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Technical Paper

Supercharger Boosting on H2 ICE for Heavy Duty applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3006
Commercial vehicle powertrain is called to respect a challenging roadmap for CO2 emissions reduction, quite complex to achieve just improving technologies currently on the market. In this perspective alternative solutions are taking interest, and the use of green H2 as fuel for ICE is considered a high potential solution with fast and easy adoption. To assure the required low engine out NOx emission to fulfill future legislations the engine should be operated with lean air fuel rations all over the engine map. A challenge following this strategy is to supply sufficient boost pressure for sufficient air mass flow rate to target same power output as the diesel engine. At the same time the transient response improvement is the key to keep NOx emission low also during transient engine operation. The analysis presented in this paper will show and quantify the positive impact that a supercharger has on both the above mentions problems.
Technical Paper

A computational study of hydrogen direct injection using a pre-chamber in an opposed-piston engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3010
Opposed-piston two-stroke engines offer numerous advantages over conventional four-stroke engines, both in terms of fundamental principles and technical aspects. The reduced heat losses and large volume-to-surface area ratio inherently result in a high thermodynamic efficiency. Additionally, the mechanical design is simpler and requires fewer components compared to conventional four-stroke engines. When combining this engine concept with alternative fuels such as hydrogen and pre-chamber technology, a potential route for carbon-neutral powertrains is observed. To ensure safe engine operation using hydrogen as fuel, it is crucial to consider strict safety measures to prevent issues such as knock, pre-ignition, and backfiring. One potential solution to these challenges is the use of direct injection, which has the potential to improve engine efficiency and expand the range of load operation.
Technical Paper

Measurements in the Recirculation Path of a Fuel Cell System and Extension to Gas Analysis of the Anode Gas Mixture

2024-07-02
2024-01-3009
When using "green" hydrogen, fuel cell technology plays a key role in emission-free mobility. A powertrain based on fuel cells (FC) shows its advantages over battery-electric powertrains when the requirement profile primarily demands high performance over a longer period of time, high flexible availability and short refueling times. In addition, FC achieves higher effi-ciencies than the combustion of hydrogen in a gas engine, meaning that the chemical energy is used more efficiently than with established combustion engines. When using FC technology, numerous companies in Baden-Württemberg can contribute their specific expertise from the traditional automotive construction and supplier business. This includes auxiliary units in the air (cathode) and hydrogen (anode) path, such as the air com-pressor, the H2 recycling pump, humidifier, cooling system, power electronics, valve and pressure tank technology as well as components of the fuel cell stack itself.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Hydrogen Combustion in Spark Ignition Engines Using a Modified Wiebe Model

2024-07-02
2024-01-3016
Due to its physical and chemical properties, hydrogen is an attractive fuel for internal combustion engines, providing grounds for studies on hydrogen engines. It is common practice to use a mathematical model for basic engine design and an essential part of this is the simulation of the combustion cycle, which is the subject of the work presented here. One of the most widely used models for describing combustion in gasoline and diesel engines is the Wiebe model. However, for cases of hydrogen combustion in DI engines, which are characterized by mixture stratification and in some cases significant incomplete combustion, practically no data can be found in the literature on the application of the Wiebe model. Based on Wiebe's formulas, a mathematical model of hydrogen combustion has been developed. The model allows making computations for both DI and PFI hydrogen engines. The parameters of the Wiebe model were assessed for three different engines in a total of 26 operating modes.
Technical Paper

