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Technical Paper

A computational study of hydrogen direct injection using a pre-chamber in an opposed-piston engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3010
Opposed-piston two-stroke engines offer numerous advantages over conventional four-stroke engines, both in terms of fundamental principles and technical aspects. The reduced heat losses and large volume-to-surface area ratio inherently result in a high thermodynamic efficiency. Additionally, the mechanical design is simpler and requires fewer components compared to conventional four-stroke engines. When combining this engine concept with alternative fuels such as hydrogen and pre-chamber technology, a potential route for carbon-neutral powertrains is observed. To ensure safe engine operation using hydrogen as fuel, it is crucial to consider strict safety measures to prevent issues such as knock, pre-ignition, and backfiring. One potential solution to these challenges is the use of direct injection, which has the potential to improve engine efficiency and expand the range of load operation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lignin Fuels for CI Engines

2024-06-12
2024-37-0022
This study explores the feasibility of using a sustainable lignin-based fuel, consisting of 44 % lignin, 50 % ethanol, and 6 % water, in conventional compression ignition (CI) marine engines. Through experimental evaluations on a modified small-bore CI engine, we identified the primary challenges associated with lignin-based fuel, including engine startup and shutdown issues due to solvent evaporation and lignin solidification inside the fuel system, and deposit formation on cylinder walls leading to piston ring seizure. To address these issues, we developed a fuel switching system transitioning from lignin-based fuel to cleaning fuel with 85 vol% of acetone, 10 vol% of water and 5 vol% of ignition improving additive, effectively preventing system clogs.
Technical Paper

Ducted Fuel Injection: Confirmed Re-entrainment Hypothesis

2024-04-09
2024-01-2885
Testing of ducted fuel injection (DFI) in a single-cylinder engine with production-like hardware previously showed that adding a duct structure increased soot emissions at the full load, rated speed operating point [1]. The authors hypothesized that the DFI flame, which travels faster than a conventional diesel combustion (CDC) flame, and has a shorter distance to travel, was being re-entrained into the on-going fuel injection around the lift-off length (LOL), thus reducing air entrainment into the on-going injection. The engine operating condition and the engine combustion chamber geometry were duplicated in a constant pressure vessel. The experimental setup used a 3D piston section combined with a glass fire deck allowing for a comparison between a CDC flame and a DFI flame via high-speed imaging. CH* imaging of the 3D piston profile view clearly confirmed the re-entrainment hypothesis presented in the previous engine work.
Technical Paper

Improving the Performance of Diesel Engines by Bore Profile Control under Operating Conditions

2024-04-09
2024-01-2832
The cylinder bore in an engine block is deformed under the assembling stress of the cylinder head and thermal stress. This distortion exacerbates the piston skirt friction and piston slap. Through a numerical and experimental study, this article analyzes the effect of an optimized bore profile on the engine performance. The piston skirt friction was estimated in a three-dimensional elastohydrodynamic (EHD) friction analysis. An ideal cylindrical bore under the rated load condition was assumed as the optimal bore profile that minimized the piston skirt friction without compromising the piston slap. The simulation study revealed that secondary motion of the piston immediately after firing the top dead center can be mitigated by narrowing the piston–bore clearance at the upper position of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis of Hydrogen-DDF Mode Based on OH* Chemiluminescence Images

2024-04-09
2024-01-2367
Hydrogen–diesel dual-fuel combustion processes were visualized using an optically accessible rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM). A hydrogen-air mixture was introduced into the combustion chamber, and a pilot injection of diesel fuel was used as the ignition source. A small amount of diesel fuel was injected as the pilot fuel at injection pressures of 40, 80, and 120 MPa using a common rail injection system. The injection amounts of diesel fuel were varied as 3, 6, and 13 mm3. The amount of hydrogen was manipulated by varying the total excess air ratio (λtotal) at 3 and 4. The RCEM was operated at a constant speed of 900 rpm, and the in-cylinder pressure and temperature at the top dead center (TDC) were set as 5 MPa and 700 K, respectively. The combustion processes were visualized via direct photography and hydroxyl (OH*) chemiluminescence photography using a high-speed camera and an image intensifier.
Technical Paper

