate one or multiple pistons generating friction between the brake pads and disc. Calipers are classified into floating and fixed type caliper. Floating caliper slides inboard/outboard direction to apply and release pressure on the outer pad. This type of caliper has rubber or spring components to maintain specific clearance for sliding characteristics. Therefore, caliper rattle noise could occur due to wheel vibrations when the vehicle is driven on unpaved roads or rough surfaces. Rattle noise is particularly pronounced in front calipers positioned closer to the driver and its susceptibility tends to increase with the weight of the caliper. The Electro-Mechanical Brake (EMB) caliper has gained substantial attention in automotive industry for its advantages features including reduced brake drag, optimized vehicle layout and precise brake control.
Technical Paper

Glow-discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy Study of Cr(III) Sealing in Anodized Aluminium-Silicon Alloys for Brake Component

2024-09-08
2024-01-3038
Calipers and pistons for high-end car braking systems are typically realized using anodized Aluminium-Silicon alloys. Indeed, Aluminium-Silicon alloys are light materials with optimal mechanical properties and, when anodized, excellent corrosion and wear resistances. To achieve these top-notch surface properties, the anodizing process is followed by a sealing post-treatment, which significantly improves the corrosion resistance and tunes the tribological properties (e.g., hardness and friction coefficient) of the anodized pieces. Sealing consists in the precipitation of insoluble hydroxides and functional compounds (e.g., corrosion inhibitors) inside the nano-pores of the anodic layer. Nevertheless, sealing might not penetrate through all the nano-porous structure of the anodic layer. Thus, in light of possible post-machining of sealed, anodized components, it appears fundamental to develop a tool to determine the depth penetration of sealing inside the anodic layer.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Flow-induced Noise in Refrigeration Cycles

2024-07-02
2024-01-2972
In electrified vehicles, auxiliary units can be a dominant source of noise, one of which is the refrigerant scroll compressor. Compared to vehicles with combustion engines, e-vehicles require larger refrigerant compressors, as in addition to the interior, also the battery and the electric motors have to be cooled. Currently, scroll compressors are widely used in the automotive industry, which generate one pressure pulse per revolution due to their discontinuous compression principle. This results in speed-dependent pressure fluctuations as well as higher-harmonic pulsations that arise from reflections. These fluctuations spread through the refrigeration cycle and cause the vibration excitation of refrigerant lines and heat exchangers. The sound transmission path in the air conditioning heat exchanger integrated in the dashboard is particularly critical. Various silencer configurations can be used to dampen these pulsations.
Technical Paper

Neural Network Modeling of Black Box Controls for Internal Combustion Engine Calibration

2024-07-02
2024-01-2995
The calibration of Engine Control Units (ECUs) for road vehicles is challenged by stringent legal and environmental regulations, coupled with short development cycles. The growing number of vehicle variants, although sharing similar engines and control algorithms, requires different calibrations. Additionally, modern engines feature increasingly number of adjustment variables, along with complex parallel and nested conditions within the software, demanding a significant amount of measurement data during development. The current state-of-the-art (White Box) model-based ECU calibration proves effective but involves considerable effort for model construction and validation. This is often hindered by limited function documentation, available measurements, and hardware representation capabilities. This article introduces a model-based calibration approach using Neural Networks (Black Box) for two distinct ECU functional structures with minimal software documentation.
Technical Paper

A computational study of hydrogen direct injection using a pre-chamber in an opposed-piston engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3010
Opposed-piston two-stroke engines offer numerous advantages over conventional four-stroke engines, both in terms of fundamental principles and technical aspects. The reduced heat losses and large volume-to-surface area ratio inherently result in a high thermodynamic efficiency. Additionally, the mechanical design is simpler and requires fewer components compared to conventional four-stroke engines. When combining this engine concept with alternative fuels such as hydrogen and pre-chamber technology, a potential route for carbon-neutral powertrains is observed. To ensure safe engine operation using hydrogen as fuel, it is crucial to consider strict safety measures to prevent issues such as knock, pre-ignition, and backfiring. One potential solution to these challenges is the use of direct injection, which has the potential to improve engine efficiency and expand the range of load operation.
Technical Paper