The 3D-CFD Contribution to H2 Engine Development for CV and Off-Road Application

2024-07-02
2024-01-3017
The hydrogen engine is one of the promising technologies that enables carbon-neutral mobility, especially in heavy-duty on- or off-road applications. In this paper, a methodological procedure for the design of the combustion system of a hydrogen-fueled, direct injection spark ignited commercial vehicle engine is described. In a preliminary step, the ability of the commercial 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code AVL FIRE classic to reproduce the characteristics of the gas jet, introduced into a quiescent environment by a dedicated H2 injector, is established. This is based on two parts: Temporal and numerical discretization sensitivity analyses ensure that the spatial and temporal resolution of the simulations is adequate, and comparisons to a comprehensive set of experiments demonstrate the accuracy of the simulations. The measurements used for this purpose rely on the well-known schlieren technique and use helium as a safe substitute for H2.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging system selection for a hydrogen-fuelled spark-ignition internal combustion engine for heavy-duty applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3019
Nowadays, green hydrogen can play a crucial role in a successful clean energy transition, thus reaching net zero emissions in the transport sector. Moreover, hydrogen exploitation in internal combustion engines is favoured by its suitable combustion properties and quasi-zero harmful emissions. High flame speeds enable a lean combustion approach, which provides high efficiency and reduces NOx emissions. However, high air flow rates are required to achieve the load levels typical of heavy-duty applications. In this framework, the present study aims to investigate the required boosting system of a 6-cylinder, 13-liter heavy-duty spark ignition engine through 1D numerical simulation. A comparison among various architectures of the turbocharging system and the size of each component is presented, thus highlighting limitations and potentialities of each architecture and providing important insights for the selection of the best turbocharging system.
Technical Paper

Miller Cycle and Internal EGR in Diesel Engines Using Alternative Fuels

2024-07-02
2024-01-3020
The Single Cylinder Research Engine (SCRE) at the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Powertrain Systems is equipped with a variable valve train that allows to switch between regular intake valve lift and early intake valve closing (Miller). On the exhaust side, a secondary valve lift on each valve is possible with adjustable back pressure and thus the possibility of realising internal EGR. In combination with alternative fuels, even if they are Drop-In capable as HVO, properties differ and can influence the emission and efficiency behaviour. The investigations of this paper are focusing on regenerative Drop-In fuel (HVO), fossil fuel (B7), and an oxygenate (OME), that needs adaptions at the engine control unit, but offers further emission potential. By commissioning a 2-stage boost system, it is possible to fully equalize the air mass in Miller mode compared to the normal valve lift.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Piston Geometry on the Performance of a Ducted Fuel Injection Engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3024
Ducted Fuel Injection (DFI) engines have emerged as a promising technology in the pursuit of a clean and efficient combustion process. This article aims at elucidating the effect of piston geometry on the engine performance and emissions of a metal DFI engine. Three different types of pistons were investigated and the main piston design features including the piston bowl diameter, piston bowl slope angle, duct angle and the injection nozzle position were examined. To achieve the target, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted coupled to a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism. Extensive validations were performed against the measured data from a conventional diesel engine. To calibrate the soot model, genetic algorithm and machine learning methods were utilized. The simulation results highlight the pivotal role played by piston bowl diameter and fuel injection angle in controlling soot emissions of a DFI engine.
Technical Paper

Sustainable Fuels for Long-Haul Truck Engines: a 1D-CFD Analysis

2024-06-12
2024-37-0027
Heavy duty truck engines are quite difficult to electrify, due to the large amount of energy required on-board, in order to achieve a range comparable to that of diesels. This paper considers a commercial 6-cylinder engine with a displacement of 12.8 L, developed in two different versions. As a standard diesel, the engine is able to deliver more than 420 kW at 1800 rpm, whereas in the CNG configuration the maximum power output is 330 kW at 1800 rpm. Maintaining the same combustion chamber design of the last version, a theoretical study is carried out in order to run the engine on Hydrogen, compressed at 700 bar. The study is based on GT-Power simulations, adopting a predictive combustion model, calibrated with experimental results. The study shows that the implementation of a combustion system running on lean mixtures of Hydrogen, permits to cancel the emissions of CO2, while maintaining the same power output of the CNG engine.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of an optimal engine configuration for a SI Engine Fueled with Ethanol for Stationary Applications

