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Journal Article

Development of a High Performance Natural Gas Engine with Direct Gas Injection and Variable Valve Actuation

2017-09-04
2017-24-0152
Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engine application due to its low carbon content and high knock resistance. Performance of natural gas engines is further improved if direct injection, high turbocharger boost level, and variable valve actuation (VVA) are adopted. Also, relevant efficiency benefits can be obtained through downsizing. However, mixture quality resulting from direct gas injection has proven to be problematic. This work aims at developing a mono-fuel small-displacement turbocharged compressed natural gas engine with side-mounted direct injector and advanced VVA system. An injector configuration was designed in order to enhance the overall engine tumble and thus overcome low penetration.
Journal Article

Development and Assessment of Pressure-Based and Model-Based Techniques for the MFB50 Control of a Euro VI 3.0L Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0794
Pressure-based and model-based techniques for the control of MFB50 (crank angle at which 50% of the fuel mass fraction has burned) have been developed, assessed and tested by means of rapid prototyping (RP) on a FPT F1C 3.0L Euro VI diesel engine. The pressure-based technique requires the utilization of a pressure transducer for each cylinder. The transducers are used to perform the instantaneous measurement of the in-cylinder pressure, in order to derive its corresponding burned mass fraction and the actual value of MFB50. It essentially consists of a closed-loop approach, which is based on a cycle-by-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder correction of the start of injection of the main pulse (SOImain), in order to achieve the desired target of MFB50 for each cylinder.
Journal Article

Spray and Soot Formation Analysis by Means of a Quasi-Dimensional Multizone Model in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine under Euro 4 Operating Conditions

2015-09-06
2015-24-2416
An investigation has been carried out on the spray penetration and soot formation processes in a research diesel engine by means of a quasi-dimensional multizone combustion model. The model integrates a predictive non stationary 1D spray model developed by the Sandia National Laboratory, with a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model, and is capable of predicting the spray formation, combustion and soot formation processes in the combustion chamber. The multizone model was used to analyze three operating conditions, i.e., a zero load point (BMEP = 0 bar at 1000 rpm), a medium load point (BMEP = 5 bar at 2000 rpm) and a medium-high load point (BMEP = 10 bar at 2000 rpm). These conditions were experimentally tested in an optical single cylinder engine with the combustion system configuration of a 2.0L Euro4 GM diesel engine for passenger car applications.
Journal Article

A Feed-Forward Approach for the Real-Time Estimation and Control of MFB50 and SOI In Diesel Engines

2014-05-05
2014-01-9046
Feed-forward low-throughput models have been developed to predict MFB50 and to control SOI in order to achieve a specific MFB50 target for diesel engines. The models have been assessed on a GMPT-E Euro 5 diesel engine, installed at the dynamic test bench at ICEAL-PT (Internal Combustion Engine Advanced Laboratory at the Politecnico di Torino) and applied to both steady state and transient engine operating conditions. MFB50 indicates the crank angle at which 50% of the fuel mass fraction has burned, and is currently used extensively in control algorithms to optimize combustion phasing in diesel engines in real-time. MFB50 is generally used in closed-loop combustion control applications, where it is calculated by the engine control unit, cycle-by-cycle and cylinder by-cylinder, on the basis of the measured in-cylinder pressure trace, and is adjusted in order to reduce the fuel consumption, combustion noise and engine-out emissions.
Journal Article

Assessment of a New Quasi-Dimensional Multizone Combustion Model for the Spray and Soot Formation Analysis in an Optical Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0044
An innovative quasi-dimensional multizone combustion model for the spray formation, combustion and emission formation analysis in DI diesel engines was assessed and applied to an optical single cylinder engine. The model, which has been recently presented by the authors, integrates a predictive non stationary 1D spray model developed by the Sandia National Laboratory, with a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model. The 1D spray model is capable of predicting the equivalence ratio of the fuel during the mixing process, as well as the spray penetration. The multizone approach is based on the application of the mass and energy conservation laws to several homogeneous zones identified in the combustion chamber. A specific submodel is also implemented to simulate the dilution of the burned gases. Soot formation is modeled by an expression which derives from Kitamura et al.'s results, in which an explicit dependence on the local equivalence ratio is considered.
Journal Article