Elucidation of Deteriorating Oil Consumption Mechanism Due to Piston Top Ring Groove Wear

2024-04-09
2024-01-2269
The piston and piston ring are used in a severe contact environment in engine durability tests, which causes severe wear to the piston ring groove, leading to significant development costs for countermeasures. Conventionally, in order to ensure functional feasibility through wear on the piston top ring groove (hereinafter “ring groove”), only functional evaluations through actual engine durability testing were performed, and there was an issue in determining the limit value for the actual amount of wear itself. Because of this, the mechanism that may cause wear on the ring groove was clarified through past research, but this resulted in judgment criteria with some leeway from the perspective of functional assurance. To establish judgment criteria, it was necessary to understand both functional effect from ring groove wear and the mechanism behind it.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Two-Parameter Controlled Novel Tribometer for Analysing Durability of Piston Ring-Engine Cylinder Tribo-Pair

2024-04-09
2024-01-2067
The wear of the piston ring-cylinder liner system in gasoline engines is inevitable and significantly impacts fuel economy. Utilizing a custom-built linear reciprocating tribometer, this study assesses the wear resistance of newly developed engine cylinder coatings. The custom device offers a cost-effective means for tribological evaluation, optimizing coating process parameters with precise control over critical operational factors such as normal load and sliding frequency. Unlike conventional commercial tribometers, it ensures a more accurate simulation of the engine cylinder system. However, existing research lacks a comprehensive comparative analysis and procedure to establish precision limits for such modified devices. This study evaluates the custom tribometer's repeatability compared to a commercial wear-testing instrument, confirming its potential as a valuable tool for advanced wear testing on engine cylinder samples.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Development for Flat Firedeck Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engines

2024-04-09
2024-01-2115
The widely accepted best practice for spark-ignition combustion is the four-valve pent-roof chamber using a central sparkplug and incorporating tumble flow during the intake event. The bulk tumble flow readily breaks up during the compression stroke to fine-scale turbulent kinetic energy desired for rapid, robust combustion. The natural gas engines used in medium- and heavy-truck applications would benefit from a similar, high-tumble pent-roof combustion chamber. However, these engines are invariably derived from their higher-volume diesel counterparts, and the production volumes are insufficient to justify the amount of modification required to incorporate a pent-roof system. The objective of this multi-dimensional computational study was to develop a combustion chamber addressing the objectives of a pent-roof chamber while maintaining the flat firedeck and vertical valve orientation of the diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the IC Engine Piston Skirt Design Via Neural Network Surrogate and Genetic Algorithms

2024-04-09
2024-01-2603
Internal combustion (IC) engines still power most of the vehicles on road and will likely to remain so in the near future, especially for heavy duty applications in which electrification is typically more challenging. Therefore, continued improvements on IC engines in terms of efficiency and longevity are necessary for a more sustainable transportation sector. Two important design objectives for heavy duty engines with wet liners are to reduce friction loss and to lower the risks of cavitation damages, both of which can be greatly influenced by the piston-liner clearance and the design of the piston skirt. However, engine design optimization is difficult due to the nonlinear interactions between the key design variables and the design objectives, as well as the multi-physics and multi-scale nature of the mechanisms that are relevant to the design objectives.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Fuel Economy Benefits by Lubrication System Optimization for a High Performance 2.2 L Diesel Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2415
Lubrication systems play a major role not only in the durability of modern IC engines but also in performance and emissions. The design of the lubrication system influences the brake thermal efficiency of the engine. Also, efficient lubrication reduces the engine's CO2 emissions significantly. Thus, it is critical for an IC engine to have a well-designed lubrication system that performs efficiently at all engine operating conditions. The conventional lubrication system has a fixed-displacement oil pump that can cater to a particular speed range. However, a fully variable displacement oil pump can cater to a wide range of speeds, thereby enhancing the engine fuel efficiency as the oil flow rates can be controlled precisely based on the engine speed and load conditions. This paper primarily discusses the optimization of a lubrication system with a Variable Displacement Oil Pump (VDOP) and a map-controlled Piston Cooling Jet (PCJ) for a passenger car diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Effects of an Electrically Assisted Turbocharger on Scavenging Control for an Opposed Piston Two Stroke (OP2S) Compression Ignition Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2388
Opposed piston two-stroke (OP2S) diesel engines have demonstrated a reduction in engine-out emissions and increased efficiency compared to conventional four-stroke diesel engines. Due to the higher stroke-to-bore ratio and the absence of a cylinder head, the heat transfer loss to the coolant is lower near ‘Top Dead Center.’ The selection and design of the air path is critical to realizing the benefits of the OP2S engine architecture. Like any two-stroke diesel engine, the scavenging process and the composition of the internal residuals are predominantly governed by the pressure differential between the intake and the exhaust ports. Without dedicated pumping strokes, the two-stroke engine architecture requires external devices to breathe.
Technical Paper