Supercharger Boosting on H2 ICE for Heavy Duty applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3006
Commercial vehicle powertrain is called to respect a challenging roadmap for CO2 emissions reduction, quite complex to achieve just improving technologies currently on the market. In this perspective alternative solutions are gaining interest, and the use of green H2 as fuel for ICE is considered a high potential solution with fast and easy adoption. NOx emission is still a problem for H2 ICE and can be managed operating the engine with lean air fuel ratio all over the engine map. This combustion strategy will challenge the boosting system as lean H2 combustion will require quite higher air flow compared to diesel for the same power density in steady state. Similar problem will show up in transient response particularly when acceleration starts from low load and the exhaust gases enthalpy is very poor and insufficient to spin the turbine. The analysis presented in this paper will show and quantify the positive impact that a supercharger has on both the above mentions problems.
Technical Paper

The 3D-CFD Contribution to H2 Engine Development for CV and Off-Road Application

2024-07-02
2024-01-3017
The hydrogen engine is one of the promising technologies that enables carbon-neutral mobility, especially in heavy-duty on- or off-road applications. In this paper, a methodological procedure for the design of the combustion system of a hydrogen-fueled, direct injection spark ignited commercial vehicle engine is described. In a preliminary step, the ability of the commercial 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code AVL FIRE classic to reproduce the characteristics of the gas jet, introduced into a quiescent environment by a dedicated H2 injector, is established. This is based on two parts: Temporal and numerical discretization sensitivity analyses ensure that the spatial and temporal resolution of the simulations is adequate, and comparisons to a comprehensive set of experiments demonstrate the accuracy of the simulations. The measurements used for this purpose rely on the well-known schlieren technique and use helium as a safe substitute for H2.
Technical Paper

Miller Cycle and Internal EGR in Diesel Engines Using Alternative Fuels

2024-07-02
2024-01-3020
The Single Cylinder Research Engine (SCRE) at the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Powertrain Systems is equipped with a variable valve train that allows to switch between regular intake valve lift and early intake valve closing (Miller). On the exhaust side, a secondary valve lift on each valve is possible with adjustable back pressure and thus the possibility of realising internal EGR. In combination with alternative fuels, even if they are Drop-In capable as HVO, properties differ and can influence the emission and efficiency behaviour. The investigations of this paper are focusing on regenerative Drop-In fuel (HVO), fossil fuel (B7), and an oxygenate (OME), that needs adaptions at the engine control unit, but offers further emission potential. By commissioning a 2-stage boost system, it is possible to fully equalize the air mass in Miller mode compared to the normal valve lift.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging system selection for a hydrogen-fuelled spark-ignition internal combustion engine for heavy-duty applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3019
Nowadays, green hydrogen can play a crucial role in a successful clean energy transition, thus reaching net zero emissions in the transport sector. Moreover, hydrogen exploitation in internal combustion engines is favoured by its suitable combustion properties and quasi-zero harmful emissions. High flame speeds enable a lean combustion approach, which provides high efficiency and reduces NOx emissions. However, high air flow rates are required to achieve the load levels typical of heavy-duty applications. In this framework, the present study aims to investigate the required boosting system of a 6-cylinder, 13-liter heavy-duty spark ignition engine through 1D numerical simulation. A comparison among various architectures of the turbocharging system and the size of each component is presented, thus highlighting limitations and potentialities of each architecture and providing important insights for the selection of the best turbocharging system.
Technical Paper

An Approach to Design an Air–Liquid Supersonic Ejector for Producing Aerosol Spray

2024-06-25
2024-01-5068
This study aims to design a supersonic ejector, referred to as a liquid spray gun, with a simple operating procedure for producing an aerosol spray with adjustable droplet size distributions. A CFD model was developed to determine the influence of nozzle exit position and the primary air pressure on the supersonic patterns formed within the ejectors, providing a valuable insight into their internal physics. Based on the single-phase numerical results, at an air primary pressure of 2 bar, the flow may not reach a choking condition, possibly resulting in unstable ejector operation. However, at pressures exceeding 5 bar, the jet patterns emerging from the primary nozzle cause flow separation or the formation of vortex rings. This phenomenon leads to a flow configuration comparable to the diameter of the mixing tube, thereby reducing the available area for entrainment of suction flow.
Technical Paper

