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Research Report

Unsettled Technology Domains in Aerospace Additive Manufacturing Concerning Safety, Airworthiness, and Certification

2019-12-20
EPR2019008
Additive manufacturing (AM) is currently being used to produce many certified aerospace components. However, significant advantages of AM are not exploited due to unresolved issues associated with process control, feedstock materials, surface finish, inspection, and cost. Components subject to fatigue must undergo surface finish improvements to enable inspection. This adds cost and limits the use of topology optimization. Continued development of process models is also required to enable optimization and understand the potential for defects in thin walled and slender sections. Costs are high for powder-fed processes due to material costs, machine costs, and low deposition rates. Cost for wire-fed processes are high due to the extensive post-process machining required. In addition, these processes are limited to low-complexity features.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends on GDI Engine to Reduce Cost of Vehicle Ownership

2019-11-21
2019-28-2379
A major challenge for combustion engine development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline, and CNG are such alternative fuels. Reducing the consumption of Gasoline also helps India’s dependence on import of crude oil. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance.
Technical Paper

Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

2019-11-21
2019-28-2388
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%.
Technical Paper

Impact of Wheel-Housing on Aerodynamic Drag and Effect on Energy Consumption on an Electric Bus Body

2019-11-21
2019-28-2394
Role of wheel and underbody aerodynamics of vehicle in the formation of drag forces is detrimental to the fuel (energy) consumption during the course of operation at high velocities. This paper deals with the CFD simulation of the flow around the wheels of a bus with different wheel housing arrangements. Based on benchmarking, a model of a bus is selected and analysis is performed. The aerodynamic drag coefficient is obtained and turbulence around wheels is observed using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation for different combinations of wheel-housing- at the front wheels, at the rear wheels and both in the front and rear wheels. The drag force is recorded and corresponding influence on energy consumption of a bus is evaluated mathematically. A comparison is drawn between energy consumption of bus body without wheel housing and bus body with wheel housing. The result shows a significant reduction in drag coefficient and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Analysis of a Passenger Car to Reduce Drag Using Active Grill Shutter and Active Air Dam

2019-11-21
2019-28-2408
Active aerodynamics can be defined as the concept of reducing drag by making real-time changes to certain devices such that it modifies the airflow around a vehicle. Using such devices also have the added advantages of improving ergonomics and performance along with aesthetics. A significant reduction in fuel consumption can also be seen when using such devices. The objective of this work is to reduce drag acting on a passenger car using the concept of active aerodynamics with grill shutters and air dams. First, analysis has been carried out on a baseline passenger car and further simulated using active grill shutters and air dams for vehicle speed ranging from 60 kmph to 120 kmph, with each active device open from 0° to 90°. The optimized model is then validated for a scaled down prototype in a wind tunnel at 80kmph. Vehicle has been modelled using SolidWorks tool and the simulation has been carried out using ANSYS Fluent.
Technical Paper

Fabrication and Wear Characteristics Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Matrix Composites

2019-11-21
2019-28-2570
Generally brake pads are manufacturing by use of asbestos materials, that materials are chemically harmful and toxic nature to affect the human health. The present investigation is to fabricates polypropylene composites with mixing constant volume [5 vol.%] of alumina nano particles and different volume percentages [0%, 5%, 10% & 15%] of basalt Fiber by hand layup compression technique. The wear characteristics of polypropylene matrix composites were tested by dry sliding condition. The test was carried out pin on disc apparatus, configured with hardened steel counter-face at elevated temperature. The load was applied 10 N to 30 N with the interval of 10 N and varying of sliding speed 300 rpm to 900 rpm with the interval of 300 rpm for the time period of 0-180 sec. The wear rate was decreases with addition of alumina nano particle and the frictional force was increases due to basalt Fiber content present in the composites.
Technical Paper

Effect of Tyre Inflation Pressure on Rolling Resistance : Comparing the Values of Coefficient of Rolling Resistance and Rolling Resistance at Variable Tyre Inflation Pressure

2019-11-21
2019-28-2415
1 Rolling resistance, is nothing but the rolling drag, is the force resisting the motion when a body rolls on a surface. It is mainly caused by non-elastic effects; that is, not all the energy needed for deformation of the wheel, roadbed, etc. It is recovered when the pressure is removed, in the form of hysteresis losses and permanent deformation of the tyre surface. So, the rolling resistance contributes to the deformation of roadbed as well as tyre surface of the vehicle. Factors contributing in rolling resistance are tyre inflation pressure, wheel diameter, speed, load on wheel, surface adhesion, sliding and relative micro-sliding between the surfaces of contact. In this concerned paper we are significantly working on effect of tyre inflation pressure on rolling resistance and taking all other factors constraint.
Technical Paper

Neural Network Based Hybridized Dynamic Models for Connected Vehicles - A Case Study on Turbocharger Position Prediction