Piston Geometries Impact on Spark-Ignition Light-Duty Hydrogen Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2613
The European Union aims to be climate neutral by 2050 and requires the transport sector to reduce their emissions by 90%. The deployment of H2ICE to power vehicles is one of the solutions proposed. Indeed, H2ICEs in vehicles can reduce local pollution, reduce global emissions of CO2 and increase efficiency. Although H2ICEs could be rapidly introduced, investigations on hydrogen combustion in ICEs are still required. This paper aims to experimentally compare a flat piston and a bowl piston in terms of performances, emissions and abnormal combustions. Tests were performed with the help of a single cylinder Diesel engine which has been modified. In particular, a center direct injector dedicated to H2 injection and a side-mounted spark plug were installed, and the compression ratio was reduced to 12.7:1. Several exhaust gas measurement systems complete the testbed to monitor exhaust NOx and H2.
Technical Paper

Numerical Evaluation of Injection Parameters on Transient Heat Flux and Temperature Distribution of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Piston

2024-04-09
2024-01-2688
A major concern for a high-power density, heavy-duty engine is the durability of its components, which are subjected to high thermal loads from combustion. The thermal loads from combustion are unsteady and exhibit strong spatial gradients. Experimental techniques to characterize these thermal loads at high load conditions on a moving component such as the piston are challenging and expensive due to mechanical limitations. High performance computing has improved the capability of numerical techniques to predict these thermal loads with considerable accuracy. High-fidelity simulation techniques such as three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and finite element thermal analysis were coupled offline and iterated by exchanging boundary conditions to predict the crank angle-resolved convective heat flux and surface temperature distribution on the piston of a heavy-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Engine Crank Stop Position Control to Reduce Starting Vibration of a Parallel Hybrid Vehicle

2024-04-09
2024-01-2784
Engine off control is conducted on parallel hybrid vehicles in order to reduce fuel consumption. It is efficient in terms of fuel economy, however, noise and vibration is generated on engine cranking and transferred through engine mount on every mode transition from EV to HEV. Engine crank position control has been studied in this paper in order to reduce vibration generated when next cranking starts. System modeling of an architecture composed of an engine, P1 and P2 motors has been conducted. According to the prior studies, there exists correlation between crank vibration level and the crank angle. Thus a method to locate pistons on a specific crank angle which results in a local minimum of vibration magnitude could be considered. The P1 motor facilitates this crank position control when engine turns off, for its location directly mounted on a crankshaft allows the system model to obtain more precise crank position estimation and improved linearity in torque control as well.
Technical Paper

Effect of In-Cylinder Flow Motion on Fuel-Air Mixture Formation in a Medium-Duty DI-SI H2 Engine: An Experimentally Supported CFD Study

2024-04-09
2024-01-2117
The increased utilization of batteries and fuel-cells for powering electric applications, as well as bio- and e-fuels into internal combustion engines are seen as options to lower the carbon footprint of industry and transportation sectors. When high power outputs and fast refueling are requisites, H2 ICEs may be a relevant choice. Applications include electricity conversion within a genset or mechanical energy in a vehicle. Within this framework, a John Deere 4045 Diesel engine converted to a H2 single-cylinder is studied at relevant operating conditions for the mentioned use cases, which pose high torque and power output requirements. The modified engine integrates a Phinia DI-CHG 10 outward-opening H2 injector instead of the Diesel unit, as well as a spark-plug rather than the glow-plug.
Technical Paper

