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Technical Paper

The 3D-CFD Contribution to H2 Engine Development for CV and Off-Road Application

2024-07-02
2024-01-3017
The hydrogen engine is one of the promising technologies that enables carbon-neutral mobility, especially in heavy-duty on- or off-road applications. In this paper, a methodological procedure for the design of the combustion system of a hydrogen-fueled, direct injection spark ignited commercial vehicle engine is described. In a preliminary step, the ability of the commercial 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code AVL FIRE classic to reproduce the characteristics of the gas jet, introduced into a quiescent environment by a dedicated H2 injector, is established. This is based on two parts: Temporal and numerical discretization sensitivity analyses ensure that the spatial and temporal resolution of the simulations is adequate, and comparisons to a comprehensive set of experiments demonstrate the accuracy of the simulations. The measurements used for this purpose rely on the well-known schlieren technique and use helium as a safe substitute for H2.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Piston Geometry on the Performance of a Ducted Fuel Injection Engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3024
Ducted Fuel Injection (DFI) engines have emerged as a promising technology in the pursuit of a clean and efficient combustion process. This article aims at elucidating the effect of piston geometry on the engine performance and emissions of a metal DFI engine. Three different types of pistons were investigated and the main piston design features including the piston bowl diameter, piston bowl slope angle, duct angle and the injection nozzle position were examined. To achieve the target, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted coupled to a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism. Extensive validations were performed against the measured data from a conventional diesel engine. To calibrate the soot model, genetic algorithm and machine learning methods were utilized. The simulation results highlight the pivotal role played by piston bowl diameter and fuel injection angle in controlling soot emissions of a DFI engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Internal and External EGR Effects on a CNG-OME Dual-Fuel Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2361
Dual-fuel engines powered by renewable fuels provide a potential solution for reducing the carbon footprint and emissions of transportation, contributing to the goal of achieving sustainable mobility. The investigation presented in the following uses a dual-fuel engine concept running on biogas (referred to as CNG in this paper) and the e-fuel polyoxymethylene dimethyl ether (OME). The current study focuses on the effects of exhaust gas rebreathing and external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on emissions and brake thermal efficiency (BTE). A four-cylinder heavy-duty engine converted to dual-fuel operation was used to conduct the engine tests at a load point of 1600 min-1 and 9.8 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The respective shares of high reactivity fuel (HRF, here: OME) and low reactivity fuel (LRF, here: CNG) were varied, as were the external and internal EGR rates and their combinations.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis of Hydrogen-DDF Mode Based on OH* Chemiluminescence Images

2024-04-09
2024-01-2367
Hydrogen–diesel dual-fuel combustion processes were visualized using an optically accessible rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM). A hydrogen-air mixture was introduced into the combustion chamber, and a pilot injection of diesel fuel was used as the ignition source. A small amount of diesel fuel was injected as the pilot fuel at injection pressures of 40, 80, and 120 MPa using a common rail injection system. The injection amounts of diesel fuel were varied as 3, 6, and 13 mm3. The amount of hydrogen was manipulated by varying the total excess air ratio (λtotal) at 3 and 4. The RCEM was operated at a constant speed of 900 rpm, and the in-cylinder pressure and temperature at the top dead center (TDC) were set as 5 MPa and 700 K, respectively. The combustion processes were visualized via direct photography and hydroxyl (OH*) chemiluminescence photography using a high-speed camera and an image intensifier.
Technical Paper

Development of the New V6 Twin-Turbocharged Engine for Flagship SUV

2024-04-09
2024-01-2095
As part of Nissan’s strategy of electrification and the shift to smart technologies, our powertrain department has two main pillars: zero emissions and ICE Evolution. As a core unit of ICE Evolution, we have developed a brand new 3.5L V6 Twin turbocharged gasoline engine for Nissan’s next generation full-size flagship SUV to deliver luxury and toughness at the highest level. This brand-new engine will be applied to vehicles in all corners of the world and must have strong performance in every corner. More specifically, it has to meet the latest emissions and fuel efficiency regulations, have strong power performance beyond expectation, and provide reliable drivability on rough roads and deserts. To achieve these requirements, the new engine is incorporating many cutting-edge technologies.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Knock Formation in Gasoline and Methanol Combustion Using a Multiple Spark Ignition Approach: An Optical Investigation