2024-06-12
2024-37-0024
This work aims at investigating the optimal configuration of an internal combustion engine fueled with bio-ethanol for improving its brake power and efficiency as well as for reducing the NOx emissions, in stationary applications. A turbocharged spark ignition engine characterized by a single-point injection was preliminarily considered; subsequently, a direct injection configuration was investigated. For both cases, a 1-D numerical model was developed to compare the injection configurations under stoichiometric conditions and different spark timings. The analysis shows that the direct injection guarantees: a limited improvement of brake power and efficiency when the same spark timing is adopted, while NOx emissions increases by 20%; an increase of 6% in brake power and 2 percentage points in brake thermal efficiency by adopting the knock limited spark advance, but an almost double NOx emissions increase.
Technical Paper

Comparison Of the Effects of Renewable Fuels on The Emissions of a Small Diesel Engine for Urban Mobility

2024-06-12
2024-37-0019
The current work presents the results of an investigation on the impact of renewable fuels on the combustion and emissions of a turbocharged compression-ignition internal combustion engine. An experimental study was undertaken and the engine settings were not modified to account for the fuel's chemical and physical properties, to analyze the performance of the fuel as a potential drop-in alternative fuel. Three fuels were tested: mineral diesel, a blend of it with waste cooking oil biodiesel and a hydrogenated diesel. The analysis of the emissions at engine exhaust highlights that hydrogenated fuel allows to reduce CO, total hydrocarbon emissions, particulate matter and NOx.
Technical Paper

Influence of Intake Charge Temperature and EGR Rate on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Ammonia/Diesel Dual-Fuel Engine

2024-06-12
2024-37-0025
Ammonia has emerged as a promising carbon-free alternative fuel for internal combustion engines (ICE), particularly in large-bore engine applications. However, integrating ammonia into conventional engines presents challenges, prompting the exploration of innovative combustion strategies like dual-fuel combustion. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions have emerged as a significant obstacle to the widespread adoption of ammonia in ICE. Various studies suggest that combining exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) with adjustments in inlet temperature and diesel injection timing can effectively mitigate nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions across diverse operating conditions in dual-fuel diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lignin Fuels for CI Engines

2024-06-12
2024-37-0022
This study explores the feasibility of using a sustainable lignin-based fuel, consisting of 44 % lignin, 50 % ethanol, and 6 % water, in conventional compression ignition (CI) marine engines. Through experimental evaluations on a modified small-bore CI engine, we identified the primary challenges associated with lignin-based fuel, including engine startup and shutdown issues due to solvent evaporation and lignin solidification inside the fuel system, and deposit formation on cylinder walls leading to piston ring seizure. To address these issues, we developed a fuel switching system transitioning from lignin-based fuel to cleaning fuel with 85 vol% of acetone, 10 vol% of water and 5 vol% of ignition improving additive, effectively preventing system clogs.
Technical Paper

Guided Port Injection of Hydrogen as An Approach for Reducing Cylinder-To-Cylinder Deviations in Spark-Ignited H2 Engines – A Numerical Investigation

2024-06-12
2024-37-0008
The reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and ever stricter regulations on pollutant emissions in the transport sector require research and development of new, climate-friendly propulsion concepts. The use of renewable hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines promises to provide a good solution especially for commercial vehicles. For optimum efficiency of the combustion process, hydrogen-specific engine components are required, which need to be tested on the test bench and analysed in simulation studies. This paper deals with the simulation-based investigation and optimisation of fuel injection in a 6-cylinder PFI commercial vehicle engine, which has been modified for hydrogen operation starting from a natural gas engine concept.
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network for Airborne Noise Prediction of a Diesel Engine

2024-06-12
2024-01-2929
The engine acoustic character has always represented the product DNA, owing to its strong correlation with in-cylinder pressure gradient, components design and perceived quality. Best practice for engine acoustic characterization requires the employment of a hemi-anechoic chamber, a significant number of sensors and special acoustic insulation for engine ancillaries and transmission. This process is highly demanding in terms of cost and time due to multiple engine working points to be tested and consequent data post-processing. Since Neural Networks potentially predicting capabilities are apparently un-exploited in this research field, the following paper provides a tool able to acoustically estimate engine performance, processing system inputs (e.g. Injected Fuel, Rail Pressure) thanks to the employment of Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP, a feed forward Network working in stationary points).
Technical Paper