A New Design of Solid-State Bipolar Nanosecond Pulse High-Frequency Discharge Power Supply for Engine Ignition System

2024-06-17
2024-01-5063
In this study, a bipolar nanosecond pulse all-solid-state power supply was developed including Lenz capacitance (LC) resonant circuit and full-bridge inverter circuit to provide plasma ignition mode for internal combustion engines. The power supply converts the direct current (DC) voltage into voltage pulses using the inverter circuit with insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), and subsequently amplifies the voltage through a pulse transformer. In the magnetic compression circuit, two capacitors were utilized to store energy simultaneously and approximately double the voltage. By exploiting the hysteresis characteristics of the magnetic switch, a nanosecond pulse output was achieved. An enhanced full-bridge inverter snubber circuit was proposed, which can effectively absorb surge voltage, with a voltage impact reduction on the primary winding of the pulse transformer to less than 1%.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Hydroformed Exhaust Gas Recirculation Tube under Vibrational Load by Finite Element Analysis

2024-06-17
2024-01-5062
This study emphasizes the importance of CAE approach in optimizing EGR tube under vibrational load. EGR tube is a weak link in the EGR system and chances of failure due to vibration and relative displacement of mating parts, i.e., overhang or improper support at exhaust manifold, intake manifold, or EGR system. Consideration of the mating parts for the EGR tube is very important to get the realistic resonance frequencies, otherwise it could have some different results in the CAE, which will deviate from the reality. So, it’s important to study the dynamic response on the EGR tube, which needs to be taken care during the design phase. This paper aims to optimize the EGR tube under vibrational load by using CAE techniques and the industry experience as a product expertise. some critical parameter such as damping is very important during the CAE, which can be generated by doing the rigorous testing and how it affects the stress and correspondingly FOS.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Modelling and Validation of Hoses in an HVAC Circuit

2024-06-12
2024-01-2923
The structure-, fluid- and air-borne excitation generated by heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) compressors can lead to annoying noise and low frequency vibrations in the passenger compartment. These noise and vibration phenomena are of great interest to ensure a high passenger comfort of electric vehicles (EV). This publication describes the development of a numerical finite element (FE) model of the HVAC system and the simulation results of structure-borne sound transmission from the compressor via the HVAC hoses to the vehicle body in a frequency range up to 1 kHz. The simulation results were validated with measurements. An existing automotive HVAC system was fully replicated in the laboratory. Vibration levels were measured on the compressor and on the car body side of the hoses under different operational conditions.
Technical Paper

A Finite-Element-Simulation Workflow and First Results of the Aero- and Vibro-Acoustic Signature of an Enclosed Centrifugal Fan

2024-06-12
2024-01-2940
Centrifugal fans are applied in many industrial and civil applications, such as manufacturing processes and building HVAC systems. They can also be found in automotive applications. Noise-reduction measures for centrifugal fans are often challenging to establish, as acoustic performance may be considered a tertiary purchase criterion after energetic efficiency and price. Nonetheless, their versatile application raises the demand for noise control. In a low-Mach-number centrifugal fan, acoustic waves are predominantly excited by aerodynamic fluctuations in the flow field and transmit to the exterior via the housing and duct walls. The scientific literature documents numerous mechanisms that cause flow-induced sound generation, even though not all of them are considered well-understood. Numerical simulation methods are widely used to gather spatially high-resolved insights into physical fields.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Application of Gas Foil Bearings in High-Speed Drivelines

2024-06-12
2024-01-2941
The commitment to environmentally friendly transportation calls for efficient solutions with the evolution of automotive industry. Turbochargers are an important part of this development. The application of Gas or Air Foil Bearings (GFB) instead of traditional hydrodynamic bearings is recently very noticed, with which the fuel consumption, and emissions can be minimized as well as decreasing the maintenance costs and increasing the reliability. However, low viscosity of gas leads to lower dynamic stiffness and damping characteristics resulting in low load carrying capacity and instability at higher speeds. Gas bearings can be enhanced by adding a foil structure commonly known as gas foil bearings whose dynamic stiffness can be tailored by modifying the geometry and the material properties resulting in better stability and higher load carrying capacity.
Technical Paper