2024-04-09
2024-01-2105
Engine knock is a major challenge that limits the achievement of higher engine efficiency by increasing the compression ratio of the engine. To address this issue, using a higher octane number fuel can be a potential solution to reduce or eliminate the propensity for knock and so obtain better engine performance. Methanol, a promising alternative fuel, can be produced from conventional and non-conventional energy resources, which can help reduce pollutant emissions. Methanol has a higher octane number than typically gasolines, which makes it a viable option for reducing knock intensity. This study compared the combustion characteristics of gasoline and methanol fuels in an optical spark-ignition engine using multiple spark plugs. The experiment was carried out on a single-cylinder four-stroke optical engine. The researchers used a customized metal liner with four circumferential spark plugs to generate multiple flame kernels inside the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on the Combustion Characteristics of an Ammonia/Hydrogen Engine with Active Prechamber Ignition

2024-04-09
2024-01-2104
Both ammonia and hydrogen, as zero-carbon fuels for internal combustion engines, are received growing attention. However, ammonia faces a challenge of low flame propagation velocity. Through injecting hydrogen into active pre-chamber, its jet flame ignition can accelerate the flame propagation velocity of ammonia. The influence of different pre-chamber structures on engine combustion characteristics is significant. In this paper, numerical studies were conducted to assess the impact of various pre-chamber structures and hydrogen injection strategy on the combustion characteristics of ammonia/hydrogen engines while maintaining the equivalent ratio of 1.0. The results indicate that the jet angle significantly affects the position of jet flame and the followed main combustion. The in-cylinder combustion pressure peaks at jet angle of 150°. Meanwhile, the combustion duration of 150° is shortened by 74.3% compared with that of 60°.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on Hydrogen Enrichment and EGR on In-Cylinder Soot and NOx Formation in Dual-Fuel CI-Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2098
To mitigate the NOx emissions from diesel engines, the adoption of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has gained widespread acceptance as a technology. Employing EGR has the drawback of elevating soot emissions. Using hydrogen-enriched air with EGR in a diesel engine (dual-fuel operation), offers the potential to decrease in-cylinder soot formation while simultaneously reducing NOx emissions. The present study numerically investigates the effect of hydrogen energy share and engine load on the formation and emission of soot and NOx from hydrogen-diesel dual-fuel engines. The numerical investigation uses an n-heptane/H2 reduced reaction mechanism with a two-step soot model in ANSYS FORTE. A reduced n-heptane reaction mechanism is integrated with a hydrogen reaction mechanism using CHEMKIN to enhance the accuracy of predicting dual-fuel combustion in a hydrogen dual-fuel engine.
Technical Paper

Downsizing a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine by Scaling the Air Handling System and Leveraging Phenomenological Combustion Model

2024-04-09
2024-01-2114
A potential route to reduce CO2 emissions from heavy-duty trucks is to combine low-carbon fuels and a hybrid-electric powertrain to maximize overall efficiency. A hybrid electric powertrain can reduce the peak power required from the internal combustion engine, leading to opportunities to reduce the engine size but still meet vehicle performance requirements. Although engine downsizing in the light-duty sector can offer significant fuel economy savings mainly due to increased part-load efficiency, its benefits and downsides in heavy-duty engines are less clear. As there has been limited published research in this area to date, there is a lack of a standardized engine downsizing procedure.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Development for Flat Firedeck Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engines

2024-04-09
2024-01-2115
The widely accepted best practice for spark-ignition combustion is the four-valve pent-roof chamber using a central sparkplug and incorporating tumble flow during the intake event. The bulk tumble flow readily breaks up during the compression stroke to fine-scale turbulent kinetic energy desired for rapid, robust combustion. The natural gas engines used in medium- and heavy-truck applications would benefit from a similar, high-tumble pent-roof combustion chamber. However, these engines are invariably derived from their higher-volume diesel counterparts, and the production volumes are insufficient to justify the amount of modification required to incorporate a pent-roof system. The objective of this multi-dimensional computational study was to develop a combustion chamber addressing the objectives of a pent-roof chamber while maintaining the flat firedeck and vertical valve orientation of the diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Advancements in Combustion Modeling and Simulation for an Innovative Homogenous Reactivity-Controlled Compression Ignition (hRCCI) Concept