Thermal Analysis of Prismatic Core Sandwich Structural Panel for Hypersonic Application

2024-06-01
2024-26-0422
Hypersonic flight vehicles have potential applications in strategic defence, space missions, and future civilian high-speed transportation systems. However, structural integration has significant challenges due to extreme aero-thermo-mechanical coupled effects. Scramjet-powered air-breathing hypersonic vehicles experience extreme heat loads induced by combustion, shock waves and viscous heat dissipation. An active cooling thermal protection system for scramjet applications has the highest potential for thermal load management, especially for long-duration flights, considering the weight penalty associated with the heavier passive thermal insulation structures. We consider the case of active cooling of scramjet engine structural walls with endothermic hydrocarbon fuel. We have developed a semi-analytical quasi-2D heat transfer model considering a prismatic core single cooling channel segment as a representative volume element (RVE) to analyse larger-scale problems.
Technical Paper

Ducted Fuel Injection: Confirmed Re-entrainment Hypothesis

2024-04-09
2024-01-2885
Testing of ducted fuel injection (DFI) in a single-cylinder engine with production-like hardware previously showed that adding a duct structure increased soot emissions at the full load, rated speed operating point [1]. The authors hypothesized that the DFI flame, which travels faster than a conventional diesel combustion (CDC) flame, and has a shorter distance to travel, was being re-entrained into the on-going fuel injection around the lift-off length (LOL), thus reducing air entrainment into the on-going injection. The engine operating condition and the engine combustion chamber geometry were duplicated in a constant pressure vessel. The experimental setup used a 3D piston section combined with a glass fire deck allowing for a comparison between a CDC flame and a DFI flame via high-speed imaging. CH* imaging of the 3D piston profile view clearly confirmed the re-entrainment hypothesis presented in the previous engine work.
Technical Paper

Open-loop Torque Control Strategy based on Constant Volume Instantaneous Combustion Model

2024-04-09
2024-01-2840
A model-based torque control strategy which is simple and easily adaptable to various types of engines is developed in this paper. A torque model is derived from constant-volume combustion model, and applications of the model to engine torque control problem are also discussed. As examples, the torque model is calibrated with experimental data collected from two different engines, and simulation and experimental results from the torque control strategy are presented as well.
Technical Paper

Combustion Timing Control Based on First Modal Coefficients of Individual Cylinder Pressure Traces

2024-04-09
2024-01-2842
When an SI engine is equipped with individual cylinder pressure transducers, combustion timing of each cylinder can be precisely controlled by adjusting spark timing in real-time. In this paper, a novel method based on principal component analysis (PCA) is introduced to control the combustion timing with a significantly less computational burden than a conventional method.
Technical Paper

Experimental Comparison of Different Cycle-Based Methodologies for the INDICATING in Hydrogen-Fueled Internal Combustion Engines

2024-04-09
2024-01-2834
High cycle-to-cycle variations (CTCV) in a Hydrogen-Fueled Internal Combustion Engine (H2-ICE), especially in the lean-burn condition, not only lower the engine’s efficiency but also increase emissions and torque variations. High CTCV are mainly due to the variations in: mixture motion within the cylinder at the time of spark, amount of air and fuel fed to the cylinder, and mixing of the fresh mixture and residual gases within the cylinder during each cycle. In this article, multiple cycle-based methodologies were compared and analyzed specifically for H2-ICEs based on systematic experimentation. The experimental test campaign was performed on a Port Fuel Injection (PFI) H2-ICE designed by PUNCH Torino and data is processed with MATLAB. A MATLAB code is also proposed as a tool for comparing multiple methodologies for the analysis of CTCV specifically for H2-ICE.
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