R290 HP-Module for Electric Vehicles

2024-06-12
2024-37-0031
Within this work a compact automotive heat pump module prototype with the natural refrigerant R290 (propane) is presented. R290 is non-toxic, has a low global warming potential (GWP) of 3, is environmentally friendly and is not affected by PFAS restrictions. Furthermore, R290 has a superior efficiency compared to refrigerants like R1234yf & R134a, which makes it a promising alternative. A test setup is built to evaluate the performance of the prototype HP-module, which is charged with approx. 190g of refrigerant and reaches a cooling/heating capacity of approx. 11kW/16kW at the investigated conditions. In addition, a 1-D numerical tool for the calculation of steady state conditions is implemented in MATLAB/Simscape and validated by time-averaged test data.
Technical Paper

Guided Port Injection of Hydrogen as an Approach for Reducing Cylinder-to-Cylinder Deviations in Spark-Ignited H2 Engines – A Numerical Investigation

2024-06-12
2024-37-0008
The reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and ever stricter regulations on pollutant emissions in the transport sector require research and development of new, climate-friendly propulsion concepts. The use of renewable hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines promises to provide a good solution especially for commercial vehicles. For optimum efficiency of the combustion process, hydrogen-specific engine components are required, which need to be tested on the test bench and analysed in simulation studies. This paper deals with the simulation-based investigation and optimisation of fuel injection in a 6-cylinder PFI commercial vehicle engine, which has been modified for hydrogen operation starting from a natural gas engine concept.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lignin Fuels for CI Engines

2024-06-12
2024-37-0022
This study explores the feasibility of using a sustainable lignin-based fuel, consisting of 44 % lignin, 50 % ethanol, and 6 % water, in conventional compression ignition (CI) marine engines. Through experimental evaluations on a modified small-bore CI engine, we identified the primary challenges associated with lignin-based fuel, including engine startup and shutdown issues due to solvent evaporation and lignin solidification inside the fuel system, and deposit formation on cylinder walls leading to piston ring seizure. To address these issues, we developed a fuel switching system transitioning from lignin-based fuel to cleaning fuel with 85 vol% of acetone, 10 vol% of water and 5 vol% of ignition improving additive, effectively preventing system clogs.
Technical Paper

Influences of High-Pressure Pump and Injector Nozzle Geometry on Hydraulics Characteristics of a Mechanical Diesel Direct-Injection System

2024-06-04
2024-01-5061
The geometry of high-pressure pump and injector nozzles crucially influences hydraulic behaviors (e.g., the start of injection, the pressure profiles developed in the high-pressure line, needle lift, and injection rates) in diesel engines. These factors, in turn, significantly impact fuel atomization, fuel–air mixing, combustion quality, and the formation of emissions. The main geometry parameters such as plunger diameter and the number and diameter of nozzles lead to the system complexity, requiring careful analysis, design, and calibration. In this study, a high-speed shadowgraph system and a high-resolution pressure recording system were developed to capture the start of injection, spray structure, and pressure profiles in the high-pressure line. Additionally, a model was developed using GT-Fuel package built within the GT-Suite of simulation tools to explore different plunger diameters and numbers and diameters of injector nozzles.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Excessive Thermo-Mechanical Stress on the Performance of High-Pressure Hose Assemblies Used under Flexing Motion

2024-06-01
2024-26-0427
A lightweight high-pressure hose assembly consists of hose made with fabric braids and PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) tube crimped with metallic fittings. These hose assemblies are mainly used for aircraft landing gear application considering its high-pressure sustenance and better flexibility. The proposed study investigates the effect of thermo-mechanical stresses generated during cyclic soaking and flexibility testing at thermostatic subzero (-65°F) and high temperature (+275°F) on performance of high pressure- fabric braided hose assembly. This effect was further studied through hose tear-down to investigate the hose layer degradation and focused changes in inner PTFE tube. With an incremental exposure to cyclic temperature environment, a linear growth was observed for the micropores within PTFE.
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