2024-04-09
2024-01-2691
The global imperative to develop clean energy solutions has redirected research efforts towards highly efficient combustion engines with ultra-low emissions. This has prompted investigations into alternative combustion concepts, including Low Temperature Combustion (LTC), utilizing environmentally friendly fuels. Within the scope of our research project, we are primarily focused on the development of an innovative combustion concept known as Homogeneous Reactivity-Controlled Compression Ignition (hRCCI), which employs renewable fuels such as ethanol and 1-octanol for a serial hybrid powertrain. The lack of predictive simulations for this concept presents a significant challenge in optimizing the engine's operation. Most of the 1D system simulation models use a non-predictive combustion model for combustion simulations. Due to the dependence on auto-ignition chemistry, a chemistry based hRCCI combustion model for real time computation has been proposed with this work.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Head Insulation Plate, Design, Analysis and Testing for an Extreme High Efficiency Internal Combustion Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2831
The main objective of this paper is to describe the design, analysis and testing of a novel method of insulating the combustion chamber, which is key for efficiency demonstration on a new class of internal combustion engine (ICE). A recuperated split cycle engine (RSCE) has unique demands for heat loss reduction. In particular during the combustion event, to minimize the heat losses is a must to achieve high efficiency. The insulation is provided by a metal plate that is assembled into the cylinder head to line the combustion chamber surface. The design has been focused on reducing heat transfer surface area and exploiting contact gap thermal resistance between the upper surface of the plate and the cylinder head, thus reducing heat wasted to the coolant circuit. In this paper, the plate requirements, functions, design, analysis and test results from a research and development (R&D) program of a heavy duty (HD) recuperated split cycle engine are reported.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on the Design of a Passive Pre-Chamber for a Heavy-Duty Hydrogen Combustion Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2112
Lean-burn hydrogen internal combustion engines are a good option for future transportation solutions since they do not emit carbon-dioxide and unburned hydro-carbons, and the emissions of nitric-oxides (NOx) can be kept low. However, under lean-burn conditions the combustion duration increases, and the combustion stability decreases, leading to a reduced thermal efficiency. Turbulent jet ignition (TJI) can be used to extend the lean-burn limit, while decreasing the combustion duration and improving combustion stability. The objective of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of a passive pre-chamber TJI system on a heavy-duty hydrogen engine under lean-burn conditions using CFD modelling. The studied concept is mono-fuel, port-fuel injected, and spark ignited in the pre-chamber. The overall design of the pre-chamber is discussed and the effect of design parameters on the engine performance are studied.
Technical Paper

Ducted Fuel Injection: Confirmed Re-entrainment Hypothesis

2024-04-09
2024-01-2885
Testing of ducted fuel injection (DFI) in a single-cylinder engine with production-like hardware previously showed that adding a duct structure increased soot emissions at the full load, rated speed operating point [1]. The authors hypothesized that the DFI flame, which travels faster than a conventional diesel combustion (CDC) flame, and has a shorter distance to travel, was being re-entrained into the on-going fuel injection around the lift-off length (LOL), thus reducing air entrainment into the on-going injection. The engine operating condition and the engine combustion chamber geometry were duplicated in a constant pressure vessel. The experimental setup used a 3D piston section combined with a glass fire deck allowing for a comparison between a CDC flame and a DFI flame via high-speed imaging. CH* imaging of the 3D piston profile view clearly confirmed the re-entrainment hypothesis presented in the previous engine work.
Technical Paper

Effect of Baffle Height on the in-Cylinder Air-Fuel Mixture Preparation in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine – A Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis

2024-04-09
2024-01-2697
In-cylinder fluid dynamics enhance performance and emission characteristics in internal combustion (IC) engines. Techniques such as helical ports, valve shrouding, masking, and modifications to piston profiles or vanes in ports are employed to achieve the desired in-cylinder flows in these engines. However, due to space constraints, modifications to the cylinder head are typically minimal. The literature suggests that introducing baffles into the combustion chamber of an IC engine can enhance in-cylinder flows, air-fuel mixing, and, subsequently, stratification. Studies have indicated that the height of the baffles plays a significant role in determining the level of improvement in in-cylinder flow and air-fuel mixing. Therefore, this study employs Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis to investigate the impact of baffle height on in-cylinder flow and air-fuel mixing in a four-stroke, four-valve, spray-guided gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis and Testing the Performance of Various Fuels in Ramjet