2019-11-21
2019-28-2443
Combustion engine driven vehicles operating in a connected and autonomous vehicle (CAVs) environment, the engine drive cycles are run in a regulated manner. This is due to synchronized movement of vehicles operating in connected environment. Hence, developing intelligent and faster control of airpath variable with smooth transient tracking, helps to achieve a synchronized drive cycle. With regards to this author discuss modeling of turbocharger. This is critical for airpath system variable calculation. Due to the hybridized nature of turbocharger models, predicting accurately the position of VTG without introduction of any sensing devices is key, as sensing device induces delay in action. Authors propose a model which improve the performance and capability of VTG position prediction. A neural network based supervised learning model is developed. This model is coupled with engine models which are in series application for performance evaluation.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Compression Ratio for DI Diesel Engines for Better Fuel Economy

2019-11-21
2019-28-2431
Fuel economy is becoming one of the key parameter as it does not only account for the profitability of commercial vehicle owner but also has impact on environment. Fuel economy gets affected from several parameters of engine such as Peak firing pressure, reduction in parasitic losses, volumetric efficiency and thermal efficiency. Compression ratio is one of key design criteria which affects most of the above mentioned parameters, which not only improve fuel efficiency but also results in improvement of emission levels. This paper evaluates the optimization of Compression ratio and study its effect on Engine performance. The parameters investigated in this paper include combustion bowl volume in Piston and Cylinder head gasket thickness as these are major contributing factors affecting clearance volume and in turn the compression ratio of engine. Based on the calculation results, an optimum Compression Ratio for the engine is selected.
Technical Paper

V2X Standardization in Over-the-Air Solution

2019-11-21
2019-28-2435
Today in-vehicle software is growing significantly resulting into increase in importance of over-the-air software/firmware updates dramatically. Various suppliers are providing the update-over-the-air solution in the automotive sector. Due to limited standardization in solution, each supplier needs more customization for specific customer. This paper is to bring in the required standardization in V2X resulting into ‘vehicle on-board components’ as one solution to multiple customer. “Update over-the-air improved solution through various standardization resulting into ‘vehicle on-board components’ as the product”
Technical Paper

Estimating Drive Cycle for E-Rickshaws Using Real World Operating Scenarios for Overall Powertrain Improvements

2019-11-21
2019-28-2497
E-Rickshaws are popular and convenient mode of transportation for last mile connectivity and are typically used for short distance (<10 Km) commute. As per recent reports there are more than 1.5 million e-rickshaws plying on Indian roads and approx. 10,000 vehicles are adding every month. Owners of these vehicles are inclined towards the overall range these vehicles can give on a single charge. Range can be improved by using efficient powertrain. Range can also be improved by optimized Battery Management systems and Controllers. Though there are certain evaluation criteria (such as curtailed Indian Drive Cycles) which can be used for efficiency estimations, manufacturers are more interested in extending the range in real world scenarios. Hence, the availability of real-world drive cycle is imperative. Through this paper, we have attempted to derive a typical drive cycle by collecting road data of various types of e-Rickshaws under different environment conditions.
Technical Paper

Design Analysis of a Retrofit System for an Electric Two Wheeler

2019-11-21
2019-28-2482
Two wheelers are the major mode of single transport in the metros of India. They contribute about 70% of the auto market unit wise. Also it is proved from the research that for per unit energy consumption they contribute more to the environment emission. Conventional IC engine based energy supply unit can be replaced with an electric DC motor with chargeable battery as the energy source for the two wheelers present in the market. In the current research, engine is replaced with the motor, batteries and controller. The above system is placed on the space emptied by the conventional engine. The design developed is tested on different gradients for identifying the motor torque for minimum and maximum resistances available on the road. The paper provides an insight on the torque requirements based on variable resistances required for two wheelers. Also the system will be used as a retrofit for the existing IC engine bikes to be converted in electric bikes.
Technical Paper

Potential for Emission Reduction and Fuel Economy with Micro & Mild HEV

2019-11-21
2019-28-2504
The development of modern combustion engines (spark ignition as well as compression ignition) for vehicles compliant with future oriented emission legislation (BS6, Euro VI, China 6) has introduced several technologies for improvement of both fuel efficiency as well as low emissions combustion strategies. Some of these technologies as there are high pressure multiple injection systems or sophisticated exhaust gas after treatment system imply substantial increase in test and calibration time as well as equipment cost. With the introduction of 48V systems for hybridization a cost- efficient enhancement and, partially, an even attractive alternative is now available. An overview will be given on current technologies as well as on implemented test procedures. The focus will be on solutions which have potential for the Indian market, i.e. solutions which can be implemented with moderate application effort for currently available compact and medium size cars.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Constant Speed Diesel Engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIE

2019-11-21
2019-28-2549
Development trend in diesel engine is to achieve more power from same size of engine. With increase in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), the peak firing pressure will also increase. The methodology to control the peak firing pressure on higher BMEP is the major challenge. We achieved better SFC with CPCB II emission targets on a constant speed engine. This study involves a systematic approach to optimize combustion parameters with a cost effective and robust Inline Fuel Injection System. This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for achieving the power density of 25kW/lit @ 1500 rpm with Inline FIP by keeping lower Peak firing pressure. Various combustion parameters such as Combustion Bowl Geometry, selection of Turbocharger, Swirl, FIP, Nozzle configuration, EGR flow rate, EGR operation strategy, optimizing injection pressures, start of injection, end of injection, injection duration are optimized.
Technical Paper

Computerized Experimental Investigation on Performance & Exhaust Emission of Twin Cylinder Adiabatic Diesel Engine Coated with YSZ

2019-11-21
2019-28-2548
The fuel consumption and performance of the Internal Combustion (IC) engine is improved by adopting concepts of an adiabatic engine. An experimental investigation for different load conditions is carried out on a water-cooled, constant-speed, twin-cylinder diesel engine. This research is intended to emphasize energy balance and emission characteristic for standard uncoated base engine and adiabatic engine. The inner walls of diesel engine combustion chamber are thermally insulated by a top coat of Metco 204NS yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3ZrO2) powder (YSZ) of a thickness of 350 mm using plasma spray coating technology. The same combustion chamber is also coated with thermal barrier coating (TBC) bond coats of AMDRY 962 Nickle chromium aluminum yttria of thickness of 150 mm. The NiCrAlY powder specially designed to produce coating’s resistance to hot corrosion.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Durability of Mold-In-Color Engineering Plastics

2019-11-21
2019-28-2542
Plastics are prone to photo oxidative and thermal oxidative degradation under usage conditions due to their chemical nature. From sustainability and cost standpoint, there is an increasing focus on Mold-In-Color (MIC) plastic materials. Simultaneously customer’s expectations on the perceived quality of these MIC parts has been increasing with attractive color and glossy appearance. A study was conducted to analyze the product quality and durability aspects over a prolonged exposure to accelerated weathering condition. Material selected for this study were injection molded specimens of ABS and PC-ABS used in automotive passenger vehicles. Comparative analysis was conducted before and after weathering exposure at defined intervals by using Fourier Transform infra-red spectrometer (FTIR), differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), universal testing machine (UTM), Izod impact tester and microscope to understand the impact on their chemical and mechanical properties.
Technical Paper

Heat Shield Insulation for Thermal Challenges in Automotive Exhaust System

2019-11-21
2019-28-2539
While advanced automotive system assemblies contribute greater value to automobile safety, reliability, emission/noise performance and comfort, they are also generating higher temperatures that can reduce the functionality and reliability of the system over time. Thermal management and proper insulation are extremely important and highly demanding for the functioning of BSVI and RDE vehicles. Frugal engineering is mandatory to develop heat shield in the exhaust system with minimum heat loss. Heat shield design parameters such as insulation material type, insulation material composition, insulation thickness, insulation density, air gap thickness and outer layer material are studied for their influences on skin temperature using mathematical calculation, CFD simulation and measurement. Simulation results are comparable to that of the test results within 10% deviation.
Technical Paper

High Durable PU Metallic Monocoat System for Tractor Sheet Metal Application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2541
In sheet metal painting for various applications like tractor and automobiles, most attractive coating is metallic paints. It is widely applied using 3 coat 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production through put time and lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming and sustainability initiatives, paint application process was identified to reduce burden on environment and save energy. Various other industry benchmarking and field performance requirement studies helped to identify critical quality parameters. There was collaboration with supplier to develop monocoat system without compromising any performance and aesthetic properties. This resulted in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Power Distribution Unit in Wiring Harness

2019-11-21
2019-28-2571
With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. The concept of next generation power distribution unit in automobiles is achieved using miniaturization of its sub-components which involves replacing the mini fuses and JCASE fuses with LP mini and LP JCASE fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost. Furthermore, to address stringent weight and space targets, LP mini fuses and LP JCASE fuses were further replaced with micro-2 fuse and M-case fuse respectively.
Technical Paper

Mold in Color Diamond White ASA Material for Automotive Exterior Application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2562
In this paper, mold in color diamond white ASA material has been explored for front bumper grill, fender arch extension, claddings and hinge cover applications. Other than aesthetic requirements, these parts have precise fitment requirement under sun load condition in real world usage profile. Structural durability of the design was validated by virtual engineering. Part design and material combinations with better tooling design iterations were analyzed by using mold flow analysis. Complete product performances were validated for predefined key test metrics such as structural durability, thermal aging, cold impact, scratch resistance, and weathering criteria. This part met required specification. This mold in color ASA material-based parts has various benefits such as environmentally friendly manufacturing by eliminating environmental issues of coating, easily recycled, and faster part production because intended color achieved in one step during molding.
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