Effect of Baffle Height on the in-Cylinder Air-Fuel Mixture Preparation in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine – A Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis

2024-04-09
2024-01-2697
In-cylinder fluid dynamics enhance performance and emission characteristics in internal combustion (IC) engines. Techniques such as helical ports, valve shrouding, masking, and modifications to piston profiles or vanes in ports are employed to achieve the desired in-cylinder flows in these engines. However, due to space constraints, modifications to the cylinder head are typically minimal. The literature suggests that introducing baffles into the combustion chamber of an IC engine can enhance in-cylinder flows, air-fuel mixing, and, subsequently, stratification. Studies have indicated that the height of the baffles plays a significant role in determining the level of improvement in in-cylinder flow and air-fuel mixing. Therefore, this study employs Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis to investigate the impact of baffle height on in-cylinder flow and air-fuel mixing in a four-stroke, four-valve, spray-guided gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine.
Technical Paper

Oil Aerosol Emission Optimization Using Deflectors in Turbo Charger Oil Drain Circuit

2024-01-16
2024-26-0047
Closed crankcase ventilation prevent harmful gases from entering atmosphere thereby reducing hydrocarbon emissions. Ventilation system usually carries blowby gases along with oil mist generated from Engine to Air intake system. Major sources of blowby occurs from leak in combustion chamber through piston rings, leakage from turbocharger shafts & leakage from valve guides. Oil mist carried by these blowby gases gets separated using separation media before passing to Air Intake. Fleece separation media has high separation efficiency with lower pressure loss for oil aerosol particles having size above 10 microns. However, efficiency of fleece media drops drastically if size of aerosol particles are below 10 microns. Aerosol mist of lower particle size (>10 microns) generally forms due to flash boiling on piston under crown area and from shafts of turbo charger due to high speeds combined with elevated temperatures. High power density diesel engine is taken for our study.
Technical Paper

Cost Effective Pathways toward Highly Efficient and Ultra-Clean CI Engines, Part I: Combustion System Optimization

2024-01-16
2024-26-0037
Following global trends of increasingly stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria pollutant regulations, India will likely introduce within the next decade equivalent Bharat Stage (BS) regulations for Diesel engines requiring simultaneous reduction in CO2 emissions and up to 90% reduction in NOx emission from current BS-VI levels. Consequently, automakers are likely to face tremendous challenges in meeting such emission reduction requirements while maintaining performance and vehicle total cost of ownership (TCO), especially in the Indian market, which has experienced significant tightening of emission regulation during the past decade. Therefore, it is conceivable that cost effective approaches for improving existing diesel engines platforms for future regulations would be of high strategic importance for automakers.
Technical Paper

Integrated Simulation Methodology to Predict Engine Head, Block, and Piston Temperatures

2024-01-16
2024-26-0315
With the constant strive towards increase in performance and corresponding stringent emission standards of modern IC engine, engine components such as the head, block and piston are subjected to higher thermal loads. An integrated simulation methodology is proposed where the head, the block and the piston are integral part of the analysis. The CFD – CHT methodology is used to simulate and predict the temperature of these engine components. The head and block are run in a steady-state conjugate heat transfer framework while the transient multiphase volume of fluid approach is used to determine piston temperatures. Combustion surfaces boundary conditions are derived from 3D CFD open-loop combustion simulation, while cooling and lubrication surface boundary condition are mapped from 1D system simulation or experimental data. The heat transfer boundary conditions are exchanged between the two simulations.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Piston Temperature Profile with Respect to Varying Engine Parameters – Using Telemetry Method

2024-01-16
2024-26-0341
As emissions standards become more stringent, OEMs are pushing engines to run on leaner fuel mixtures, which puts increased thermal stress on components, particularly pistons, causing them to operate at higher temperatures. This requires more robust design and rigorous testing of components. Telemetry methods offer accurate and real-time feedback, allowing designers to test components at various operating conditions, providing more flexibility than other traditional methods. Piston temperature measurement is a critical aspect of engine development because it directly affects engine performance and durability. Among the various techniques available for this purpose, telemetry methods have gained considerable attention in recent years. This method involves integrating temperature sensors and transmitter on the piston, which transmit temperature data wirelessly to a receiver outside the engine.
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