2024-02-23
2023-01-5177
The development of ramjet engines has experienced a significant increase in response to the growing demand for supersonic speed capabilities in contemporary propulsion systems and missile weaponry. Their efficient operation at supersonic speeds has garnered increased attention. The study focuses on designing a diffuser and ram cone for decelerating supersonic flow in the combustion chamber. Performance tests for hydrogen and ethanol fuels are conducted at Mach values of 3.5, 3, and 2.5. Injectors are positioned asymmetrically in parallel, perpendicular, and at a 45-degree angle to the flow. Effects of injector orifice diameters (0.8mm, 1mm, 1.2mm) on atomization and penetration length distribution are investigated. SolidWorks is used for design, and Ansys with a coupled implicit second-order upwind solver analyzes the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation. Eddy dissipation handles combustion. Hydrogen and ethanol are modeled and injected, reacting with atmospheric oxygen.
Technical Paper

High-Efficiency Methanol Engine Development for Heavy Commercial Vehicles

2024-01-18
2024-01-5005
Under China’s “3060” target of carbon peak and carbon neutrality, heavy commercial vehicles are a key breakthrough point to promote the automobile industry to achieve carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals. Green methanol, as a clean alternative fuel, are an effective technical route for heavy commercial vehicles to achieve energy conservation and emission reduction. Based on a 13L methanol engine, this study fully considers the methanol combustion characteristics, the ω shape combustion system of the base engine is redesigned as a pent-roof combustion chamber. The intake port is changed from a swirl port to a high-tumble port, and the piston crown is also adjusted adaptively. At the same time, the cam profile, cooling water jacket, intake and exhaust system are redesigned, and the turbocharger is re-matched according to the physical properties of methanol. CAE tools and means are used to optimize and determine the design proposal.
Technical Paper

Oil Aerosol Emission Optimization Using Deflectors in Turbo Charger Oil Drain Circuit

2024-01-16
2024-26-0047
Closed crankcase ventilation prevent harmful gases from entering atmosphere thereby reducing hydrocarbon emissions. Ventilation system usually carries blowby gases along with oil mist generated from Engine to Air intake system. Major sources of blowby occurs from leak in combustion chamber through piston rings, leakage from turbocharger shafts & leakage from valve guides. Oil mist carried by these blowby gases gets separated using separation media before passing to Air Intake. Fleece separation media has high separation efficiency with lower pressure loss for oil aerosol particles having size above 10 microns. However, efficiency of fleece media drops drastically if size of aerosol particles are below 10 microns. Aerosol mist of lower particle size (>10 microns) generally forms due to flash boiling on piston under crown area and from shafts of turbo charger due to high speeds combined with elevated temperatures. High power density diesel engine is taken for our study.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Closed Loop Air Mass Control in Naturally Aspirated Engines: A Differential Pressure Sensor Approach to Meet BS6 Emission Norms

2024-01-16
2024-26-0147
In order to meet future emission targets and to achieve better fuel efficiency, closed loop air mass control strategies have become essential across all vehicle segments. Closed loop airmass control mandates measuring fresh air mass entering the engine combustion chamber. However, in Naturally Aspirated (NA) engines, while measuring airmass using conventional air mass sensors (AMS), heavy pulsations in the Air-intake results in errors which would impact closed loop airmass control and lead to inconsistencies in emissions. To address this issue, we studied different approaches using AMS with Resonator, differential pressure sensor across the intake air filter and Lambda based airmass control. Based on this empirical study we found that modelling air mass with differential pressure sensor (Delta-P) using Bernoulli’s principle (Flow rate ∝ √Differential pressure) results in higher accuracies compared to conventional methods.
Technical Paper

Effects of Low Temperature on Forged Steel Materials in Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines Applications: Assessing Ductile-Brittle Transition

2024-01-16
2024-26-0174
Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine (H2ICE) has hydrogen gas storage system and is operated at very low temperature before it enters the combustion chamber. The effect of hydrogen on steel materials is detrimental because of hydrogen embrittlement. Forged steel parts are used in engine specifically valve. The goal of the work is to analyze the outcome of low temperature i.e. 35 °C to -30 °C on three types of forged steel materials i.e. 40Cr4, 42CrMo4 and EN8 and assess any potential changes in their properties due to ductile to brittle transition. Charpy impact test is widely used to determine the temperature at which a material shifts from exhibiting ductile behavior to brittle behavior. This transition is critical for understanding the safety and reliability of steel components, as brittle fracture can lead to catastrophic failures.
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