Use of an Innovative Predictive Heat Release Model Combined to a 1D Fluid-Dynamic Model for the Simulation of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0012
An innovative 0D predictive combustion model for the simulation of the HRR (heat release rate) in DI diesel engines was assessed and implemented in a 1D fluid-dynamic commercial code for the simulation of a Fiat heavy duty diesel engine equipped with a Variable Geometry Turbocharger system, in the frame of the CORE (CO2 reduction for long distance transport) Collaborative Project of the European Community, VII FP. The 0D combustion approach starts from the calculation of the injection rate profile on the basis of the injected fuel quantities and on the injection parameters, such as the start of injection and the energizing time, taking the injector opening and closure delays into account. The injection rate profile in turn allows the released chemical energy to be estimated. The approach assumes that HRR is proportional to the energy associated with the accumulated fuel mass in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Mixture Formation and Performance in a Direct Injection CNG Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0401
This paper presents the results of part of the research activity carried out by the Politecnico di Torino and AVL List GmbH as part of the European Community InGAS Collaborative Project. The work was aimed at developing a combustion system for a mono-fuel turbocharged CNG engine, with specific focus on performance, fuel economy and emissions. A numerical and experimental analysis of the jet development and mixture formation in an optically accessible, single cylinder engine is presented in the paper. The experimental investigations were performed at the AVL laboratories by means of the planar laser-induced fluorescence technique, and revealed a cycle-to-cycle jet shape variability that depended, amongst others, on the injector characteristics and in-cylinder backpressure. Moreover, the mixing mechanism had to be optimized over a wide range of operating conditions, under both stratified lean and homogeneous stoichiometric modes.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Predictive Modeling of Combustion and NOx Formation in Diesel Engines Under Transient Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0899
The present work has the aim of developing a fast approach for the predictive calculation of in-cylinder combustion temperatures and NOx formation in diesel engines, under steady state and transient conditions. The model has been tested on a PC, and found to require very little computational time, thus suggesting it could be implemented in the ECU (Engine Control Unit) of engines for model-based control tasks. The method starts with the low-throughput predictive combustion model that was previously developed by the authors, which allows the predictive estimation of the heat-release rate and of the in-cylinder pressure trace to be made on the basis of the injection parameters and of a few quantities measured by the ECU, such as the intake manifold pressure and temperature.
Journal Article

Analysis of Combustion and Emissions in a EURO V Diesel Engine by Means of a Refined Quasi-Dimensional Multizone Diagnostic Model

2012-04-16
2012-01-1066
A quasi-dimensional multizone combustion model, that was previously developed by the authors, has been refined and applied for the analysis of combustion and emission formation in a EURO V diesel engine equipped with a piezo indirect-acting injection system. The model is based on the integration of the predictive non-stationary variable-profile 1D spray model recently presented by Musculus and Kattke, with a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model specifically developed by the authors. The multizone approach has been developed starting from the Dec conceptual scheme, and is based on the identification of several homogeneous zones in the combustion chamber, to which mass and energy conservation laws have been applied: an unburned gas zone, made up of air, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) and residual gas, several fuel/unburned gas mixture zones, premixed combustion burned gas zones and diffusive combustion burned gas zones.
Journal Article

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Direct Natural-Gas Injection and Mixture Formation in a Stratified-Charge SI Engine with Centrally Mounted Injector

2008-04-14
2008-01-0975
Direct injection (DI) of natural gas (NG) at high pressure conditions has emerged as a high-potential strategy for improving SI engine performance. Besides, DI allows an increase in the fuel economy, due to the possibility of a significant engine dethrottling at partial load. The high-pressure gas injection can also increase the turbulence level of mixture and thus the overall fuel-air mixing. Since direct NG injection is an emerging technology, there is a lack of experience on the optimum configuration of the injection system and the associated combustion chamber design. In the last few years, some numerical investigations of gas injection have been made, mainly oriented at the development of reliable numerical investigation tools. The present paper is concerned with the development and application of a numerical Star-CD based model for the investigation of the direct NG injection process from a poppet-valve injector into a bowl-piston engine combustion chamber.
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